ISLAMABAD: Supreme Court has declared Justice (retd.) Deedar Hussain Shah ever- ineligible for the NAB chairman slot in its detail verdict issued here this morning, Geo News reported. The Apex Court in its 33-page detail judgment penned by Justice Asif Saeed Khosa said that the re-appointment of Justice (retd.) Deedar Hussain Shah was made on the wrong advice of the ministry of law. The ministry has no comprehension of the constitution and law and therefore, Justice (retd.) Deedar Hussain Shah has become ineligible for the post of NAB chairman under NAB law section 6-b. The meaningful consultation with the leader of opposition for the appointment of NAB chairman was mandatory, said the verdict. According to the verdict if any difference of opinion between the prime minister and the leader of opposition arise on the issue of the appointment of NAB chairman, then this matter would also come up to the Chief Justice for a decision. NAB Prosecutor General slot remaining vacant for about last six months was disturbing and the appointment on this post be made without any further delay, the Court wrote in its verdict. REFERENCE: Deedar ever-ineligible for NAB chairman slot: SC Updated at 1030 PST Tuesday, March 22, 2011 http://www.thenews.com.pk/NewsDetail.aspx?ID=12991http://www.jang.com.pk/jang/mar2011-daily/22-03-2011/u66118.htm
Tuesday, March 22, 2011, Rabi-us-Sani 16, 1432 A.H
Tuesday, March 22, 2011, Rabi-us-Sani 16, 1432 A.H
Chaudhry Nisar said it was `strange` that without waiting for the court`s detailed order, the president had again proposed the appointment of Justice Shah as NAB chairman. “On the same day, the Sindh chapter of Pakistan People`s Party organised a province-wide protest against the order of the apex court, bringing it into hatred, ridicule and contempt and provoking a confrontation on a non-issue, viz that Justice Shah belongs to Sindh. The tragic aspect of this unlawful protest, which has made Justice Shah even more controversial, is that it resulted in the death of a number of innocent citizens in Karachi,” the letter said. In his letter, President Zardari described Mr Shah as a `man of integrity` and recalled his service as chief justice of the Sindh High Court and a judge of the Supreme Court. REFERENCE: Nisar rejects NAB chief`s rehiring By Syed Irfan Raza | From the Newspaper (11 hours ago) Today http://www.dawn.com/2011/03/22/nisar-rejects-nab-chiefs-rehiring.html
Human Memory is weak and when one is prejudiced then it is more detrimental and that is the case of Mr. Kamran Khan, Senior Correspondent Jang Group of Newspapers/The News International and GEO TV [Judge, Jury & Executioner]. Nowadays "Kamran Khan, Jang Group of Newspapers, GEO TV, and The News International "advising" Nawaz Sharif for the Long March whereas 11 Years ago read what Kamran Khan had filed in The News International/Daily Jang and most hilarious thing is that after 11 Years the same Jang Group [GEO TV] is denying through [Jawab Deyh with Iftikhar Ahmad] their own Chief Correspondent Kamran Khan and his Lies which he used to file under-captioned "The News Intelligence Unit".
KARACHI: Less than four dozen individuals from Central Punjab, who had either lived or served in Lahore in the past 15 years, are currently holding the country's 41 most important official assignments -- a situation that is bound to aggravate the prevailing sense of deprivation not only in the three smaller provinces but also in Southern Punjab, according to an investigation by the News Intelligence Unit (NIU). The situation took a delicate turn late on Monday night when Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif stunned the federal cabinet by announcing that he had decided to nominate the former Supreme Court judge and a known Sharif family friend, Mr Justice (retd) Rafiq Ahmed Tarar, as the president of Pakistan. Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif took the decision to appoint a Central Punjabi president against strong recommendations from his cabinet members, parliamentary party members and even his younger brother, Shahbaz Sharif, urging him to pick a presidential candidate from smaller provinces, the sources said. The NIU investigation found that before Senator Tarar's nomination as the president, at least 41 individuals -- mostly with permanent residences in Lahore -- were holding almost all of the, what an independent observer labelled as, "make-or-break appointments" in the country. The NIU study showed that though all of these appointments were not made by Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif, but under his nine-month-old administration the domination and influence of Central Punjabis over the government departments multiplied manifold. With the election of Justice Rafiq Tarar as the president of Pakistan by the end of this month, the country would have a Lahore-based president, prime minister and chairman Senate. Although Justice Tarar hails from Wazirabad near Lahore, he has lived most of his life in Lahore and is believed to be a personal friend and constitutional and legal adviser to the Sharif family. Both Nawaz Sharif and Wasim Sajjad have lived their personal and professional lives in Lahore, where their families are permanently settled.
Seniority, merit and professionalism may have been the criterion, but the fact remains that all three present services chiefs incidentally have Central Punjab background. The present Chief of Naval Staff, Admiral Fasih Bukhari, and Chief of Air Staff Air Chief Marshal P Q Mehdi had been appointed by Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif, while Chief of Army Staff General Jehangir Karamat was selected by President Farooq Ahmed Leghari. The present government handed dual charge of Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee to Gen Karamat. When Nawaz assumed the charge of the prime minister in February this year, each and every member of his personal team at the Prime Minister's Office had a Central Punjab, particularly Lahore, background. He appointed seasoned civil servant and a scion of a known Lahore family, A K Z Sherdil, as his principal secretary. Because of his Lahore background, Sherdil was personally known to Saifur Rahman Khan, who had initially suggested his name to the prime minister. Even before Sherdil's appointment, Nawaz had decided to appoint another former civil servant, Anwer Zahid, as his special assistant. The Lahore-based Anwer Zahid was the principal secretary to the prime minister during Nawaz's first tenure. Closest in Nawaz Sharif's personal team at the Prime Minister's Secretariat was, and still is, Saifur Rahman Khan -- the chief of Ehtesab Cell. Saifur Rahman like Sherdil and Anwer Zahid, cherished his Lahore background. "The prime minister feels very comfortable with Sherdil, Zahid and Saif. They speak his mind and the language," noted an informed official. The prime minister not only favoured the individuals with Lahore background for top positions of his office, he invited the people with similar background even for mid-level posts in his personal setup. He appointed Rauf Chaudhry and Khayyam Qaiser as his personal staff officers and Qamaruzzaman as his personal secretary. These three personal staff members, like other senior aides in the Prime Minister's Office, have strong Central Punjab background. They not only manage the prime minister's days and weeks, but also serve as his eyes and ears.
