1971 All over again
In 1971, the Chairperson of the PPP, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, refused to acknowledge the mandate of the people of East Pakistan and prevented a democratically elected government from functioning.
On Wed, 2/25/09, Emergency Moderator/Teeth Maestro wrote:
Sharif brothers declared ineligible for Elections Posted by Teeth Maestro February 25,2009
Dear Saif Sahab,
Sir, you are mentioning the right person i.e. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto but wrong event i.e. era before 1971, it is wrong because Bhutto wasn't ruling the Pakistan, he was only leading Pakistan Peoples Party. Pakistan was being ruled by General Yahya Khan [Fall of Dhaka and Surrender in 1971].
Read in a US Declassified Government Document as to how the US President Richard Nixon supported General Yahya Khan in 1971, when he was butchering the civilian population of the then East Pakistan [now Bangladesh]
Richard Nixon and General Yahya before the Fall of Dhaka i.e. Pakistani Military Surrender to India in 1971.
Bhutto [if you are comparing the disqualification of Sharif Brothers and Governor Rule through the nephew of Lt. Col (Retd) Faiz Ahmed Faiz and relative of Allama Iqbal, i.e. Salman Taseer] then you should compare it with the dismissal of National Awami Party Government in Baluchistan 1973/ 1974. You should have mentioned that Bhutto appointed General Tikka Khan [Butcher of Baluchistan of early late 50s and early 60s and later Butcher of Bangladesh of 1971] as Chief of the Army Staff after dismissing General Gul Hassan, and then the same Tikka Khan became the Defence Minister in Bhutto Government [1971-1977] and if that was not enough the same Tikka Khan became the PPP's General Secretary [I wonder where has gone the so-called Apology of Asif Ali Zardari to the people of Baluchistan]
The only difference that during 70s Bhutto ousted the National Awami Party governmet of Mir Gahus Bux Bezanjo and Ataullah Mengal and in 2009 Zardari has [tried] to oust Sharif brothers from Politics. Read how?
National Awami Party, Late. Mir Ghous Bakhsh Bezanjo, Sardar Ataullah Mengal and Late. Sardar Akbar Bugti
Mir Bezanjo continued his struggle for the rights of the people of Balochistan, therefore, on 6th March, 1972, a meeting with Bhutto was arranged at Rawalpindi where a twelve point accord was drawn up.
The main points were :
1. A brief session of National Assembly will be called.
2. The interim constitution will be passed.
3. A vote of confidence in the Central Government will be passed.
4. The coalition of NAP and JUI in Balochistan and N.W.F.P was accepted.
5. The sessions of the Provincial Assemblies will becalled.
6. The Provincial Governors will be appointed by theCentral Government in consultation with the Provinces. Therefore, as a result of this accord, Bhutto agreed to givedue recognition to the representatives of the majority in Balochistan.
Consequently on 29th April 1972, Mir Bezanjo was appointed as the Governor of Balochistan. He had the honour to be the first Awami Governor after the successful breakage of one unit. It was also the recognition of his services and a reward to the mass struggle in Balochistan. Sardar Atta Ullah Mengal was sworn in as the Chief Ministeron 1st May 1972.
PRINCIPLE ORIENTED ADDRESSES OF MIR BEZANJO.
The Governorship of Mir Bezanjo became as a big successfor the people of Balochistan. It heightened their spirit and soul. Mir Bezanjo laid new foundation of Governorship. His addresses were principle oriented when he came to Quetta on 30th April 1972 as Governor of Balochistan. He said, "Today we are building a new Balochistan of ourown. We miss our companions who have departed", especially he named Sadiq Kassi. He also announced right on the Airport the another significant development i.e. that "Sardar Atta UlJah Mengal will be sworn in tomorrow the 1st May, 1972. On the eve of oath taking ceremony, Mir Bezanjo was verymuch pleased and satisfied. His eyes were telling that the people ofBalochistan were getting the reward of their struggle. On the same eveningwhile addressing the officers of Balochistan, he said, "In our struggleagainst the British Colonial Government, we suffered a lot but themiseries, tortures we took at the hands of their successors were moreswear and bitter; and you all know it, but today we forgive it all. Bhutto is pushing out a considerable size of the officers but we will not follow this practice. Nevertheless, if any personnel or officer misbehaves and doesnot serve the cause of the people, we will not tolerate him even for anhour in his seat, who so ever he may be. This is the country of themasses, hence, their hegemony will be established. The Governmentofficers are the public servants".
The words of his addresses are fullof love and affection for his people and the land. He is not making anydiscrimination in the masses, rather, he is protecting the masses without making any racial or lingual differences. He is assuring the people thattheir rights will be protected so that they should feel a difference in the Government of the alians and the Government of their own.
