Thursday, August 23, 2012

Blasphemy Law & Murder of Dr. Ghulam Murtaza Malik.


BBC: The rise of Pakistan's televangelists By Mobeen Azhar BBC World Service, Karachi 14 July 2012 Farhat Hashmi has been accused of embezzling funds from her television show and fleeing to Canada to avoid prosecution, although she denies any wrongdoing. And Mehar Bukhari, known for her political interviews, sparked outrage by declaring the politician she was speaking to was a heretic. But the best-known of all the TV evangelists is Dr Amir Liaqat. From a glossy television studio above a parade of run-down shops in Karachi, he had an audience of millions for Alim aur Alam, a live one-hour show that went out five days a week across Pakistan. The programme allowed Dr Liaqat to play the role of a religious "Agony Uncle", remedying the religious dilemmas of his audience. In September 2008, Liaqat dedicated an entire episode to exploring the beliefs of the Ahmedis, a Muslim sect which has been declared as "un-Islamic" by much of the orthodoxy. In it, two scholars said that anyone who associated with false prophets was "worthy of murder". Dr Khalid Yusaf, an Ahmedi Muslim, watched the programme with his family, and says he was shocked that a mainstream channel would broadcast this kind of material. "They talked about murder as a religious duty. A duty for 'good' Muslims." Within 24 hours of the broadcast, a prominent member of the Ahmedi community was shot dead in the small town of Mirpur Kass. Twenty-four hours later Khalid Yusaf's father, another Ahmedi community leader, was killed by two masked gunmen. Liaqat has distanced himself from the shootings. "I have no regrets because it has nothing to do with me," he says. "I'm hurt by what happened and I'm sorry for the families but it has nothing to do with me or anything that was said on my programme." REFERENCE: The rise of Pakistan's televangelists By Mobeen Azhar BBC World Service, Karachi 14 July 2012 Last updated at 00:22 GMT http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-18729683

Dr Ghulam Murtaza - Sir'at-e-Musta'qeem (Urdu) 01/10


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9ryRkLc7OsE



Murtaza Malik’s killers arrested Staff Report Tuesday, November 23, 2004 LAHORE: Police has arrested two people for killing Dr Ghulam Murtaza Malik and Professor Attaur Rehman Saqib, a senior police official said on Monday. Muhammad Farooq and Muhammad Arshad from Sunni Tehrik had confessed many crimes including killing Dr Ghulam Murtaza Malik, Prof Attaur Rehman Saqib and his driver, Shia leader Syed Hassan Raza, and a constable named Maqbool Ahmed, Chaudhry Shafqaat Ahmed, senior superintendent of police (SSP), told reporters. Dr Malik and Prof Saqib, both respected Sunni scholars, were gunned down in Lahore in 2002, while Raza, a Shia leader from the Khaima-e-Sadaat party, was murdered in 2001, he said. The SSP said the two had also confessed that they had committed 10 robberies in Lahore. He said the police arrested Farooq and Arshad during a special raid. The SSP said that Shahbaz Jalali was also a part of the gang, who was electrocuted in Ichhra a few months ago. Farooq and Arshad told reporters that they were brainwashed by a certain Dr Shahid that Dr Malik and Prof Saqib were ‘blasphemers’. “We did not intend to kill Raza but he caught Jalali when our motorcycle hit his daughter accidentally. Jalali had no choice but to fire at Raza, killing him instantly,” Farooq said. REFERENCE: Murtaza Malik’s killers arrested Staff Report Tuesday, November 23, 2004 http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=story_23-11-2004_pg7_3

Pakistani Muslims desecrated Holy Quran and Hadith Books in 2010 in Faisalabad Punjab

video

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GZ4kouGpQmI




2011: The PUC chairman questioned that why the blasphemy law was not implemented when on 12th Rabbiul Awwal of this Islamic year (in 2010), some 750 copies of the holy Quran and several books of Hadith and Tafseer were set on fire by unidentified people at late Allama Ziaul Haq Qasmi’s residence in Faisalabad and a footage of this incident was also present. “After the incident, Sunni Ittehad Council Chairman Sahibzada Fazal Karim sought registration of an FIR under 295-C against Zahid Qasmi, son of late Qasmi. Both the sides, sects ‘Deobandi’ and ‘Barelvi’, requested police seeking FIRs against each other, but the issue was resolved later,” he recalled and questioned why such a settlement was not counted as blasphemy or profanity, the channel reported. REFERENCE Sentiments were exploited against Salmaan Taseer: Ashrafi * Pakistan Ulema Council chairman says whosoever declared it was justified to kill Taseer should come on media to prove his claim before nation Daily Times Monitor Sunday, January 09, 2011 http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2011%5C01%5C09%5Cstory_9-1-2011_pg7_18


ISLAMABAD, Pakistan — Everyone in the teeming, tense community of Muslims and Christians just outside Islamabad seems to have a different story about the young girl and the Koran. The 12-year-old Christian deliberately burned the Muslim holy book, some say. No, she innocently put pages from a non-sacred teaching text into the trash, say others, and nothing was burned. Still another version holds that an older Muslim boy planted pages of the Koran for the cleaning girl to find and then leveled the accusation of desecration because she had spurned him. Amid the conflicting claims, this much is certain: As many as 600 Christians have fled their colony bordering the capital, fearing for their lives, officials said, after a mob last week called for the child to be burned to death as a blasphemer. The girl, who authorities have described as mentally challenged, sits in jail in Rawalpindi, charged by police with blasphemy, while her family has been put in federal protective custody. The evidence against her is muddled at best, but police said they arrested her in part to assuage the mob and also because they knew she would be safer in jail. REFERENCE: Pakistani Christians, fearing backlash, flee community after girl is accused of blasphemy By Richard Leiby http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/asia_pacific/pakistani-christians-fearing-backlash-flee-community-after-girl-accused-of-blasphemy/2012/08/20/d3b23c9a-eae3-11e1-866f-60a00f604425_story.html