Similarly, his Press Secretary Siddiqul Farooq has always lived and worked in Lahore and Central Punjab with no work experience in smaller provinces. The prime minister appointed another old Lahore hand and a former Ittefaq Group employee, Major General Sikander Hayat, as chief of the Prime Minister's Monitoring and Evaluation Cell. He appointed Colonel (retd) Mushtaq Taher Kheli, an individual of similar background, as his political secretary. With the accountability placed at the top of his priority list, Nawaz Sharif decided to operate through his most-trusted Lahore aides. While Senator Saifur Rahman was placed at the driving seat, Nawaz decided to continue with Justice (retd) Ghulam Mujaddid Mirza, another famous Lahorite, as the chief Ehtesab commissioner. He appointed another Central Punjab PML leader Mumtaz Ahmed Tarrar as the chief of Ehtesab Council. Not surprisingly, officials and politicians wanted or arrested in corruption cases from Punjab escaped the net laid by the much-dreaded Ehtesab Cell, while those arrested from Sindh faced a totally different situation. For instance, under extremely intriguing condition a corruption case registered against former RECP chairman Kabir Sheikh, a Lahore-based official, was hurriedly withdrawn. Under identical circumstances, the corruption charges against former petroleum secretary Capt Naseer Ahmed had been withdrawn.
While appointing the federal cabinet, Nawaz Sharif, once more, preferred his trusted Lahore and Central Punjab associates for important cabinet assignments such as commerce. Senior official sources conceded in their background interviews that because of his extreme closeness with Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif, Ishaq Dar's influence reaches frequently the decision-making levels in the Ministry of Finance. Because of his Lahore and Model Town connections, Ishaq Dar has emerged as the prime minister's most trusted aide in the federal cabinet. Dar's closeness with the prime minister can be gauged by the fact that it was he and Saifur Rahman who had negotiated and finalised the power-sharing agreement with the MQM. No PML member from Sindh was included in the team that had negotiated with the MQM after the change of government in February this year. Other Central Punjab PML parliamentarians who received important cabinet slots included Chaudhry Nisar Ali Khan (Petroleum), Chaudhry Shujaat Hussain (Interior), Mushahid Hussain (Information), Shaikh Rashid Ahmed (Labour and Culture), Begum Abida Hussain (Population Welfare), Raja Nadir Pervaiz (Water and Power), and Khalid Anwar (Law). Surprisingly, the entire national security team that is reporting to the prime minister on important security matters also has the similar Central Punjab background.
The present director generals of the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI), Intelligence Bureau (IB) and the Federal Investigation Agency (FIA) shared this common background. Chaudhry Manzoor Ahmed and Major General (retd) Enayat Niazi had been appointed as the IB director general and the FIA director general, respectively by Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif, while Lt Gen Nasim Rana had been appointed as the ISI director general by the Benazir Bhutto government. Smaller provinces were completely ignored over Central Punjab when Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif decided to appoint members of his party as heads of various government and public sector organisations. He appointed 37-year-old Shahid Khaqqan Abbasi, MNA from Murree, as the PIAC chairman and picked Khawaja Asif to head the Privatisation Commission. Similarly, Humayun Akhter Khan, the MNA from his home town Lahore, was appointed as the chief of Board of Investment (BoI). When it came to the appointment of the attorney general of Pakistan, the prime minister once again preferred a candidate from Lahore. Sources said that before his appointment as the Attorney General, Chaudhry Muhammad Farooq had long served the Sharif family in their business and family matters.
While selecting the team of bureaucrats for his government, the prime minister apparently decided not to disturb the officials with Lahore or Central Punjab background, notwithstanding the fact that they had been appointed by President Farooq Leghari during the caretaker set-up. In a policy decision, the prime minister decided to continue with Dr Muhammad Yaqub as the governor of State Bank of Pakistan, absolving him of his responsibility in the collapse of banking and DFI sector in Pakistan in the past four years. Similarly, he also decided to continue with Chaudhry Moeen Afzal as the secretary of finance and Hafizullah Ishaq as the chairman Board of Revenue -- both gentlemen had a Central Punjab background. The prime minister also appeared comfortable with Afzal Kahut as the establishment secretary and Mian Tayyab Hussain as the cabinet secretary.
The Central Punjab criteria apparently played a significant role as he appointed secretaries to some of the important ministries, for example he selected Mian Iqbal Fareed as the secretary commerce, Mehar Jivan Khan as the interior secretary and Gulfaraz Ahmed as the secretary in the Ministry of Petroleum. The Central Punjab may not exactly be the reason behind the appointment of Lt Gen (retd) Chaudhry Iftikhar Ali Khan as the secretary defence, but it may be the first time that no one from a smaller province is attached to any significant position in the entire Ministry of Defence. Like in Justice (retd) Rafiq Tarar's case, most observers do not dispute the fact that many of the Central Punjab bureaucrats or politicians given important tasks in the government by Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif enjoy good reputation, but they do not believe that the smaller provinces cannot offer individuals with similar reputation and competence. These observers felt that to give a truly national look to his government, particularly after the election of Justice Tarrar as the president, Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif would have to go an extra-mile to neutralise the impression of his being the Central Punjab government. REFERENCE:Central Punjab holds 41 key posts - Disparity may deepen deprivation in smaller provinces - News Intelligence Unit By Kamran Khan The NEWS International, Karachi December 17, 1997 http://www.karachipage.com/news/punjab_rules.htm
The NEWS International, Karachi December 17, 1997 Central Punjab holds 41 key posts Disparity may deepen deprivation in smaller provinces News Intelligence Unit By Kamran Khan http://22.214.171.124/news/punjab_rules.htm
ISLAMABAD, Dec 27: The year 1998 has been one of the worst years for civil bureaucracy in Pakistan for mounting politicization, intensified inter-service rivalries, controversial promotions and non-resolution of outstanding issues. According to official sources, during 1998 well over 90 persons were appointed on political basis and were given key positions in the civil bureaucracy on the orders of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif. The political appointees include retired government servants and persons from open market. At least 13 persons were offered grade 22 positions; 17 were adjusted against grade 21 posts; 31 were offered grade 20; and the rest in other grades. These include the retired civil servants re-employed in violation of the rules and without fulfilling the conditions for re-employments. These political appointees also include those retired military officers who were re-employed without following the prescribed procedure.