He toured Balochistan to see his people and for therestoration of their confidence in themselves. He addressed the people and assured them the solution of their problems and the protection of theirrights. Addressing a public rally, he said, "When I came to you for your support and votes, I had the same structure, the dress and "wasket" I amputting on right now, so no difference, the only difference is of theprotocol officers, police and the lewis but all of them are the publicservants. The people are the real master of this country; they are the owner of the sovereignty and this is a sacred trust in my hands; you arethe real owners and masters".Here Mir Bezanjo is once again assuring the people that (his Government belongs to themselves, it is to serve them. All theadministrative and governmental machinery is to serve the masses. Theyare the real owner of this country and the actual master of sovereignty.His speeches, tours, mass interaction brought big change inthe working of the administration. The people regained their confidence.The mass honour was restored back, the feelings of alienation had cometo an end.
BHUTTO UNHAPPY WITH MIR BEZANJO.
As almost all the opposition leaders including Sardar AttaUllah Mengal, Nabi Bakhsh Zehri, Akbar Bugti, Ahmed Nawaz Bugti were in London for the one reason or the other, the government controllednewspapers propagated that they had gathered for some conspiracy and gave it the title, "London Plan". Bhutto called Mir Bezanjo and discussed this issue wherein he called it "all a pack of lies and thecreation of a frustrated mind. But Bhutto on a question said, "hedid not know of any "London Plan" nor did he give importance to theassembling of certain individuals in London". Although he negated such talks but there were some stories resounding in the corridors ofpowers in Islamabad.
THE DAYS OF DISTURBANCES.
There were some disturbances in the Patfeeder area ofBalochistan during the month of November 1972. Federal Government took a serious view and sent some civil armed forces on its own behalfalthough the Provincial Government sent Mir Khair Bakhsh Marri to settlethe issue and clear the area. The Provincial Government was very unhappyover the Central Government's interference in the entirely provincialdomain. There were also disturbances in Lasbela and among the policemen.
DISMISSAL OF MIR BEZANJOAND SARDAR ATTA ULLAH MENGAL.
As mentioned earlier, there were some disturbances in different regions for one reason or the other and Federal Government hadintervened, though the Provincial Government was also taking the steps. On 8th February, 1973, the Army stepped in the situation. It changed the environment altogether, Mir Bezanjo and Sardar Atta Ullah Mengal were dismissed on 15th February 1973 and Sardar Akbar Bugti was sworn in as the Governor of Balochistan. He also had been a popular tribal Chiefof Balochistan. N.A.P's Government went out giving way to Jam Ghulam Qadir who was sworn in as the Chief Minister of Balochistan on 28th April, 1973.
Mir Bezanjo a popular leader of Balochistan after being dismissed from Governorship started serving the people in other way. The people were disappointed over his dismissal, as it was followed by militaryoperation which brought sufferings and miseries to them. But Mir Bezanjo was not disappointed and his democratic approach could see somethingdifferent which perhaps others could not see. He continued holding frequent public meetings and demanded the N.A.P + J.U.I Ministry. Mir Bezanjo visited Karachi and on 3rd March 1973 addressed the most significant forums like Press and the Bar. Here he explained the situation and the case of Balochistan Mir Bezanjo wasalso among the leaders of United Democratic Front who were to addressthe 23rd March protest at Liaqat Bagh, Rawalpindi. Bhutto administration did not want it, so uniformed police and Federal Security Force openedfire to disperse the people, it caused many casualties. Mir Bezanjo criticised this brutal act of the Bhuto regime and called it the continuationof his undemocratic policies and actions. Weekly Zindagi remarked, the chief object of this incident was that Bhutto wanted the continuation of his rule but without any existence of opposition.
LETTER TO THE PRESIDENT.
Mir Bezanjo and his Colleagues of N. A.P. sent a letter to the President of Pakistan bearing the names and signatures of twelve men (out of 20 seats it was a clear majority) to show and prove that they still had the majority in the Provincial Assembly and also that the budget session(forthcoming) was not possible without them. It was a democratic step tore mind him that the Central Government was adopting undemocratic policies.
MEETING WITH BHUTTO:
THE LAST EFFORT.
Mir Bezanjo and his colleagues of N.A.P. continued their democratic efforts. On 28th June 1973 a meeting with Bhutto was held at Murree to realize him the factual position of Balochistan and Balochistan Assembly especially about the forthcoming Budget Session. But all in vain and consequently the President issued an amendment in the Constitution empowering the Provincial Governor to authenticate the Provincial budget even without calling the session of the Provincial Assembly. This new development showed another aspect of the personality of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, where nothing was left for the majority of the Provincial Assembly of Balochistan.
