’نظامِ عدل، محدود نہیں رہے گا‘
بی بی سی اردو ڈاٹ کام، لاہور
Sunday, 19 april, 2009, 00:24 GMT 05:24 PST آخری وقت اشاعت
پوری بلوچ قوم، پاکستان، بلکہ صحیح کہا جائے تو پنجاب کے خلاف ہوچکی ہے: شہباز شریف
پاکستان کے صوبۂ پنجاب کے وزیر اعلی شہباز شریف نے کہا ہے کہ طالبان کا نافذ کردہ شرعی نظامِ عدل صرف سوات اور مالا کنڈ تک محدود نہیں رہے گا بلکہ پاکستان کے دوسرے حصوں تک پھیلے گا کیونکہ ان کےبقول باسٹھ برس کےدوران پاکستان میں عدل انصاف کا اپنا نظام غیر موثر ہوچکا ہے۔
یہ بات انہوں نے ایوان وزیر اعلی میں لاہور کے سینیئر صحافیوں، مدیروں اور کالم نویسوں سے غیر رسمی گفتگو کرتے ہوئے کہی۔
انہوں نے کہا کہ ’یہ بھی ایک حقیقت ہے کہ سوات کامعاہدہ دراصل عسکریت پسندوں کی طرف سے ہم پر مسلط کیا گیا ہے کیونکہ اس کے سوا حکومت کے پاس اور کوئی چارہ ہی نہیں تھا۔ اگر یہ معاہدہ نہ کیا جاتا تو سوات میں روزانہ سینکڑوں لوگ مرتے رہتے جس کے بہت بھیانک نتائج نکل سکتے تھے۔‘
وزیر اعلی پنجاب نے کہا کہ وہ ان لوگوں کی غلط فہمی دور کرنا چاہتے ہیں جو یہ سمجھتے ہیں کہ سوات کا نظامِ عدل ناکام ہوجائے گا۔ انہوں نے کہا ’طالبان کا یہ ماڈل نہ صرف کامیاب ہوگا بلکہ اس کے اثرات کو ملک کے دوسرے حصوں میں پہنچنے سے روکنا ناممکن نہیں تو بے انتہا مشکل ضرور ہوگا۔
یہ منافقت اب بند ہونی چاہیے، اگر ڈرون حملوں میں واقعی شدت پسند مارے جارہے ہیں تو عوام کو اعتماد لیا جائے اور اگر ایسا نہیں ہے تو پھربند کمروں میں بھی اسی حمایت بند کی جائے۔
ان کا کہنا تھا کہ اگرچہ طالبان نے افغانستان میں اپنے دور حکومت میں عورتوں کی تعلیم پر پابندی لگائی، تعلیمی ادارے تباہ کیے اور نیکر پہننے والے فٹ بالروں کو کوڑے مارے، کوئی ہسپتال قائم کیا نہ ترقیاتی کام ہوئے، لیکن ان کے تین کارناموں سے کوئی انکار نہیں کرسکتا۔ شہباز شریف نے تین کارنامے گنواتے ہوئے کہا کہ طالبان نے پشتون روایت کے برعکس اسلحہ سے پاک معاشرہ قائم کیا، جرائم تقریباً ختم کرڈالے اور پوست کی کاشت سو فی صد ختم کردی تھی۔ انہوں نے کہا کہ امکانی طور پر طالبان اسی ماڈل کو اب سوات اور ملاکنڈ میں دہرائیں گے اور امکانی طور پر یہ ماڈل پورے ملک میں پھیل سکتا ہے۔
شہباز شریف نے اس ایک نشست کے دوران اس بات کو مختلف انداز میں تین بار دہرایا۔
انہوں نے کہا کہ ایسا اس لیے ہوسکتا ہے کہ پاکستان کے باسٹھ برسوں میں عدل وانصاف کا نظام غیر موثر ہوچکا ہے۔ لوگ انصاف چاہتے ہیں اور اگر انہیں انصاف ملتا دکھائی دیا تو وہ طالبان ماڈل یا طرز حکومت کی طرف مائل ہوسکتے۔
وزیراعلی پنجاب نے کہا کہ ایسا ہونے سے روکنے کا واحد طریقہ یہ ہے کہ ملک میں امن عامہ کی صورتحال بہتر کی جائے لوگوں کو عدل و انصاف فراہم کیا جائے اور وسائل کی منصفانہ تقسیم کی جائے۔
انہوں نے کہا وزیر اعظم اور چاروں صوبائی وزرائے اعلی کے ایک اجلاس میں انٹیلیجنس بیورو کے ایک اعلی افسر نے بریفنگ میں بتایا ہے کہ نوے فی صد امریکی ڈرون حملے ناکام رہے اور ان میں بے گناہ لوگ مارے گئے۔صرف دس فی صد حملے ایسے تھے جن میں کسی ہائی ویلیوٹارگٹ کو بھی نشانہ بنایا گیا۔ شہباز شریف نے کہا ڈرون حملوں کی بند کمروں میں حمایت کی جاتی ہے اور عوام کے سامنے اس کی مخالفت ہوتی۔ انہوں نے کہا یہ ’منافقت اب بند ہونی چاہیے، اگر ڈرون حملوں میں واقعی شدت پسند مارے جارہے ہیں تو عوام کو اعتماد لیا جائے اور اگر ایسا نہیں ہے تو پھربند کمروں میں بھی اسی حمایت بند کی جائے‘۔
اب بلوچوں سے ان کے مطالبات پوچھنے کا وقت بھی گزر چکا ہے۔ اب تو ان کی منت سماجت کرکے انہیں منانا ہوگا اور ایک نئے عمرانی معاہدے پر بات کرنا ہوگی تب ہی وفاق بچ پائے گا۔
انہوں نے کہا کہ پاکستان میں جتنی غیر ملکی مداخلت اب ہورہی ہے اس کی اس سے پہلے مثال نہیں ملتی۔ ان کے بقول پاکستان کے انتہائی چھوٹے چھوٹے فیصلے تک بیرونی طاقتیں کررہی ہیں حتی کہ اگر باتھ روم جانا ہو تب بھی بیرونی طاقتوں سے اجازت درکار ہوتی ہے۔
شہباز شریف نے کہا وہ مسلم لیگ نون کے صدر ہیں اور چاروں صوبوں سے ان کے پارٹی عہدیدار انہیں حالات سے باخبر رکھتے ہیں اور وہ جانتے ہیں کہ صوبہ سرحد، قبائلی علاقوں اور بلوچستان کی صورتحال تشویشناک ہوچکی ہے۔
انہوں نے کہا کہ وزیر اعظم کو سینٹرل ورکنگ کمیٹی کے اجلاس میں اور خود انہیں بلوچستان کے پارٹی عہدیدار کہتے ہیں کہ جلد کچھ نہ کیا گیا تو بلوچستان جانے کے لیے ویزے کی ضرورت پڑے گی۔
شہباز شریف نے کہا یہ محض قبائلی سرداروں کی بات نہیں ہے بلکہ پوری بلوچ قوم، پاکستان، بلکہ صحیح کہا جائے تو پنجاب کے خلاف ہوچکی ہے۔
پنجاب کے وزیراعلی کاکہنا تھا کہ ان کے خیال میں اب بلوچوں سے ان کے مطالبات پوچھنے کا وقت بھی گزر چکا ہے۔ اب تو ان کی منت سماجت کرکے انہیں منانا ہوگا اور ایک نئے عمرانی معاہدے پر بات کرنا ہوگی تب ہی وفاق بچ پائے گا۔ انہوں نے کہا بلوچستان میں پہلے ہی محرومی اور ناانصافی کے احساسات پائے جاتے تھے اور اکبر بگٹی کا قتل تابوت میں آخری کیل ثابت ہوا ہے۔
انہوں نے کہ وہ طلال بگٹی کی بہت عزت کرتے ہیں اور وہ پنجاب بھی آئے لیکن حقیقت یہ ہے کہ بلوچ قوم کے زیادہ تر لوگ براہمداغ بگٹی کے ساتھ ہیں جو علیحدگی کی بات کرتے ہیں اور افغانستان میں رہتے ہیں۔
شہباز شریف نے کہا کہ بلوچستان کے مسئلے کے حل کے لیے فوری طور پر ایک آل پارٹیز کانفرنس بلائی جائے اور یہ اے پی سی اگر وزیر اعظم بلائیں تو زیادہ اچھی اور مؤثر بات ہوگی۔
شہباز شریف نے الزام لگایا کہ ’پاکستان میں حالات بگاڑنے میں بھارت کا بڑا ہاتھ ہے لیکن ہم ثبوت ہونے کےباوجود اس کے خلاف بات نہیں کرسکتے کیونکہ اس وقت جس کی لاٹھی اس کی بھینس والا معاملہ ہے اور ان دنوں ان (بھارت) کی چل رہی ہے۔‘