"Most of these appointments were irregular," a source said, adding the prime minister had been using his discretionary powers to make these appointments. Political appointments in certain cases is allowed under the rules provided it is done in the public interest. However, during the year under review hardly any of these political appointments were made on the recommendation of relevant government agencies. "Everything has been travelling down from big office," a source said. The sources said transfer of bureaucrats remained a tricky issue and most of the appointments at key positions were made without consulting the government agencies which were supposed to initiate and regulate the transfers of bureaucrats.
The establishment division, which is responsible for the career planning of the officers, has turned into a post office and is there only to stamp whatever is communicated to it by the prime minister's office. Under the rules the prime minister issues the transfer order for bureaucrats in grade 21 and 22. The rest is the jurisdiction of the secretary, establishment. But in case of the transfer of grade 21 and 22 bureaucrats the establishment division is the authority to identify the vacancy, look for suitable candidates and propose a panel of officers before the prime minister. The PM is then supposed to select one of the officers. "But in actual practice no such exercise is done. Now everything is done by the PM's office who simply conveys as to who should be transferred against which position," a source said, adding during this year almost all the key positions like federal secretaries, chief secretaries, inspector generals of police (IGPs) and heads of different departments were decided without the knowledge of the ED. "The ED has been only bothered at the time of the issuance of notifications," the source said. Even in those cases where the secretary, establishment, is the competent authority, the PM office has been interfering to give the plum postings to 'blue-eyed' bureaucrats. Sources in the PM's office confirmed to this correspondent that most of these posting orders were issued by the PM's office on the wish of the parliamentarians and other influentials.
The promotions have also been very controversial during this year. Most of the groups of the civil bureaucracy remained frustrated because of their bleak promotion prospects. The district management group, however, got good promotions. It got two promotion in grade 22, 14 in grade 21, at least 21 in grade 20 and others. Information group officers, having very bleak promotion prospects, were happy during this year because of their en-block promotions. These promotions were made without following the statutory provisions. Disparity in the pace of promotion between different groups has further worsened. Bureaucrats, particularly belonging to the groups of office management/secretariat, information, military land and cantonment, railways, and commerce and trade, remained the worst as far as promotion is concerned. The government has set a new precedent during the year 1998 by giving out of turn promotions to at least four of its 'blue eyed' bureaucrats. Two juniors were promoted (in grade 20 and 21 respectively) in PSP; and one each in secretariat group (in grade 22) and DMG (in grade 20) without considering a brigade of their seniors. All these officers were promoted without following the statutory provision or fulfilling the prescribed procedure and in complete violation of government rules. Long-standing issues, like the fixation of share for different occupations in the secretariat group, remained unresolved. The issue is pending since the introduction of the 1973 administrative reforms. Over 90 men appointed on political basis Ansar Abbasi DAWN WIRE SERVICE Week Ending : 02 January 1999 Issue : 05/01 http://www.lib.virginia.edu/area-studies/SouthAsia/SAserials/Dawn/1999/02Jan99.html#over
ISLAMABAD, April 25: Government agencies involved in the accountability exercise are said to be avoiding the processing of cases of alleged corruption or misuse of authority against members of the ruling PML, it is learnt. Investigations into the working of the Ehtesab commission and the interior ministry which are directly concerned with the accountability process under a statute, show that neither of them has been processing the references against PML leaders. According to sources, the two agencies have even been told to lay off certain cases. he sources claimed that some of the top PML leaders against whom references had been pending were Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif, Sindh Chief Minister Liaquat Jatoi, Punjab Assembly speaker Pervez Elahi, former chief minister of the NWFP Pir Syed Sabir Shah, former Balochistan chief minister Zulfiqar Magsi, and former Punjab minister Raja Ishfaq Sarwar.
Besides, a case against the NA deputy speaker, Jaffar Iqbal, was referred by an advocate from Multan to the Ehtesab Commissioner. But the commission has denied having received any formal reference in this regard. A commission source, however, told this correspondent that the reference had actually been sent to the commission and it had been redirected to the provincial anti-corruption department for verification of the allegations. The Ehtesab Commission has so far referred a total of 54 cases to special benches of the high courts for trial. These include only two references against the PML leaders Chaudhry Sher Ali (MNA) and Jam Mashooq Ali (MNA). But both had been sent to the high courts much before the present government came to power.
It is learnt that the agencies concerned have been told to keep a low profile in some cases involving bureaucrats and other top officials. The case of Raana Sheikh, former MD, PTV, for instance, has been pending with the interior division but they have been asked not to send it to the Ehtesab Commission, interior ministry sources told dawn. Later, the Accountability Cell of the PM s Secretariat suspended all these officers except the two Ahmad Riaz Shiekh and Chaudhry Sharif. The FIA administration, the sources said, wanted to move against these two officials but they had not only been saved but the authorities had also been asked to process the case of promotion of one of them. According to one source, these officers have set the condition that they will only go to FIA if the incumbent director general is removed. REFERENCE: PML leaders being excluded from Ehtesab process Ansar Abbasi DAWN WIRE SERVICE Week Ending: 26 April 1997 Issue: 03/17 http://www.lib.virginia.edu/area-studies/SouthAsia/SAserials/Dawn/1997/26Apr97.html#pmll
ISLAMABAD: If President Asif Ali Zardari and Prime Minister Yousuf Raza Gilani are generously offering key government positions to their favourites, the PML-N chief Mian Nawaz Sharif is no exception. Those who have been loyal to Mian Nawaz Sharif in the past are being adjusted against key provincial government positions one by one but slowly and surely. A lot has appeared in the media about the appointment of the president’s and prime minister’s friends, jail mates, acquaintances and cronies, including corrupt and convicts, against key government positions, not much noise has been raised regarding the appointments of Sharifs’ favourites in the provincial government. The apparent reasons for this are believed to be the small number of such appointees as well as the fewer controversies surrounding the Punjab rulers’ favourites. However, now the PML-N’s list has also started growing.