Sardar Ataullah Mengal [NAP Chief Minister of Baluchistan during Zulfikar Ali Bhutto Regime 1972 - 1977]
Sardar Khair Bakhsh Marri [NAP Leader from Baluchistan - Pakistan]
Khan Abdul Wali Khan [NAP Leader from NWFP - Pakistan]
MIR BËZANJO ARRESTED.
The intentions of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto were very clear about Bezanjo and the N.A.P. ministry. He had pushed them in a blind street.He took another step and on 15th August 1973 arrested Mir Bezanjo andsome allegations were shown. His colleagues like Sardar Marri and Sardar Mengal were also arrested and kept behind the bars.
HYDERABAD CONSPIRACY CASE.
Bhutto regime had ben making efforts to get rid of Mir Bezanjo and N.A.P as Mir Bezanjo was already kept behind the bars so now it was the turn of N.A.P Two statutory notifications were issued bythe Government of Pakistan on 10th February 1975. In one it was declaredthat "under Section-6 of the Political Parties Act, 1962, the Federal Government declares that the N.A.P is operating in a manner prejudicial to the sovereignty and the integrity of Pakistan" and in the other notification the N.A.P was dissolved and its all properties and funds wereforfeited to the Federal Government.
Now according to the same law, the Government had to getthis action confirmed by the Supreme Court of Pakistan. Hence, on 24th February, 1975, the Government of Pakistan filed a reference.
The Governmental reference against the N.A.P contained the following allegations:
1 - N.A.P preached nationalities doctrine which hindered the process of national integration in Pakistan.
2 - N.A.P has been seeking and receiving encouragement and help from the foreign powers hostile to Pakistan.
3 - It has been supporting the violence to weaken the State of Pakistan.
4 - N.A.P has been supporting Azad Balochistan and Pakhtoonistan in an effort to disintegrate Pakistan.
5 - It supported the terrorists to de-stabilize and disintegrate Pakistan.
To hear the reference, a full Bench of the Supreme Court headed by the Chief Justice, Justice Hamood ur-Rehman was composed. The accused were represented by a panel of eminent lawyers headed by Mian Mahmood Ali Qasoori. Mir Bezanjo faced all the allegations very firmly and confidently and gave a very comprehensive statement in reply to the allegations. The important points of his statement are given below:
a) Adequate and sufficient facilities are not being provided to reply the reference and inclusion in the annexures.
b) I am in jail since August 1973, my right may be reserved and when Supreme Court will give me the facility, I shall include them in the statement andannexures.
c) The Reference and the allegations are concerned only to a few people and all of them do not belong to N.A.P.
d) Neither in the Reference nor in the grounds, anyallegation is on N.A.P The manifesto of N.A.P neither mentioned or cited.
e) The Reference and the grounds speak about fivemembers who are already under trial under the sameallegations.The individual acts of millions of its members andsupporters may not be treated as the acts of N.A.P.I, as the founder member of N.A.P also throw light on the following facts:
f) After the sad demise of Quaid-e-Azam and the assassination of Khan Liaqat Ali Khan, the State of Pakistan went in the grip of bureaucracy.
ii) Bureaucracy placed it in the lap of exploiters.
iii) The defense treaties reduced its global andinternational role.
iv) The ruling class served the vested interests only.
v) The failure of their foreign policy isolated Pakistan inthe region and the family of nations.
vi) The principle of parity in the Eastern and Western Wing enhanced poverty, frustration, deprivation andexploitation. The above situation forced some honest, country loving andfaithful political workers who had been fighting for the liberty of their country to establish an organization to raise a voice against the malpractices and exploitations.
However, in 1956 , Azad Pakistan Party from Punjab, Sindh Muhaz and Sindh Hari Party from Sindh, Khudai Khidmatgar from N.W.F.P, Ustaman Gall, Wur Wur Pashtoon from Balochistan amalgamated in themselves and formed Pakistan National Party ... in 1957 with the inclusion of Bashani Group of Awami League the title of the party was amended as Pakistan National Awami Party.