DR. Israr Ahmad www.tanzeem.org/ [A Former Member of Deviant Jamat-e-Islami of Mawdudi]
During 2005/2006 'Renowned' Pakistani Islamic Scholar Dr. Israr Ahmed [Formerly a Member of Jamat-e-Islami and lateron a righthand man of Deraconian General Ziaul Haq, whom he helped in enforcing several Draconian Law in the country in the name of Islam actually exploited Islam for selfish ends] while answering the Seasoned journalist, Iftikhar Ahmed, on his Geo TV show, “Jawab Deyh [a parody of BBC's Hard Talk], Dr Israr said, "we would have to swallow the bitter pill of declaring Non-Muslim [Zimmis - A detailed note Jizya by a Saudi Scholar is at the end of this post] as second class citizens in Pakistan after making Pakistan a Caliphate. Thats what the problem with the Pakistani Mullahs who live in Utopian World and constantly have WET DREAMS of Islamic Caliphate without bothering about the State of Muslims around the world, Muslims are nowadays 3rd Class Citizens even in their own Muslim Countries what to talk of West and Mullahs are having dream of Islamic Caliphate without bothering about the Course of History and without learning leassons from the History. I wonder what took Dr. Israr [a so-called Islamic Scholar] to resign from the Hand-Picked Majlis-e-Shoora of General Ziaul Haq as Dr. Israr remained part and parcel of dreadful and beastly acts of General Ziaul Haq not only that Dr. Israr was the one who advised General Zia for enforcing dreaded Islamic Laws to hound the weaker sections of society and in this scheme other Deobandi/Barelvi Mullahs like Mullah Yusuf Binnori, Mufti Shafi Usmani, Peer Karam Shah and Mawdudi were also involved.
On 30th August 2005 in the 2nd part of the same program on GEO TV this so-called Islamic Scholar justified the "Suicide Attacks" without even bothering to at least look into the Ultimate Decision of Quran and Hadith against such "forbidden [Haram], Unlawful, Inhuman and Beastly Acts. Yet such raving lunatics are allowed to open their mouths on Electronic Media to further deviate the Muslims. After the Quranic Verses and Hadiths please read complete background of this raving lunatic which we know as Greatest Islamic Scholar i.e. Dr Israr Ahmed and his equally lunatic mentor Mawdudi [Founder of Deviant Jamat-e-Islami]
QURAN AND HADITH regarding FORBIDDEN SUICIDE ATTACKS:
“And do not kill yourselves. Surely, Allaah is Most Merciful to you. And whoever commits that through aggression and injustice, we shall cast him into the fire, and that is easy for Allaah.” (An-Nisaa 4:29-30).
On the authority of Sahl Ibn Sa‘d As-Saa‘idee ra that:
The Prophet saws looked at a man who was fighting the unbelievers and he was of the wealthy Muslims who are in the least in need of idolators. The Prophet saws said: ‘Who ever wishes to know a man among the dwellers of Hell-fire should look at this man.’ So, a man followed him. The man kept on fighting until he was injured. He could not wait to die of that wound so he took the tip of his sword, put it in between his breasts and press his body against it until it pierced through his shoulders. Then, the Prophet saws said: “A man may be doing what people might perceive as a deed of people of Paradise while he is indeed, among the dwellers of Hell. And he may be doing what will seem in people’s perception a deed of dwellers of Hell, while in actual sense, he is among the dwellers of Paradise. Verily, all deeds are judged according to its ending.” [BUKHARI]
“It is sacred for every Muslim, the life, property and honour of every Muslim.” (Muslim).
‘If two Muslims were to face each other with their words; the killer and the killed would be in Hell.’ He (Aboo Bakrah) said: This is the killer, what about the killed? He said: “Because he was eager to kill his companion.” (Bukhari and Muslim).
“He who strangles himself to death, shall keep on strangling himself in the Hell and He who stabs himself to death shall keep on stabbing himself in Hell .” [Bukhari).
“There was among those who were before you, a man who had a wound. The man could not bear the pain of that wound, so he took a knife and cut his hand with it and as a result, bled to death. Allaah then said: “May slave has caused death on himself hurriedly and for this, I have made Paradise forbidden for him.” (Bukhari).
"Indeed, whoever (intentionally) kills himself, then certainly he will be punished in the Fire of Hell, wherein he shall dwell forever." [Bukhari].
[((Indeed, whoever (intentionally) kills himself, then certainly he will be punished in the Fire of Hell, wherein he shall dwell forever)), [Bukhari and Muslim].
Deviant Dr Israr Ahmad on Deviant Khomeini and his Deviant Revolution!