Of late, a retired secretary, known loyal of Nawaz Sharif and his principal secretary during his second term as the Prime Minister, A Z K Sherdil has been appointed by Punjab Chief Minister Shahbaz Sharif as the chairman of the Bank of Punjab. Sherdil has been privately assisting Nawaz Sharif on different matters after his return from Jeddah. General Ziauddin Butt, the former ISI Chief and the man who was appointed on October 12, 1999, as army chief but could not take the military’s command because of General Musharraf’s coup, has also been appointed recently as chairman of the Chief Minister’s Inspection Commission. Butt has been enjoying good reputation in Army, but he was retired without any benefit. Rana Maqbool Ahmad—Mian Nawaz Sharif’s co-accused in the plane high jacking case, which was falsely framed by Musharraf to fix the former prime minister and others—is serving the Punjab government as secretary prosecution. Maqbool is a former inspector general of Sindh police. His appointment is also controversial for the reason that he is a declared absconder of the Sindh High Court in a case in which President Asif Ali Zardari had claimed that he was tortured by Maqbool in Karachi jail during his prison days.
Jehanzeb Burki, a former police inspector general, who served as IG Punjab and Islamabad under Nawaz Sharif, is presently serving as adviser to the Punjab chief minister. Pervez Rathore, former Capital Police Chief, Lahore, has also been close to Nawaz Sharif since his first term as Prime Minister when he was appointed as SSP, Islamabad. Rathore, who has retired recently, has been appointed as member Punjab Public Service Commission. Lt Gen (R) Syed Sabahat Hussain is serving as chairman of the Punjab Public Service Commission. Sabahat has served Nawaz Sharif as his military secretary during his second tenure. Sabahat got retired in 2009. According to one source, he has been given this position on the recommendation of the GHQ. Mian Nawaz Sharif’s personal secretary Dr Kirmani is on the pay roll of the Punjab government, where he is reflected as media consultant. Nawaz Sharif’s old media friend Zulfikar Balti, who mostly covers Nawaz Sharif and the PML-N even today, is also reflected as official photographer in the department of director general public relations.
Former principal secretary to the Prime Minister (Nawaz Sharif) and his long time associate, Saeed Mehdi, was also serving as adviser to the Punjab chief minister. However, after the NRO judgment handed down by the Supreme Court, Mehdi, whose name was reflected in the list of NRO beneficiaries, opted to resign. Another retired Additional Secretary Farogh Navid, who served Nawaz Sharif in the Prime Minister’s Secretariat during his second term, was appointed chairman of the Task Force on Transparency and Government, but he too lost the job after the task force was abolished several months back by the Punjab government. Two PML-N activists, including Ejaz Gul, representative of PML-N, UK, and Ms Niva Usman, were also made chairpersons of task forces, but they too were shown the door after the recent abolition of all paid task forces following the recent floods. Unlike President Zardari and Prime Minister Gilani’s favourites, generally the appointees of Sharifs have clean reputation. None of these appointees have been found in any scandal of corruption, which see no end in the federal government. REFERENCE: Nawaz favourites also being obliged By Ansar Abbasi Sunday, November 28, 2010 http://www.thenews.com.pk/28-11-2010/Top-Story/2340.htm
Sunday, November 28, 2010, Zilhajj 21, 1431 A.Hhttp://www.jang.com.pk/jang/nov2010-daily/28-11-2010/main3.htm
History of Chaudhry Nisar Ali Khan (PML - Nawaz) and his Ugly and DIRTY Politics.
Chaudhry Nisar Ali Khan and some other party members were in favour of Pervaiz Musharaf because Musharaf has an ugly face and so he would not want to come on TV. And if a person do not want to come on TV then he will not impose Martial Law. And Nawaz Sharif went with the 2nd choice. Jang Oct 2010 Hamid Mir – http://www.pinditube.com/2010/10/ch-nisar-ali-khan-and-some-other-party-members-supported-musharraf-because-he-looks-ugly/
When reminded that he was very close to Nawaz Sharif, the former information minister said he never took part in talks with the army or the United States. "On both these issues Shahbaz Sharif and Chaudhry Nisar used to talk and advise Nawaz Sharif and I had nothing to do with that." "The time has now come to bury the politics of vendetta and revenge and to harness energies for nation building. Pakistan today needs a healing touch," said a statement issued after his release. Another close compatriot of Nawaz Sharif, Chaudhry Nisar Ali Khan is expected to be released soon because of a compromise he had reportedly reached with the military authorities. Chaudhry Nisar, who is under house arrest, is said to be enjoying the facility of visiting the city late at night. People close to him claim that he had distanced himself with Nawaz Sharif to have his freedom soon. REFERENCE: Mushahid freed: aims to unite PML Ihtashamul Haque DAWN WIRE SERVICE Week Ending: 30 December 2000 Issue : 06/50 http://www.lib.virginia.edu/area-studies/SouthAsia/SAserials/Dawn/2000/dec3000.html#mush
ISLAMABAD, Sept 29: President Rafiq Tarar here on Wednesday confirmed the appointment of the Chief of the Army Staff (COAS) General Pervaiz Musharraf as the Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee as well since the day he took over the acting charge of the post on October 6, 1998. His tenure as both the COAS and the CJCSC will now end on October 6, 2001. General Musharraf, who was made the COAS and the acting CJCSC when General Jehangir Karamat had resigned from the two posts in October last year, has been confirmed as the Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee by the president under Article 243(2)(c) of the Constitution of Pakistan on the advice of the prime minister. The Article 243(2)(c) of the Constitution says, "the president shall subject to law, have power to appoint (on the advise of the prime minister) the Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee, the Chief of the Army Staff, the Chief of the Naval Staff and the Chief of the Air Staff, and determine their salaries and allowances".
This clause which earlier had given the discretion in this respect to the president had been amended suitably to provide for the advise of the prime minister in such appointments when the 13th Constitutional Bill was passed by the parliament in early 1997. The decision to confirm the COAS in the position of the CJCSC hascome in the wake of two meetings which Punjab Chief Minister Shahbaz Sharif and Federal Petroleum Minister Chaudhry Nisar Ali Khan had held with the COAS, first on September 22 and again on September 24. These meetings between the COAS and the prime minister's two closest confidantes, one being his own brother and the other the brother of the defence secretary, were being viewed here as highly significant as they had closely followed the US State Department's warning (on September 20) to "political and military actors" that the US would "strongly oppose" any attempt to overthrow the government.