After giving the reasons and factors which lead to the establishment of P.N.P. Mir Bezanjo explained the objectives of the partyand said, the main objectives were as under:
1. The security of the independence and solidarity ofPakistan.
2. To prepare a non-aligned free and neutral foreignpolicy for Pakistan.
3. To eliminate the system of exploitation from Pakistan.
4. The breakage of one unit and the re-demarcation ofthe provinces.
5. The security of the universal right of adult franchise. He stressed that the main cause of banning N.A.P was thatthis political party has been criticising the policies of the government.He also said that :
1. Bhutto attempted (on many times) to pressurise N.A.P but N.A.P never accepted this pressure.
2. The removal and dismissal of the N.A.P's governors from Balochistan and N.W.F.P to pressurize N.A.P.
The character assassination of the leaders to pressurize and disrepute us.The dismissal of N.A.P's government in Balochistanquite illegally and against the constitution of Pakistan,negated the mass right and deprived Balochistan of themajority party's government.All the above mentioned events and facts were narrated to prove that Bhutto's government had been using various tactics to pressurize N.A.P. so that it should not perform it political role. Mir Bezanjo also stressed upon the fact that he and his colleagues never involved themselves in anti State activities and that the statements against the government should be differentiated from the anti State activities. Every political party has the right to criticise the governmental policies and that the government should response in a responsible and a democratic way.
Also that N.A.P never differentiated among the citizens of Pakistan on social or lingual basis rather it struggledto protect the fundamental rights of all the citizens of Pakistan.
JUDGEMENT OF THE COURT.
Full Bench of the Court heard the case for about 44 days between June and September 1975 and finally on 30th November passed the judgement as follows:
"We see no escape from the conclusion that the National Awamy Party was, within the meaning of sub-section (I) of Section 6 of the Political Parties Act (III) of 1962 operating in a manner prejudicial to the sovereignty and integrity of Pakistan and therefore made itself liable to be dissolved under the said Act".
MIR BEZANJO BAILED THE CASE WITHDRAWN.
The Bhutto government continued and dragged this case till it was replaced by General Zia's Martial Law. After the change of government Mir Bezanjo and his colleagues applied for bail on 6th December 1977. Here the Court recorded that "It is, however, admitted that these judicial confessions do not directly implicate all the accused or establish a case of criminal conspiracy". The bail was granted and he wasreleased on bail.
A few days later the government withdrew the referenceand this famous Hydrabad Conspiracy Case came to an end. Mir Bezanjoonce again started his struggle.
NOTES AND REFERENCES.
1 - The interview as recorded by Rajinder Sareen on 7th April 1982 at Quetta and published in his book "Pakistan Indian Factor "Mujahid Brailvay included this interview in his book, "Jamhoriat KaSafar , Karachi, Pakistani Adab Publications, 1987, P.P.72-73.2.
2 - Gul Hai Aqeedat, Chakar Khan Baloch Balochi Dunya, Multan 1990.
3. The campaign of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto forced Ayub to step down Ayub had neglected all the democratic forces hence the people had gone against him.
4. Awan, A.B., Balochistan, London, New Century Publishers, 1985,
5. Khan, Tahir Mohammad, Siasiyat-e-Balochistan, Quetta M.M.Traders, 1988, P.P.230-31.
6. Gen. Yahya announced the breakage of one unit and the principle of parity.
7. Gen. Yahya Broadcast address of 28-11-1969.
8. See the full text of President's order No.2 of 1970 (The legal framework order, 1970).
9. As mentioned in Pakistan Divided, Lahore, Institute of Islamic Culture, 1989, P.63.
10. Safder Mahmood, Pakistan Divided, Lahore, Institute of Islamic Culture,1989, P.64.
11. Awan, A.B., Opcit., P.254.11 Government of Pakistan, Extra Ordinary Gazette No. F. 24(1)71 -Pubdated the 21st December 1971.
12. DAWN Karachi, 21st December, 1971.
13. All the newspapers highlighted Bezanjo's arrival and his address, see the newspapers of 1st May 1972.
14. Full coverage was given to this address of the Governor of Balochistan by all the newspapers. His address became a lesson for the personnels and the bureaucracy.
15. See Pakistan Times, 10th April 1972.
16. Musawat, Lahore, 12th September 1972, also see Guardian,London, 12th September 1972.
17. Pakistan Times, 17th September, 1972.18.
Although Jam Ghulam Qadir sworn in as the Chief Minister but still the majority in the Provincial Assembly was enjoyed bv N.A.P + J.U.I.
19. Weekly Zindagi, 1st April 1973.
20. President by orders announced the interim constitution and increased the powers of the Governor where he could by-pass the Provincial Assembly for the approval of Provincial budget.
21. All the national newspapers placed this news in the headline and it was heard as a sad news in Balochistan and N.W.F.P. As the accused were kept and the trial was made at Hyderabad Jail so commonly known as Hyderabad Conspiracy Case.
22. 1975, Under Act 6 (2) Political Parties Act 1962. Islamic Democratic Republic of Pakistan through Secretary Interior and Kashmir Affairs Islamabad V/s Abdul Wali Khan Ex-President N.A.P.
23. The full text of Mir Bezanjo's statement is published under the title "Aur Bian Apna" Lahore, Awami Press Ltd., P.P. 197-244.
24. Awan A.B., Opcit P.290.