The Process of an Islamic Revolution The Iranian Experience Dr. Israr Ahmad
First published in "The Qur'ânic Horizons" April-June , 1998
"The Iranian Revolution is one of the major socio-political upheavals in recent history. The transformation of the state from a secular and nationalist monarchy to a theocracy has led, over the years, to far-reaching effects not only on the balance of power in the region but also on the struggle for Islamic revival in the Muslim world. The latter is exemplified by the fact that the term "Islamic Revolution" itself came into vogue as a result of the enthusiasm and excitement generated by the change in Iran. With reference to our ongoing discussion of the methodology for the establishment of the Islamic Public Order, we are going to deal in the present article with the following three issues:
Can the Iranian Revolution be called a true revolution?
Is it correct to describe the Iranian Revolution as a genuinely Islamic one? and
Can this Revolution be adopted as a model in other Muslim countries, especially in Pakistan?
The significance of these questions is two-fold. First, during the years following the revolution, our Iranian brethren as well as the Western media emphatically presented the upheaval in Iran as an Islamic Revolution. The widespread use and subsequent acceptance of this label implied that if there was anything worthy or desirable in the Iranian Revolution then it would be Islam that would receive the credit; similarly, if there was anything wrong or corrupt in it then this would inevitably tarnish Islam’s image. Therefore, an analysis of the Iranian Revolution — for the purpose of deciding as to whether or not this was truly Islamic — has tremendous importance.
Secondly, a number of Muslim intellectuals floated the idea in the early 1980’s that the change in Iran represents the most perfect model of an Islamic Revolution. They propounded that all Islamic activist groups should embrace the Iranian example as an ideal vis-à-vis their struggle to establish Islam as a socio-political order in their respective countries.
These intellectuals went even to the extent of suggesting that Ayatollah Khomeini should be accepted as the leader and guide of the entire Muslim Ummah. We believe that this was an overly enthusiastic and impulsive approach. Since the revolutionary fervor generated by various Islamic revivalist parties could not find its proper outlet due to their lack of success, and since the Iranian Revolution was the only successful political change in modern times where religion had triumphed over secularism, these Islamic thinkers erroneously concluded that success for Islamic groups is possible only through emulating the Iranian example. In their zeal, however, they failed to take into account the numerous and substantial differences between the conditions existing in the pre-Revolution Iran and those prevailing in the rest of the Muslim world. As a consequence of these differences, all attempts to export the Iranian Revolution — i.e., re-enacting as such the Iranian experience in other Muslim countries — failed to meet with any success. It is for this reason as well that we need to study the Iranian Revolution in detail.
The first point that needs to be understood is this:
As far as the methodology is concerned, the one revolution that must be taken as the ultimate source of guidance by all Muslims is the archetypal Islamic Revolution brought about by Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) and his devoted Companions (RAA) in the 7th century Arabia. No other revolution, irrespective of how marvelous or remarkable, can ever take the place of this Prophetic model as a source of guidance. Having said that, however, we must acknowledge the extraordinary sacrifices offered by the Iranian people in their struggle against the repressive regime of Reza Shah Pahlavi. We should also cherish the outstanding example set by the Iranians as a source of inspiration for all those who wish to bring about fundamental and positive changes in their respective societies. Moreover, despite the fact that the Iranian Revolution took place under conditions that were quite unique and it cannot, therefore, be used as a model in each and every Muslim society, the fact must be recognized that there was, indeed, one aspect of this Revolution that deserves to be carefully incorporated in the methodology of contemporary movements for Iqamah Al-Deen"
He goes on to say concerning the situation in Pakistan:
"Another related issue that must not be overlooked is that, under the conditions prevailing in Pakistan, a reconciliation between Shi‘ah and Sunni Muslims is indispensable for any fruitful and meaningful effort in connection with Iqamah Al-Deen. We firmly believe that the establishment of a true Islamic state in Pakistan is impossible unless Shi‘ah and Sunni Muslims become unanimous in their demand for the Islamic Order and cooperate with each other in this struggle. It is not possible, of course, to eliminate the numerous and centuries-old disagreements between them — whether these are related to beliefs, historical events, or jurisprudence — but Shi‘ah and Sunni Muslims can still pool their resources and work together for a cause that transcends these differences. We believe that the only practicable formula for a Shi‘ah-Sunni reconciliation is the one adopted by Iran."
This is what they say about their leader a man who has hundreds of tapes spread around the world and who has taken many universities and colleges by storm:
"Dr. Israr Ahmad, the second son of a government servant, was born on April 26, 1932 in Hisar (a district of East Punjab, now a part of Haryana) in India. He graduated from King Edward Medical College (Lahore) in 1954 and later received his masters in Islamic Studies from the University of Karachi in 1965. He came under the influence of Allama Iqbal and Maulana Abul A`la Maududi as a young student, worked briefly for Muslim Student's Federation in the Independence Movement and, following the creation of Pakistan in 1947, for the Islami Jami`yat-e-Talaba and then for the Jama`at-e-Islami. Dr. Israr Ahmad resigned from the Jama`at in April 1957 because of its involvement in the electoral politics, which he believed was irreconcilable with the revolutionary methodology adopted by the Jama'at in the pre-1947 period"....
..."In the context of Qur'anic exegesis and understanding, Dr. Israr Ahmad is a firm traditionalist of the genre of Maulana Mehmood Hassan Deobandi and Allama Shabeer Ahmad Usmani; yet he presents Qur'anic teachings in a scientific and enlightened way"...
..."Dr. Israr Ahmad believes in a dynamic and revolutionary conception of Islam, and in this regard he is a disciple of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad and Maulana Sayyid Abul A`la Maududi"...
And about their Hizb (party) they have as an integral aspect of their mission statement:
"Any male or female Muslim (belonging to any school of the Ahl Al-Sunnah) can become a member of Tanzeem-e-Islami by giving a pledge (or Baiy`ah) of obedience — within the limits set by the Shari`ah — to the Ameer of Tanzeem-e-Islami, a position currently held by its founder, Dr. Israr Ahmad. As soon as a Muslim takes the conscious decision to live his life in accordance with the commands of Almighty Allah (SWT), he may join Tanzeem-e-Islami; the stages of learning, training, and purifying will occur subsequently. However, he must promise, on the occasion of becoming a member, that he will give up all that is disliked by Almighty Allah (SWT) and that he will try his utmost in fulfilling the obligations he owes as a Muslim"...
They remove all doubt with this statement:
"...He considers Maulana Maududi to be his teacher and mentor and publicly admits, without hesitation, that he was able to understand the comprehensive and holistic concept of Islamic obligations from the writings of Maulana Maududi. All this and more is on record, in the form of Dr. Israr Ahmed's various writings and his numerous speeches that are available in the form of audio/video tapes"...
And last but not least, from our elder Shaikh Rabee ibn Haadee al-Madkhalee regarding some of Mawdoodee's concepts:
..."so hopefully it will have become clear to the reader that these conclusions are based upon intellectual and political analogies and deductions. They are not based upon proofs from the Qur'aan and the Prophetic Sunnah, and this is an idea requiring Divine Revelation, not a place for intellectual and political discoveries"...