In the aftermath of the Kargil crisis, reports had been circulating in the media that the prime minister and the army chief had developed serious differences. However, quarters close to both had strongly contradicted such reports. "Now when the general has been made the full-fledged Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee, rumours of differences between the two will hopefully come to an end," a source close to the government said. App adds: Prime Minister Muhammad Nawaz Sharif has extended the tenure of the additional charge of the office of Chairman, JointChiefs of Staff Committee (JCSC), held by General Parvaiz Musharraf, the Chief of the Army Staff (COAS), upto October 6, 2001. An official notification issued here Wednesday said that the additional charge was originally assigned to him until April 8, 2000. Commenting on the decision, a spokesman at the Prime Minister'soffice expressed the hope that the "step will once and for all set at rest the uncalled rumours and speculation about the change of command in army, that certain vested interests were fanning in pursuance of their political agenda." REFERENCE: Musharraf to stay on as JCSC, army chief Ihtasham ul Haque DAWN WIRE SERVICE Week Ending: 02 October 1999 Issue : 05/40 http://www.lib.virginia.edu/area-studies/SouthAsia/SAserials/Dawn/1999/02oct99.html#mush
ISLAMABAD, April 22: No operation would be launched to end "no-go" areas in Karachi, and the government instead would take administrative measures to ensure that no areas remain inaccessible to anybody. The government and the Muttahida Qaumi Movement both agreed that the issue could be solved through administrative measures rather than operation, said Chaudhry Nisar Ali Khan, minister for petroleum and provincial coordination, while talking to reporters here on Wednesday. Chaudhry Nisar, who had detailed talks with MQM leader Altaf Hussain in London, said he had found Mr Hussain very accommodating. He said the MQM had agreed not to issue any more ultimatums and deadlines in future to avoid misunderstandings between the two sides. Referring to his talks with Mr Hussain, he said all issues had been discussed with the MQM chief. He, however, said that no time limit had been fixed for ending "no-go" areas. Chaudhry Nisar said the two sides had agreed that rangers would stay in Karachi as long as lasting peace was not achieved. It was also decided that an elite force, on the pattern of Punjab, would be set up in Sindh to control the law and order problem. He said a decision had been taken during talks with the MQM leader that competent officers from other provinces would be inducted into the Sindh administration to improve the situation. Responding to a question, the petroleum minister said he was happy that the MQM leadership had agreed with him that rangers should stay in Karachi for the time being. "As long as the new elite force is not established and the police not strengthened to cope with the situation, rangers would continue to operate in Karachi", he said.
Chaudhry Nisar Ali Khan on Altaf Hussain & MQM.
He said that no new agreement had been signed during talks with the MQM chief in London, and added that there was no secret agreement with the MQM nor had Mr Hussain put any condition or demand. Chaudhry Nisar said he had held talks with the MQM leadership on the basis of the previous agreement, and added that he had assured Mr Hussain that the agreement would be implemented. To a question, the petroleum minister said that talks with the MQM had been decisive and "I am sure our alliance with the MQM will continue despite various irritants." CASES: To a question, he said that he had assured Mr Hussain that fake cases against MQM leaders and workers would be withdrawn shortly. He said that Sindh chief minister had given approval for the withdrawal of many cases. "But we have made it clear to the MQM leadership that the government could not do anything to withdraw heinous cases against their leaders and workers," he said. REFERENCE: No operation to end 'no-go' areas: Nisar Bureau Report DAWN WIRE SERVICE Week Ending: 25 April 1998 Issue : 04/17 http://www.lib.virginia.edu/area-studies/SouthAsia/SAserials/Dawn/1998/25Apr98.html
Haider Abbas Rizvi (MQM) Exposes Nawaz Sharif & PML - Nawaz.
LONDON, Sept 18: The first round of talks between Mohajir Qaumi Movement (MQM) and Provincial Coordination Minister Chaudhry Nisar Ali Khan on the issue of MQM’s rejoining the Sindh government remained inconclusive on Friday and MQM leaders said there was still a long way to go. "We have still a reasonable distance to cover,"MQM leader M. Anwar told reporters after the talks which ended around 2030 GMT (0030 PST). The second round will be held on Sunday. The day’s break has beenmade to enable the provincial coordination minister to consult Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif on various issues. Chaudhry Nisar Ali has flown into London to hold emergency talks with the MQM leadership to save the falling Muslim League government in Sindh. However, MQM chief Altaf Hussain distanced himself from these talks and left it up to the MQM Rabita Committee members to decide whether or not to rejoin the Sindh government which is facing a no-confidence motion in the Assembly. Mr Altaf Hussain held an informal meeting with the minister before the talks at MQM’s International Secretariat in north-west London. He later told reporters that the issue of re-joining the government was not discussed during his meeting. The Rabita Committee members, who held four-hour-long talks with the Chaudhry Nisar included Rabita Committee members Anis Ahmad Qaimkhani, M.A. Jalil and Anis Ahmad, advocate. They were assisted by Senator Mustafa Kamal, Mohammad Anwar, chief organiser of MQM UK & Europe and Tariq Mir, joint chief organiser. The visit of Chaudhry Nisar Ali is attributed to the objective of saving the government in Sindh.
Wasim Akhtar (MQM) Exposes Nawaz Sharif & PML - Nawaz.
Tonight with Jasmeen (the noise machine): Zaeem Qadri vs Mustafa Kamal
A no-confidence motion against Sindh Chief Minister Liaquat Jatoi, moved by opposition Pakistan People’s Party, is scheduled to be discussed on 23th and Chaudhry Nisar Ali’s had apparently come here with two clear objectives either to convince the MQM to rejoin the provincial government or at least stop lending its support to the no-confidence motion. Briefing reporters after the first round of talks, Chaudhry Nisar Ali said that he explained government’s viewpoint on various issues which were raised by the MQM members. "They (MQM’s) told me that they had quit the government because of the non-implementation or very slow implementation on some points of the accord." However, he said that he did not agree with the MQM’s claim. "On our side some think that we have been giving too many concessionsto the MQM and had been accepting their every demand." He said that another major hurdle in the progress of talks had been the clearance of no-go areas in Karachi. "I explained to them the government view point on this issue." Chaudhry Nisar said that MQM leaders also told him that one reason for quitting the government had been that they were not made equal partners in the Sindh government nor were they taken into confidence over the law and order situation in Karachi. "The MQM told me that it was because of this reason that their presence in the provincial cabinet was proving counter- productive for them". REFERENCE: MQM-Govt talks remain inconclusive Nasir Malick DAWN WIRE SERVICE Week Ending: 19 September 1998 Issue:04/37 http://www.lib.virginia.edu/area-studies/SouthAsia/SAserials/Dawn/1998/19Sep98.html#mqmg
KARACHI, Aug 14: The Muttahida Qaumi Movement quit the federal government on Friday in protest against on-going killings in the city. The MQM informed the visiting minister for provincial coordination, Chaudhry Nisar Ali Khan, during more than two hours of talks at the Nine Zero, that its sole member in the federal cabinet, Dr Khalid Maqbool Siddiqui, minister for industries and production, had tendered his resignation in protest against "unabated killing of MQM workers", the North Nazimabad tragedy, helplessness of the government to stop MQM workers'murder, remaining of the killers at large and PML's failure to implement agreements and assurances. The decision to quit the federal cabinet was taken by the Coordination Committee at its emergency meeting held at the Nine Zero soon after the brutal killing of 10 MQM workers on Wednesday night in North Nazimabad by" government agencies and terrorists on their pay rolls." In the light of this decision, Dr Siddiqui resigned from the cabinet on Friday and this was communicated to Chaudhry Nisar when the latter visited Nine Zero along with Chief Minister Liaquat Ali Jatoi on Friday. Dr Siddiqui, who is in London these days after an official visit to the US, informed Chaudhry Nisar by phone at the Nine Zero :" I am talking to you as a former federal minister. Please inform Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif about my decision to resign and that I will formally submit my resignation to him on returning home." Dr Siddiqui's withdrawal from the federal cabinet could be a prelude to quitting of the coalition in the province by the MQM. Sources said the MQM had given 48 hours to the government to honouri s commitments, failing which it might quit the provincial government as well. REFERENCE: Muttahida quits federal cabinet to protest killings Reporter DAWN WIRE SERVICE Week Ending: 15 August 1998 Issue:04/32 http://www.lib.virginia.edu/area-studies/SouthAsia/SAserials/Dawn/1998/15Aug98.html#mutt
Brave Bhatti, shrugging off all 'inconveniences', filed his affidavit, written in Urdu, relevant translated portions of which read :
"I was an eye-witness to whatever happened outside and inside Courtroom No.1 on November 28, 1997 and give this statement to assist the apex court of the country in my capacity as a responsible citizen. "Whilst the Bench headed by Chief Justice Sajjad Ali Shah comprising Justices Bashir Jehangiri, Mohammed Arif, Maimoon Kazi and Munir A Shaikh, was hearing the contempt of court case against the Prime Minister and other parliamentarians on November 27, 1997, Zafar Ali Shah, MNA, Advocate of the Supreme Court rose and said that the Chief Justice could not conduct the Court, as after the judgment of the Quetta Bench he was no longer CJ. Minister Chaudhry Nisar Ali Khan, and MNAs/MPAs Kabir Khan, Inamullah Niazi, Sardar Naseem and Advisor to PM Mushtaq Tahirkheli also stood up in Court in support of Zafar Ali Shah. The Muslim League crowd present also heckled the CJ, and when he declared that the Quetta Bench decision was null and void in law they shouted 'Chor , chor .' "PML workers also demonstrated against the Chief Justice on Constitution Avenue. That evening, government sources briefed journalists that Justice Ajmal Mian will be sworn in as CJ the next morning and CJ Sajjad Ali Shah will proceed on leave. REFERENCE: Storming of the Supreme Court - 5 Ardeshir Cowasjee DAWN WIRE SERVICE Week Ending: 16 May 1998 Issue : 04/19 http://www.lib.virginia.edu/area-studies/SouthAsia/SAserials/Dawn/1998/16May98.html#stor
LONDON, April 17: Talks between Muttahida Qaumi Movement (MQM) and Pakistan Muslim League (PML) are moving in a positive direction and will arrive at a positive conclusion on Saturday, leaders of the two sides said here after Friday's meeting. "Things are moving towards an understanding and we hope matters will be resolved," MQM chief Altaf Hussain told reporters after the three-hour-long talks held at the Muttahida's International Secretariat in Edgware, north-west London. The PML leaders, Chaudhry Nisar and Sindh Chief Minister Liaquat Jatoi, also sounded optimistic about the outcome and hoped that the talks would end on a positive note. The next session of the second round will be held on Saturday at 11.30am.
He was the first to comment on the negotiations as he emerged from the venue along with PML leaders. Federal minister Chaudhry Nisar Ali, who is leading the government side, told reporters that another session would be held on Saturday and hopefully it would yield "some result". "Another session will be held tomorrow and I am confident that we will arrive at some positive conclusion." Chaudhry Nisar said during Friday talks, the two sides discussed a large number of issues, including the Muttahida's demand to get the "no-go areas" vacated. He said more discussion on the issue would be held during the Saturday session.
The minister said MQM chief Altaf Hussain gave an overview of the MQM-PML relationship. "It was an overall review of PML-MQM relationship of the last 10 years," he said. The government side, he added, placed before him PML's viewpoint on certain issues. "There was a complete consensus between the two sides that joint efforts to preserve the political and democratic process in the country should continue." Referring to differences between the two parties, Chaudhry Nisarsaid such misgivings and misunderstandings did occur between alliances but asserted that these should be removed in a "political manner." "The general tone and tenor (during the talks) was positive and friendly and reflected 10 years of relationship between the two parties," he said."You should see the expression on our faces to know about the atmosphere inside," a beaming minister said. ALTAF: Mutahhida Qaumi Movement chief Altaf Hussain said on Friday that the MQM was entering into talks with the government with an open mind but the result would depend on the intentions of the two sides. "Both sides are present here and they are here to resolve the problems and I would say it all depends on the intentions of both the sides," the MQM chief told reporters before entering into talks with the two-member PML team comprising federal minister forprovincial coordination, Chaudhry Nisar Ali and Sindh chief minister Liaquat Jatoi.
Mr Altaf said the two sides were here with good intentions to resolve the issue and that the Mutahhida was in favour of a solution. "We want to arrive at some conclusion, which will be beneficial for both of us as well as for democracy and the country," he emphasised. He said the meeting would discuss the main agenda i.e. the vacation of the no-go areas in Karachi from its rival Haqqiqi group. Chaudhry Nisar Ali said his party was here with high hopes. He said PML's alliance with Mutahhida was decade-old and had seen many ups and downs. "Invariably we have come out of difficult times and we are hopeful that even this time we will come out," he said. The talks started at 5.00pm London time (9.00pm Pakistan time).