Taken from 'Methodology of the Prophets in Calling to Allaah That is the Way of Wisdom and Intelligence'*
*Something that it is clear that neither Maududi or Israar Ahmad had/have!
Mullahs like Dr. Israr Ahmed are itching to establish the so-called Islamic Caliphate to enforce their brand of Islam [which as per him would turn Non-Muslim Citizens into a second class citizens] completely forgetting the spirit and the message within the Quran/Hadiths regarding Zimmis [Non-Muslim Citizens]. Calling a tradition of Holy Prophet Mohammad [PBUH] A BITTER PILL is itself a blasphmey which Dr. Israr committed on GEO TV. These Mullahs have myopic vision rather tunnel vision to term this Jizya and Zimmi a bitter pill. Islamic Caliphate or no Islamic Caliphate, Muslims would have to follow the teachings of Quran and Hadith regarding the fair and just treatment with the Non-Muslim Citizens of Pakistan.
Dr Israr Ahmad was itching to impose Jizya on Non-Muslims whereas he and his party was ousted from an Islamic Country i.e. UAE for creating Anarchy in the name of Islam. The UAE Government did a good deed by doing this:
UAE deports Pakistanis for Dars-e-Qur’aan By Umar Cheema Friday, May 11, 2007, Rabi-us-sani 23, 1428 A.H. http://thenews.jang.com.pk/daily_detail.asp?id=55384
ISLAMABAD: The United Arab Emirates (UAE) has deported dozens of the disciples of noted scholar Dr Israr Ahmad for holding Dars-e-Qur’aan sessions in Dubai, fearing the spread of Talibanisation in the country. The UAE government has also set a deadline for several other Pakistani families to close their businesses and leave the country after it found them involved in religious activities. The Pakistan’s consulate in Dubai is reluctant to share details with the media on the subject. However, the Foreign Office spokeswoman confirmed the deportations.
“They violated the laws,” FO spokeswoman Tasnim Aslam told The News but added that she had no knowledge of the exact numbers of the deportees. According to her account, private religious congregations are not allowed there. Religious gatherings could not be held in Dubai except for the Friday sermon, said a source, adding that the Dars-e-Qur’aan congregation was a private function.
The News has learnt that the Dubai police arrested around 70 Pakistanis for attending the congregation. The majority of them are believed to be the disciples of Dr Israr Ahmad. About 30 of them have been deported, while the rest have been directed to wind up their businesses and leave the country by the end of July, Bakhtiyar Khilji, chief administrator of Tanzeem-e-Islami - the party headed by Dr Israr Ahmad - told The News. Khilji feared that this “crackdown” by the UAE government might lead to an en masse deportation of Dr Israr’s followers. “The UAE government happens to be very sensitive to such congregations. The police had arrested the people whenever suspicion of their participants to the Dars-e-Qur’aan congregation arose.”
When this correspondent contacted Pakistan consulate in Dubai, Dr Zafar Iqbal, press consular, showed reluctance to share the details, saying it could trigger a controversy. Waseem Ahmad, welfare attache at the consulate, who was directly involved in this issue, also refused to speak on the subject.
Dr Israr preach something else on Private TV Channels, preach entirely different Islam in private gathering not only that but he miserably failed to even answer the question straightforwardly rather he dodges the question and the same Dr Israr preach entriely another Islam all around the world particularly in India, watch him in his private gathering in Pakistan:
Masla Khilafat - Dr. Israr Ahmad 1 of 14 - Urdu
Masla Khilafat - Dr. Israr Ahmad 2 of 14 - Urdu
Masla Khilafat - Dr. Israr Ahmad 3 of 14 - Urdu
Masla Khilafat - Dr. Israr Ahmad 4 of 14 - Urdu
Masla Khilafat - Dr. Israr Ahmad 5 of 14 - Urdu
Masla Khilafat - Dr. Israr Ahmad 6 of 14 - Urdu
Masla Khilafat - Dr. Israr Ahmad 7 of 14 - Urdu
Masla Khilafat - Dr. Israr Ahmad 8 of 14 - Urdu
Masla Khilafat - Dr. Israr Ahmad 9 of 14 - Urdu
Masla Khilafat - Dr. Israr Ahmad 10 of 14 - Urdu
Masla Khilafat - Dr. Israr Ahmad 11 of 14 - Urdu
Masla Khilafat - Dr. Israr Ahmad 12 of 14 - Urdu
Masla Khilafat - Dr. Israr Ahmad 13 of 14 - Urdu
Masla Khilafat - Dr. Israr Ahmad 14 of 14 - Urdu
Jizya in Islam Dr. Monqiz As-Saqqar
Ph.D in Christian Doctrines and Scriptures, Faculty of Usul al-Din, Umm al-Qura University, Saudi Arabia. Translated by Hayam Elisawy. Edited by Mohd Elfie Nieshaem Juferi Last Updated: 13th December 2004
The Qur’anic commandment of collecting the Jizya from the People of the Book is equivocal and confusing for some. The commandment is clearly stated in the
"Fight those who believe not in Allah nor the Last Day, nor hold that forbidden which has been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger, nor acknowledge the Religion of Truth, form among the People of the Book until they pay the Jizya with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued."
Some have thus erroneously viewed this Qur'anic commandment as a form of injustice, oppression and humiliation of nations and peoples who came under Islamic rule. Undoubtedly those to hold to this view have neglected the great privileges attributed to the rights of those who are imposed the jizya upon in Islam. Rather, these persons believe that Islam is similar to other ruling regimes that preceded and succeeded it. Islam is a unique regime as regards the matter at hand or any other issues. Islam is totally detached from the injustice and oppression as was the norm of how the People of Jizya used to be commonly treated, as it will become obvious in the following impartial and objective scientific research.
Jizya from the Linguistic Perspective "Jizya" is derived from the root "Jaza" or "compensate". Arabs usually say the phrase "Jaza, yajzi" which means "compensate" or 'reward" if a person rewards another for the service rendered by the latter. "Jizya" is a derived term in the form of "ficla" from "Mujazã" which is the noun "compensation", meaning "a sum of money given in return for protection". Ibn Al-Mutaraz said: "It is derived from "’idjzã" or "substitute" or "sufficiency" because it suffices as a substitute for the "dhimmi's embracement of Islam"
Jizya in Pre-Islamic Times
Islam was not the first religion to pre-ordain the Jizya and Muslims were not the first nation to levy the Jizya unto the peoples subdued by them. Victorious nations throughout history have persisted in levying the Jizya on their conquered subjects. Examples of such an action are abundant in human history.
This is reflected in the New Testament when Christ(P) told Simon the following:
"What do you think Simon? From whom do the kings of the earth collect duty and taxes – from their own sons or from others?" "From others" Peter answered. "Then the sons are exempt" Jesus said to him." (Matthew 17:24-25).
When the prophets, peace be upon them, conquered certain kingdoms with the will and victory of Allah, they levied the jizya upon the conquered peoples. They had in fact also enslaved the conquered peoples as was done by Joshua on the people of Canaan when he conquered them:
"They did not dislodge the Canaanites dwelling on Gezer; to this day the Canaanites live among the people of Ephraim but are required to pay Jizya." (Joshua 16:10).
Thus Joshua had both enslaved and levied Jizya on the people of Canaan.
Christianity did not abrogate any of the laws of Judaism. Christ(P) did not come to abolish the Law or the Prophets, rather, he came to fulfill them (Matthew 5:17). Christ(P) even commanded his followers to pay the Jizya to the Romans and he himself had expediently paid it. He told Simon:
"Go to the lake and throw your line. Take the first fish you catch; open its mouth and you will find a four-drachma coin. Take it and give it to them for my tax and yours." (Matthew 17:24-27)
When asked by Jews (as per the New Testament) about his opinion as regards the payment of the Jizya, he acknowledged Caesar's right to take it
"They sent their disciples to him along with the Herodians. "Teacher," they said, "we know you are a man of integrity and that you teach the way of God in accordance with the truth. You are not swayed by men, because you pay no attention to who they are. Tell us then, what is your opinion? Is it right to pay taxes to Caesar or not?" But Jesus, knowing their evil intent, said,"You hypocrites, why are you trying to trap me? Show me the coin used for paying the tax."
They brought him a denarius, and he asked them, “Whose portrait is this? And whose inscription?” "Caesar's," they replied. Then he said to them, "Give to Caesar what is Caesar's, and to God what is God's." (Matthew 22:16-21).
Christ(P) took no offense in sitting and loving tax-collectors who collected Jizya and delivered it to the Romans (See Matthew 11/19). Christ(P) had in fact elected Matthew the tax-collector to be one of his twelve disciples (see Matthew 9:9).
The New Testament considers the payment of Jizya to the ruler as a legislative right. It is clad in holiness and is rendered as a religious matter. It says:
"Everyone must submit himself to the governing authorities, for there is no authority except that which God has established. The authorities that exist have been established by God. Consequently, he who rebels against the authority is rebelling against what God has instituted, and those who do so will bring judgment on themselves. For rulers hold no terror for those who do right, but for those who do wrong. Do you want to be free from fear of the one in authority?
Then do what is right and he will commend you. For he is God’s servant to do you good. But if you do wrong, be afraid, for he does not bear the sword for nothing. He Is God’s servant, an agent of wrath to bring punishment on the wrongdoer. Therefore, it is necessary to submit to the authorities, not only because of possible punishment but also because of conscience. This is also why you pay taxes, for the authorities are God’s servants, who give their full time to governing. Give everyone what you owe him if you owe taxes, pay taxes; if revenue, then revenue; if respect, then respect; if honor, then honor." (Romans 13:1-7).
Jizya in Islam
Islam did not halt the societal norms and human practices which precedes its advent. Rather, Islam sets a higher standard above the misgivings of others. Islam lends its own civilized features to the nations that come under its rule.by elevating the Jizya to become not merely a poll-tax paid by the conquered to the victorious but as a binding covenant made between the Muslim nation and the peoples who eventually came under Islamic rule. The jizya became a contract or an agreement between two parties, duly guarded and blessed by Allah's Commandments and ordinances represented in pledges and the respect and abidance by covenants. The contract is sealed and authenticated by the Prophet’s wrath, peace and blessings upon him, to those who violate such an agreement. This is manifested in the expression "the People of the Dhimma" (or Covenant), this dhimma which may never be violated and which must be duly fulfilled and guarded by virtue of the commandment given by the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him.
Allah(T) preordained that Jizya be taken from fighters exclusively as the verse obviously states:
"Fight those who believe not in Allah nor the Last Day, nor hold that forbidden which has been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger, nor acknowledge the Religion of Truth, form among the People of the Book until they pay the Jizya with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued."
"Our scholars said: The Qur'an proves that Jezya is taken from fighters...This is ijma’ (consensus) by scholars that jizya is levied only on adult, free men who are qualified to go to war not on women or children or slaves or mad people or defeated people or senile or the elderly."
‘Umar(R) wrote to his army generals: “Never levy the tax (Jizya) on women or little children and never levy the tax except on men who shave their beards” which means adults who started to have beards and shave them.
The sum of jizya was never large to the extent that the men were unable to pay. Rather, it was always available and reasonable. During the reign of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, jizya never exceeded one dinar annually and it never exceeded four dinars under the Umayyad rule.
When the Prophet(P) sent Mu’az to Yemen, he took one dinar as jizya from every adult man. Mu’az says:
"The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, sent me to Yemen, he commanded me to take a male or female calf for every thirty cows and a cow for every forty cows (this is the Zakat levied on Muslims) and one dinar from every adult man or the equivalent thereof in the form of clothes (jizya)"
In the reign of ‘Umar Ibn Al-Khattãb – May Allah be pleased with him- he levied jizya on gold-sellers in the amount of four dinars and on paper-sellers in the amount of forty dirhams in addition to the wealth of Muslims and a three-day hospitability.
1) Warning against injustice toward the People of Dhimma Allah(T) in His Book and the Prophet(P) in his hadith preordain benevolence and good deeds to the People of Jizya. Shari`a staunchly prohibits injustice and oppression toward them. The Holy Qur’ãn urges Muslims to be good and just with peaceful People of the Book who do not aggress Muslims:
"Allah forbids you not, with regard to those who fight you not for (your) Faith nor drive you out of your homes, from dealing kindly and justly with them: for Allah loves those who are just." Benevolence and kindness are the most sublime types of dealing. Thus Allah preordains this degree of good treatment with the parents. This is clearly and patently clarified and expressed by the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him in another hadith: "Kindness is good morals and ethics."
The Prophet(P) also says warning against being unjust to the People of Dhimma or impairing their rights:
"The one who wrongs a covenanter or impairs his right or overworks him or forcibly takes something from him, I will be his prosecutor on the Day of Judgment". He also says: "The one who kills a covenanter will never smell the scent of heaven and its scent is found at the distance of forty years."
When some Muslims mistreated the People of Jizya, the stance of knowing scholars was strict. Hesham ibn Hakim ibn Hizam once passed by a group of Nabatcans in the Levant who were made to be staying in the sun. He said: What’s wrong with these people? They said: They are imprisoned because they did not pay the jizya. Hesham said: "I witness that I have heard the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him saying: "Allah tortures those who torture people in this lifetime." He said: "And their ruler at the time was ‘Umair Ibn Sa’d on Palestine, so he went to him and passed his orders so they were discharged."