Mr Altaf Hussain is leading his team at the talks which includes Senator Aftab Sheikh, Ms Nasreen Jaleel, Qazi Khalid, Dr Farooq Sattar and Federal Health Minister Khalid Maqbool Siddiqui and Sindh Labour Minister Shoaib Bokhari. The first round of talks between Chaudhry Nisar Ali and Altaf Hussain on Wednesday did not yield any result and it was decided to hold second round of talks to be attended by Sindh chief minister Liaquat Jatoi and members of the MQM coordination committee. The MM meeting ended at 8.00am on Friday morning. REFERENCE: Final round of PML-MQM talks today Correspondent DAWN WIRE SERVICE Week Ending : 18 April 1998 Issue : 04/16 http://www.lib.virginia.edu/area-studies/SouthAsia/SAserials/Dawn/1998/18Apr98.html
ISLAMABAD, July 6: Muttahida Qaumi Movement (MQM) has sought the full partner status with the PML in Sindh to "remove their differences and establish permanent peace in Karachi." A four-member MQM delegation headed by Senator Aftab Sheikh held a detailed meeting with the minister for petroleum and provincial coordination, Chaudhry Nisar Ali Khan, and Chief Minister Liaquat Jatoi on Monday and demanded the assurance that the MQM would be given full role in the decision making process. "We have told them today that they will have to ensure the MQM's full participation in the provincial affairs because of their position as active coalition partners," Dr Farooq Sattar. He told Dawn after the meeting that the situation in Karachi was fast deteriorating which needed the combined efforts of the PML and the MQM to achieve the desired result.
He regretted that the MQM had been kept completely out of the recently formed two high-level committees to supervise the affairs of the Sindh government. "They are not taking us into confidence on various issues nor are they ready to accept our recommendations to improve the law and order situation in Karachi," he said. "But they will have to share the authority with us in Sindh for running the provincial administration effectively," Dr Sattar asserted. Asked what was the response of Chauhdry Nisar and Mr Jatoi to the MQM's demands, he said certain assurances were once again given by them. "We do not want any bickering with our political allies and are still sincerely trying to sort out issues amicably so that the peace is restored to Karachi." REFERENCE: MQM wants full role in decision making Bureau Report DAWN WIRE SERVICE Week Ending : 11 July 1998 Issue : 04/27 http://www.lib.virginia.edu/area-studies/SouthAsia/SAserials/Dawn/1998/11Jul98.html#mqmw
Everybody on the opposition seemed to forget that it was during its tenure in the government that the army was sent to Karachi. Similarly, most of the cases against MQM workers and leaders were registered during its tenure. And when Chaudhry Nisar declared that the cases had been registered on the orders of the former army chief Asif Nawaz, wasn't he admitting that Nawaz Sharif was only a pawn in the hands of those who were actually running the affairs of the country. Chaudhry Nisar also informed the House that at one stage the MQM had agreed to hand over at least six "terrorists" from its ranks to the government. One failed to understand whether Nisar was favouring the MQM or confirming its involvement in acts of terrorism, which it denies even today. The opposition members kept on proclaiming that the budget was of little consequence compared to the Karachi situation, but were not willing to withdraw the cut motions. Their main demand was to hold an immediatedebate followed by a joint session of parliament after the budget to discuss the Karachi situation. The government and the speaker were ready to agree to a debate provided the opposition withdrew their cut motions. However, on the issue of a joint session, it was not ready to make a commitment.
The open offer of the ministers to the opposition for initiating a serious dialogue and its request for cooperation on Karachi was not reciprocated. Speaker Yousaf Raza Gilani was in the most difficult situation trying to balance himself on a tight rope. He was not willing to violate the rules and simultaneously trying to appease the opposition. When Gohar Ayub misquoted the precedence, he at once announced that if there was a precedence he would allow the opposition to move itsresolution seeking suspension of the rules. Deputy Law Minister Raza Rabbani, could hardly veil his annoyance with Gilani. "There is also a precedence of passing a constitutional amendment in 12 minutes when Gohar Ayub was the speaker, will you follow that, too? " he shouted. "It was an irregularity committed by the thengovernment which was acceded to by the then speaker," Rabbani said referring to the Karachi debate which was held in 1992 during the budget session. But the speaker had already made up his mind not to take the blame of disallowing a debate on Karachi and easily shifted it to the treasury benches by allowing Achakzai to move the resolution for suspending the business.