As for the commandment of subdue set out in the Qur’anic verse "and feel themselves subdued", it is a meaning that could never contradict the sayings of the Prophet(P) which preordain kindness, justice, prohibition of injustice and oppression. [That] is how the scholars of Islam understood it. Al-Shaf’i interpreted this phrase as preordaining that the rules and regulations of Islam apply to them or to their public. Jizya is a sign of a nation subdued and conquered due to the general properties of the conquering nation.
The successor, ‘Ikrima the servant of Ibn ‘Abbas interpreted this as the image of payment of Jizya to Muslims. He said: "They should be standing up while giving it while the takers should be sitting down”. As the giving hand has always been the upper hand, so it should be the upper, they were required to make the jizya payer feel their superiority over him and not his superiority over them. Al-Qurtubi says in his interpretation:
"So the hand of an almsgiver is made the upper hand while the hand of the jizya giver is the lower hand while the hand of the jizya taker is the upper."
2) Certain forms of Dhimma Treaties and Covenants in the Islamic State Islam gave unique guarantees to the People of Dhimma that were and will never by encountered by humanity.
In return for very few dirhams to be paid by men who are able to go to war and fight, they enjoy living in security and absolute protection by Muslims in addition to the security of their churches and faith.
This was manifest in the councils given by Caliphs to their army leaders as asserted by the forms and wording of agreements duly signed by Muslims with jizya payers. We would like to draw the reader’s attention to contemplate the guarantees given by Muslims and the sum of money paid by the People of Jizya in return.
We will start by the historians’ accounts on the covenants of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, with the People of Jizya. In the onset we will set forth the account of Ibn Sa’d in his “Tabaqaat” from the covenant of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, to Rabica Al-Hadrami, where he says:
"The Messenger of Allah wrote to Rabica Ibn Zi Marhab Al-Hadrami, his brothers and uncles that they are entitled to their property, palm trees, slaves, wells, trees, water, waterwheels and plants in Hadhramaut, and that the fruit and nabq of each mortgaged land shall be included in the sum of mortgage due to him.
All good that is in their fruit they will never be questioned for and Allah and His Messenger are free from it. The jamaca of Muslims must defend the people of zi Murhab and their land must never be violated together with their property, lives and zafer the orchard of the king, which used to flow to the people of Qays and Allah is the Protector. Executed by Mucawya."
The phrase "The jamaca of Muslims must defend the people of zi Murhab" comprises a significant implication viz Muslims would sacrifice their lives for those who come under their protection and covenant. This is the dhimma of Allah Almighty and the dhimma of His Messenger, peace and blessings be upon him, Al-Qarafi says:
"An agreement which is duly maintained by lives and property is verily a magnificent one." The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, wrote a letter of dhimma and covenant to the Christian people of Najraan which is conveyed to us by Ibn Sa'ad in his Tabaqaat:
"The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, wrote to the bishop of the sons of Al-Harith Ibn Ka’b and the bishops, clergymen, adherents and priests of Najraan, telling them that they are entitled to whatever property in their possession notwithstanding its being large or small including their synagogues, prayers, priests as well as the protection of Allah and His Messenger, no bishop may be removed from his bishopric, no priest will be denied his priesthood and no clergyman will be denied his ministry. Nothing of their rights may be breached or abolished and neither their authority nor any of their status-quo will be violated so long as they give sincere advice and put their conditions to order without being unjust or being wronged. This was executed by Al-Mughira."
The companions of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, applied what they learnt from their magnificent Messenger and they abided by the principles and civilized features of Islam vis-à-vis the people of jizya. Historians gave accounts of a number of covenants granted by Muslims to the people of dhimma. For example the 'Omarian covenant given by 'Omar to the people of Aelia. It reads as follows:
"In the Name of Allah, the Most Compassionate and Most Gracious. This is the covenant of security granted by the servant of Allah, 'Omar the Commander of the Faithful, to the people of Aelia. He, hereby, guarantees the security of their persons and property, their churches and crosses, the little and the great and all adherents of the Christian religion. It is prohibited that their churches be inhibited or demolished or diminished as regards the church itself or its domain. Neither may their cross be impaired or any of their property in any manner.
They should not be coerced to abandon their faith and no one of them may be harmed. No Jews are permitted to live with them in Aelia. Upon the people of Aelia falls the obligation to pay the jizya, as is the case with the people of Mada'in, as well as evict from their midst the Byzantine. Whoever of these who leaves Aelia will be granted security of person and property until he reaches his destination. Whoever decides to stay in Aelia will also be granted same, and share with the people of Aelia in their rights and the jizya. The same applies to the people of Aelia as well as to any other person. Those who would like to march with the Byzantines may go and those who would like to return to their people will not be bound to pay anything until they reap their harvest.
Allah attests to the content of this treaty, and so do His Prophet, his successors and the believers.
This is witnessed by Khalid Ibn Al-Walid, 'Amr Ibn Al-'Aas, Abdul-Rahman Ibn 'Awf and Mu'awiyah Ibn Abi Sufian. Executed in the year 15 Hijri."
'Umar wrote a similar treaty to the people of Al-Lid.
When Khalid Ibn Al-Walid conquered Damascus, he wrote a similar treaty to its people.
"In the Name of Allah, the Most Compassionate and Most Gracious. This is the covenant granted by Khalid Ibn Al-Walid to the people of Damascus if he enters it. They will be secure regarding their lives, property and churches. The fence of the city may not be demolished and no house owned by them may be dispossessed or inhibited. This is the covenant of Allah and the dhimma of His Messenger, peace and blessings be upon him, the Caliphs and the believers. They are to be well-treated conditional upon their payment of jizya."
'Abada Ibn Al-Samit records these civilized features of jizya in Islam when depicting the Islamic stance vis-à-vis Al-Muqawqas, the king of the Copts:
"Either to embrace Islam...if you and your companions accept this, you'll have attained the happiness of both this life and the after-life and we will not fight you and will never injure you or aggress you. However if you refuse, you have to pay jizya. Pay us the jizya and we will agree on a sum satisfactory to both of us to be collected every year so long as we and you remain. Thus we will defend you and fight your enemies or those who violate your lands, lives and property and we will undertake this duty so long as you are in our dhimma and so long as a covenant is binding on us towards you..."
Again it is noticeable that the Muslim sacrifices his life to protect the people of jizya and their property "We will defend you…"
3) Muslims' Keenness on Honoring the Dhimma Agreement The Caliphs were afraid lest the Muslims impair the rights of the People of Dhimma. Therefore they used to regularly inspect how the jizya was obtained. Al-Tabari gives an account of this in his history in the context of 'Umar's speech with a delegation from a country of dhimma, " 'Umar said to the delegation: Do Muslims mistreat you or impair your rights? They said: We never knew but honor and good treatment."
When he received the collected taxes he asked about the source lest it be oppression and coercion. It was said that he, may Allah be pleased with him, "received a large amount of money, I reckon he said it is of the jizya and said: "I am afraid you might have forced people into paying?" They said: "No, by Allah, we only took it satisfactorily and with no grudge." He said: "With neither whip nor lash?" They said: "Yes." He said: "Praise be to Allah who prevented such acts from taking place at my hand and during my rule."
When he was about to pass away he never missed to advise Muslims to protect and care for the people of dhimma. He said: "I hereby advise the Caliph to succeed me to be good to the people of dhimma and to honor their covenant and to fight for them and not to overwork them."
Ali, may Allah be pleased with him, wrote to his tax officials saying. "If you reached them never sell them a garment either in winter time or in summer time nor sell them food to eat or an animal to work on and never lash any of them even once for a dirham and never make any of them get to his feet to ask for a dirham. Never sell any of them anything of the taxes. Allah commanded us to take from them jizya with kindness. If you disobey me, the punishment of Allah will befall you and not me and if otherwise is reported to me, you will be dismissed from office."
Al-Walid Ibn Yazid evicted the Christians of Cyprus out of his fear that they might help the Romans. But Yazid Ibn Al-Walid brought them back. Isma'il Ibn 'ayash says regarding the deed of Al-Walid: "Muslims found this action horrible and Jurisprudents found it terrible. When Yazid Ibn Al-Walid succeeded his father, he reinstated them. Muslims approved of such an act and they found it just.
When Al-Walid Ibn Abdel-Malek forcibly took over the Church of John from the Christians and annexed it to the masjid, Muslims viewed this as usurpation. When Omar Ibn Abdul-‘Aziz succeeded him the Christians filed a complaint to him. So he wrote to his tax-collector ordering him to return the additional parts annexed to the masjid to them.
4) Muslim Jurisprudents on the Security and Acknowledgment of the Rights of the People of Dhimma. The Islamic rule was a pioneer in protecting the rights of the people of dhimma. This is reflected in the maintenance of their rituals and churches. The shari'a law provides for the following: "The second issue: The rights due to them by us, namely to maintain their residence in our countries except the Arab Peninsula namely Hijaz and Yemen; to secure their lives and property and not to impair their churches, wine and pigs so long as they do not display the same."
Al-Tahawi accounts for Muslims' consensus on the freedom of the people of dhimma to eat pork and drink wine or the like which is permitted by their religion. He says:
"They unanimously agreed that the Imam, ruler, may not prevent the people of dhimma from drinking wine, eating pork or residing in the houses which they took by consent where such people are in a non-Islamic country (in countries where they form a majority)" The Shari'a maintains the life and property of the dhimmi. It even stipulates the life penalty for the murderer of a dhimmi. A Muslim was sentenced to death during the rule of Ali, may Allah be pleased with him, for killing a dhimmi, but the dhimmi's brother appeared and chose ransom instead so Ali told him:
"Have they threatened you?" He said: "No but I chose ransom and I don't think my brother will come back by the killing of another man" so Ali released the murderer and said: "You know better that the one in our dhimma is treated as one of us as regards to blood [life] and ransom."
In maintenance and protection of a dhimmi's property, Shari'a does not differentiate between a dhimmi's property and a Muslim's property. So stealing a dhimmi's property is punished for by amputation even if it were a Muslim's hand. Al-Qurtubi says:
"A dhimmis' life is perpetually inviolable and so is a Muslim's life and both have become people of the House of Islam. The evidence of this is that a Muslim's hand is amputated if he steals a dhimmi's property. Therefore, a dhimm's life would by analogy be as inviolable as a Muslim's life as property derives its inviolability from the inviolability of its owner."
"And he -– an Imam -- is bound to ensure two rights for them; first, to save and spare their lives and second, to protect them so that they would be secure by being spared and guarded by being protected."
"We must spare their lives and indemnify them against any damage caused by us to their lives and property. We are also committed to defend them against the people of war."
Muslim jurisprudents reiterated this concept. Ibn Al-Najar Al-Hanbali says:
"An Imam must protect the people of dhimma, deter those who injure them and defend them against those who seek to harm them." When the Mongolian general Qatloushah invaded Damascus in the early eighth century Hijri and imprisoned Muslims as well as Christian and Jewish dhimmis, Imam Ibn Taimiyyah went to him with an august of scholars claiming the release of the prisoners. The general agreed on releasing the Muslims exclusively. Sheikh-ul-Islam, then replied:
"All prisoners including Jews and Christians who are in our dhimma must be released and we will never let any prisoner with you including Muslims and dhimmis. Dhimmis are equal to Muslims as regards rights and duties." So the Mongolian general released them all.
Al-Qarafi quotes Imam Ibn Hazm who in turn accounts for Muslims' unprecedented consensus on the following:
"We are obliged to fight people of war who seek a dhimmi with weapons and we must sacrifice our lives to this end in order to protect people in the dhimma of Allah Almighty and the dhimma of His Messenger, peace and blessings be upon him, as handing a dhimmi over without such struggle and sacrifice is an omission of the dhimma covenant."
5) Examples of the Treatment of Dhimmis by Muslims When Muslims became incapable of honoring the condition of protection of dhimmis, they refunded to them the jizya for non-satisfaction of its pre-condition namely protection.
Judge, Abu Youssef, quotes in his book, Taxes, as well as other books, Makhoul who reports that a sequence of news was reported to Abu 'Ubaida declaring the invasion by the Roman troops. Abu 'Ubaida and the Muslims found this unmanageable, so Abu 'Ubaida wrote to every visor of the cities whose people agreed with Muslims on Jizya ordering them to refund the Jizya and taxes. He ordered them to inform the dhimmis of the following:
"We hereby reimburse your money as we have been informed of the troops that are about to invade us and the condition between us was to protect you and we cannot do this now, so we will reimburse the money we took from you. We do abide by our agreement and we will honor our condition if Allah rendered us victorious over them."
When the people of dhimma participated in defending their countries, they were exempted from the jizya. This was done by Mu'awaiyah, may Allah be pleased with him, with the Armenians. The French historian Lauren says in his book Armenia between Byzantine and Islam:
"Armenians welcomed Muslims to free them from the oppressive Byzantine rule. They even allied with Muslims to fight the Khazr. Arabs maintained for Armenians their accustomed conditions and the covenant was given by Mu'awaya in 653 AD to Commander Theodor Rakhtoni and to all his co-nationals so long as such is their wish. The covenant in brief is as follows:
"They will be exempted from jizya for three years. Then they are free to pay the amount they view appropriate. They also covenanted and assured him that they will cater for fifteen thousand knights instead of jizya and that the Caliph would send to the forts and strongholds of Armenia any Emirs or commanders or horses or judges and that if they were invaded by the Romans he is to provide them with all the help they might need. Mu'awaya hereby takes this covenant before Allah Almighty."