Achakzai, instead of reading a simple resolution calling for the suspension of the rules to discuss the Karachi situation, tried to play with words to give an impression as if the resolution was meant to call for a joint sitting of parliament, but his move was pre-empted by the speaker who did not allow him to go any further. Though the move was rejected by the majority vote in the first place but the opposition called for a division during which the resolution was defeated by 106 to 57 votes. The opposition staged a token walk out as a protest. Interestingly opposition leader Nawaz Sharif who attended both the morning and afternoon sessions, did not utter a word on Karachi. Some parliamentary observers felt that the PML's insistence on convening a joint session of parliament betrayed a lingering fear its much-trumpeted conference on Karachi might not create the impact it desires in the absence of the PPP and veteran leaders like Nawabzada Nasrullah Khan, Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi and Maulana Fazalur Rehman. A joint session could also provide an opportunity to the MQM which is not represented in the National Assembly but has a few senators, to present its side of the story, which the opposition hoped would embarrass the government. But Sharif is faced with a dilemma. He had assured Altaf Hussain that he would get the Karachi seats vacated by his partymen to pave the way for holding fresh elections but he has not been able to convince his MNAs to resign. And there is every fear that this issue would crop up at the Karachi conference and the PML might find itself in quite a spot. REFERENCE: *From Press Gallery : Playing with the sentiments' Nasir Malick DAWN WIRE SERVICE Week Ending: 29 June,1995 Issue:01/25 http://www.lib.virginia.edu/area-studies/SouthAsia/SAserials/Dawn/1995/29Je95.html
The prime minister has also (some say foolishly) taken on the army. He gave in to his kitchen cabinet deputy, Chaudhry Nisar. Prior to the retirement from the army of Nisar's brother, Lt-General Iftikhar, Nisar was keen that his term be extended and he remain in uniform. But the army chief was adamant - there will be no extensions. According to army rules and procedures, Iftikhar duly retired on May 15. But, to keep Nisar happy, he was immediately appointed as defence secretary, an unbelievably untactful and blundersome appointment that places him higher than the COAS in the hierarchy of what is known as the 'Higher Defence Organisation'. REFERENCE: Shepherding the flock Ardeshir Cowasjee DAWN WIRE SERVICE Week Ending : 30 August 1997 Issue : 03/35 http://www.lib.virginia.edu/area-studies/SouthAsia/SAserials/Dawn/1997/30Aug97.html#shep
Sources told Dawn the prime minister had summoned ministers Chaudhry Nisar Ali Khan, Chaudhry Shujaat Hussain and Majeed Malik to discuss the Karachi unrest. "The incidents involving killings of army jawans on Sunday and attacks on senior officials of Rangers and army personnel on Monday came under specific discussion," they said. There were unconfirmed reports that one of the three ministers might visit Karachi in the next few days. But what officials confirmed here was that the federal government had established contact with the Sindh authorities to express concern over the Monday incident. Chaudhry Nisar Ali Khan briefed the prime minister of his talks with MQM chief Altaf Hussain and his view point on the whole situation. The opposition's move to get in touch with the MQM to form some kind of political understanding also came under discussion. REFERENCE: President, PM discuss Karachi situation DAWN WIRE SERVICE Week Ending: 01 August 1998 Issue : 04/30 http://www.lib.virginia.edu/area-studies/SouthAsia/SAserials/Dawn/1998/01Aug98.html#pres
ISLAMABAD, Dec. 8: Federal defence secretary, Lt-Gen (retd) Chaudhry Iftikhar Ali Khan, has said that after the "removal of the 8th Amendment" the Army was taking orders from the prime minister and not the president. "After the removal of 8th Amendment (through 13th Amendment) all the powers are with the prime minister. The situation has changed and therefore the Army is not taking orders from the president but the prime minister", said the defence secretary. He said this in reply to a question why the Army did not side with the president during the government-chief justice tussle, despite the fact the president is the supreme commander of the armed forces. REFERENCE: Army taking orders from PM: Defence Secretary DAWN WIRE SERVICE Week Ending : 13 December 1997 Issue : 03/50 http://www.lib.virginia.edu/area-studies/SouthAsia/SAserials/Dawn/1997/13Dec97.html#army
ISLAMABAD, June 27: Hashimuz Zafar for whose release MQM had given a 48-hour ultimatum to the government at a press conference, held at the PID press centre on Tuesday, claimed that the MQM wanted to create a general desperation where the people of Karachi would be left with no other option but to support the demand of a separate province.”The present spate of terrorism will continue till March 1996 when the MQM has planned to put forth the demand of holding a referendum on the issue of a separate province,” he alleges. “If the government does not accept the demand for a referendum, the MQM would raise the issue at the international level and project it as a denial of the right of self-determination for creating a parity- between Karachi and Kashmir,” he said. Hashimuz Zafar in this regard referred to an open letter of Altaf Hussain of 1994 in which he had reportedly hinted that “agencies” wanted to create Sindhu Desh and greater Punjab and make Karachi a satellite state of a greater Punjab.
Obviously such a situation would not be acceptable to the people of Karachi and they would prefer independence rather than becoming a satellite state of a greater Punjab, he said. Given the geographic importance of Karachi, Western and regional powers would willingly throw their weight behind the demand and force a solution of both the Kashmir and Karachi issues, he added. Zafar accused a former minister and brother of a serving general Chaudhry Nisar Ali, for leaking details of the army operation in Sindh to Altaf Hussain. He also alleged that leaders of the ANP in Karachi had been supplying arms to the MQM. He also named some PML MNAs from Karachi as the financiers of the MQM. Zafar seemed well prepared for the press conference. He had notes with him and in a very systematic way he not only gave details of his crimes but also briefed a hostile press about the MQM’s operational mechanism, its alleged Indian connections, strategy and ultimate goals.He was very confident and conducted the press conference like a seasoned media manager. He also gave full details about eight terrorist groups and their area of operation at present active in Karachi.
Hashimuz Zafar, 25, and resident of house No C-17 Sir Syed Town, North Karachi, said he had joined the All Pakistan Muhajir Students Organisation at the age of 17 when he was studying in Government College of Technology. He confessed to involvement in numerous crimes, Including the murder of MQM Chairman Azim Ahmed Tariq. The organisational set-up of the MQM, which comprised units, sectors, zones and main centre at Nine-Zero, he said, was disbanded before the military operation. Now an underground information centre was maintaining a link with 22 different sectors. Some time Altaf Hussain, through Nadeem Nusrat, issues orders to the sectors-in-charge for carrying out different operations on mobile phones. Pagers were also being used to maintain a link and convey messages, he said. The sector in charge of Landhi, Amir Siddique, and the sector in charge of Malir, Qamar Ghalib, are currently manning the information centre,” he claimed. Giving details of various groups active at the sector level, he said the Khalid Taqi Butt group was active in the old city area, Liaquatabad, Lines Area, Society, Clifton, Defence and PIB Colony. The Farooq Dada group was operating in Pak Colony, Baldia Town, Nazimabad, and Gulbahar. The Faheem Commando group is active in Federal B. Area, North Karachi and Nazimabad.
Tahir Rafi, Arif Qureshi, Khuram and 10 other boys were the members of the Mubeen Thunta group controlling the Malir and Model Town areas. Then there were other groups, like those headed by Javed Khan, Javed Michael, Asfar, Khaliq Anjum, Kamal Ansari alias Par, and Muhammad Shahid. The MQM, he said, was regularly maintaining a hit list which was update from time to time. Names of the members of MQM Haqiqi political rivals, defectors and known police officers were on this list. Altaf Hussain, he said, personally checked this but list and gave approval. However, a source disclosed that the programme of press conferences would continue for quite some time as a number of MQM “activists” had been arrested in Islamabad during the last one month. One by one all of these would be presented before the press and electronic media. REFERENCE: MQM activist ‘unveils’ party’s plans Bureau Report Week Ending : 29 June, 1995 Issue : 01/25 DAWN WIRE SERVICE http://www.lib.virginia.edu/area-studies/SouthAsia/SAserials/Dawn/1995/29Je95.html