The right of the people of dhimma does not stop short at defending them against their enemy, but it also includes defending them against any injury that might disturb them or cause them unrest even if by speech. Al-Qaraafi says: "The dhimmi agreement stipulates rights for the people of dhimma that we should honor because they are in our protection and neighborhood. They are also in our dhimma, the dhimma of Allah Almighty and the dhimma of the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, and Islam. So if any person attacks them even by ill speech or backbiting he has violated the dhimma of Allah and the dhimma of His Messenger, peace and blessings be upon him, and the dhimma of Islam."
Muslims, guided by their religion, continued their civilized giving when they were transformed from Jizya takers to almsgivers to protect and sustain poor dhimmis. Ibn Zangawaih narrated that 'Umar ibn Al-Khattab(R) saw a senile dhimmi man begging, so he said: "We are unfair to you if after this old age we ask you to pay jizya." Then he wrote to his workers prohibiting them from taking jizya from old people. He also commanded: "Reduce the sum of jizya for people who cannot afford for it and give alms to those who are incapable of paying at all."
Caliph ‘Umar ibn Abd ‘Aziz also wrote to his worker in Basra 'Udai Ibn Arta'a saying: "If you find that a dhimmi becomes old, weak and poor, give him [some alms] from the Muslims' Treasury House."
Nevertheless if a dhimmi who can afford to pay jizya refrains from payment, he will be punished without violating his covenant. Al-Qurtubi says:
"It is permissible to punish them if they refrain from payment while such being affordable. However the one proving to be incapable of payment may not be punished because the one who is incapable to pay is exempted and the rich are not bound to pay the jizya for the poor."
Muslim jurisprudents realized the significance of the dhimma covenant and the seriousness of breaching it; and that it is never terminated by mere abstention from payment. Al-Kasaru Al-Hanafi says:
"As for the agreement (the dhimma covenant) it is binding on us so that Muslims may not terminate it in any way whatsoever. As for dhimmis it is unbinding."
Testimony of Western Historians
A person might ask: Have Muslims realized these magnificent ideal principles? Have they really honored the dhimma of their Prophet throughout their lengthy history? We will hereby state three testimonies by Westerners who repeated the truth duly established in our great history.
"The people of dhimma: Christians, Zaradishts, Jews and Sabi'a; enjoyed a degree of tolerance during the Umayyad rule which can never be assimilated to Christian countries nowadays. They were free to practice their rituals. They maintained their churches and synagogues and the only obligation was that they should wear a special color and pay tax for every person pro rata his income. This sum ranged between two and four dinars. This tax was exclusively levied on non-Muslims who can go to war. However priests, women, children, slaves, elderly men, the disabled, the blind and the destitute were exempted from the tax. Dhimmis were exempted from military
service in return. They were also exempted from zakat which is 2.5% of the annual income and the government was bound to protect them."
Adam Mitz in his book The Islamic Civilization says:
"Dhimmis used to pay jizya each pro rata his income. Jizya was similar to national defense tax as it was only paid by men who can go to war while the disabled, priests, clergy were exempted unless they have wealth."
Thomas Arnold in his The Preaching of Islam says:
"The purpose of levying this tax on Christians – as reiterated by some researchers – was not a form of punishment for not accepting Islam. They rather used to pay it with the remaining dhimmis namely non-Muslims subjects of the Islamic state whose beliefs prevent them from joining the military service in return for the protection secured to them by Muslims' swords."
Islam thus is patently cleared by the historical testimony of objective non-Muslims from the allegation attributed to it by the unjust and non-objective.
Finally I ask Allah(T) to relieve us and bestow on us the ability to understand one another as regards controversial issues as Allah Almighty is the Omnipotent and may Allah(T) bless our Prophet Muhammad(P) and all his Companions(R).
 Surat Al-Tawba: 29
 Al-Jami' Le' Ahkaam el Quraan (114/8), Al-Mugharab Fi Tarteeb Al-Mu'rab (143/1), see Mukhtarel-Sahaah (44/1)
 Surat Al-Tawba: 29
 Al-Jami' Le' Ahkaam el Quraan (72/8)
 See 'Irwa' Al-Ghaleel (1255)
 Narrated by Attermizi in his Sunan (623), Abu Dawood in his Sunan (1576), and Al-Nassa'I in his Sunan (2450). The hadith was verified by Al-Albani in several places including Sahih At-Tarmizi (509)
 Mishkat Al-Masabeeh (3970), verified by Al-Albani
 Surat Al-Mumtahana (8)
 Narrated by Muslim under number (2553)
 Narrated by Abu Dawood in his Sunan (3052) in (170/3), verified by Al-Albani (2626). The same is mentioned in Sunan an-Nasa'i (2749) in (25/8)
 Narrated by Bukhary (2295)
 Narrated by Muslim (2613)
 Al-Jami' Le' Ahkaam el Quraan (115/8), and the interpretation of Al-Mawardi (352-351/2)
 Tabaqaat Ibn Sa'ad (266/1).
 Al-Forouq (15-14/3).
 Al-Tabaqaat Al-Kubra by Ibn Sa'ad (266/1).
 Al-Tabari's History (4/449).
 See: Al-Tabari's History (449/4).
 Fotouhel-Bildaan by Al-Belathri (128).
 Fotouh Misr wa Akhbaraha by Ibn Abdel-Hakam (68)
 Al-Tabari's History (503/2)
 Al-Mughni (290/9), Ahkaam Ahlel-Dhimma (139/1)
 Narrated by Bukhary (1392) in (1356/3)
 Taxes (9)
 Fotouh Al-Bildaan (156).
 Fotouh Al-Bildaan (132)
 Canonical Laws (176)
 Difference of Jurisprudents (233).
 Al-Shafi'i's Musnad (344/1).
 Al-Jami' Le' Ahkaam al Quraan (246/2).
 Sultan Rules (143).
 See Mughniel-Muhtaag (253/4)
 Matalib 'Ouliel Noha (602/2)
 Majmou' el-Fatawa (618-617/28)
 Al-Forouq (15-14/3)
 Taxes (135), also see Fotouhel Beldaan by Al-Belathri, and Fotouhel-Shaam by Alathri.
 See Fotouhel Beldaan (211-210)
 Al-Forouq (14/3)
 Property (163/1)
 The History of the City of Damascus (178/1)
 Property (170/1)
 Al-Jami' Le' Ahkaam el Quraan 74-73/8
 Bada'iel-Sana'I (112/7)
 The History of Civilization (131/12)
 The Islamic Civilization (96/1)
 The Preaching of Islam
 Head tax on free non-Muslims under Muslim rule.
 A person from the People of the Book who did not convert to Islam but accepts to live under the Islamic rule.
 Consensus of the authorities in a legal question; one of the four principles of Islamic Law.