2011: Taseer killer's case should be decided as per Shariah law: JuD Lahore, Fri Jan 07 2011 Pakistan-based terror outfit JuD has asked the country's courts to decide the case of Punjab Governor Salmaan Taseer's assassin in line with the 'Shariah' or Islamic law and 'sentiments of Muslims'. Jamaat-ud-Dawah leader Maulana Amir Hamza, who is convener of Tehrik-e-Hurmat-e-Rasool that has been opposing any move to amend the controversial blasphemy law, also hailed the clerics who refused to lead the funeral prayer of Taseer. Taseer, the Governor of Pakistan's most populous province of Punjab and senior PPP leader, was gunned down by his extremist bodyguard Mumtaz Qadri at a posh market in the heart of Islamabad on Tuesday for opposing the blasphemy law. Hamza asked courts to decide the case of Qadri in accordance with the Islamic law and the "sentiments of Muslims" of the country. "The courts must respect our sentiments," he said in a statement. The clerics, who refused to lead Taseer's funeral prayer on Wednesday, had proved that they had great respect for the Prophet Mohammad, Hamza said. "God will reward you (clerics) for your brave act," he said. After an influential grouping of scholars and clerics of the Barelvi school of thought asked Muslims not to offer or lead the funeral prayer for Taseer, the clerics of three mosques in Lahore, including the one at the Governor's House, refused to lead the 'namaz-e-janaza'. The prayer was finally led by a member of the PPP's clerics' wing. Hamza also criticised the US and European countries for condemning the murder of Taseer. The JuD leader also warned PPP lawmaker Sherry Rehman to immediately withdraw a private bill submitted to Parliament to amend the blasphemy law. He made it clear that "no one can think of changing the blasphemy law". Blaming Taseer for his death, Hamza questioned why the Governor had sought clemency from President Asif Ali Zardari for Asia Bibi, a Christian woman sentenced to death for allegedly insulting Prophet Mohammed. "We want to tell everyone that there can be no debate on the blasphemy law," said Hamza of JuD, which is blamed for the 2008 Mumbai attacks. REFERENCE: Taseer killer's case should be decided as per Shariah law: JuD Lahore, Fri Jan 07 2011, 14:36 hrs http://www.indianexpress.com/news/taseer-killers-case-should-be-decided-as-per-shariah-law-jud/734629/1

Gustakh E Rasool (s.a.w) Barelvi Say Barh Kar Koi Nahi Hai

video
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nxHbruPzSAk

Allaamah Kaukab Noorani Okarvi Declares: Deobandis are Kaafir (Apostate)

video
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Nfde2WGvf3w

It is said that one of the key Cleric of Jamatud Dawa i.e. Maulana Ibrahim Salafi was allegedly murdered on the False Charge of Blasphemy by Rival Barelvi Sect in 2004

2004: ISLAMABAD: A senior leader of Jamaat-ud Dawa, the parent organisation of the banned Pakistani militant group Lashkar-e-Toeba, was on Sunday shot dead by unidentified assailants in Lahore, police said. Maulana Ibrahim Salafi, 55, was killed while returning home after offering morning prayers at a mosque in Township locality, police in Lahore said. Salafi, who was a prayer leader at the mosque, was sprayed with bullets by the gunmen riding on a motorcycle, who fled after the incident. Salafi died on the spot. Salafi's murder followed reports in Pakistani media that a number of Jamaat-ud Dawa (JD) leaders, including its founder Hafeez Saeed, apprehended violence following the recent split in the organisation. REFERENCE: Jamaat-ud Dawa senior leader killed in Lahore PTI Sep 12, 2004, 06.31am IST http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2004-09-12/pakistan/27167556_1_jamaat-ud-dawa

Barelvi Scholar allows Murder for everyone on TV Part 1 (ARY NEWS 13 Feb 2011)


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fHraGjrChEs



2004: Who killed Murtaza Malik? —Khaled Ahmed Urdu Press Review Friday, January 14, 2005  Murtaza Malik’s ability as an orator never earned him the respect he deserved. He is still a popular speaker on Islamic TV channels. His money was made in Saudi Arabia and later by selling Islamic books to the army. Why didn’t he earn respect and why was he killed quite needlessly? Many men of religion fell during Pakistan’s decade of jihad and extremism. One such was Murtaza Malik of Lahore, an extremely successful orator on TV, whose dramatic style of preaching was popular. For some reason his ability as a scholar of Islam never earned him the respect he deserved. He controlled two institutions of religious learning and was well provided for through sales of books, put together by him, to the army. He was also an adviser to Imran Khan when Murtaza Malik lived in Zaman Park. According to Nawa-e-Waqt (November 23, 2004) the men who killed Lahore’s renowned but controversial religious scholar Dr Ghulam Murtaza Malik in 2002 were arrested by the police during a chance stop-and-search operation. The two were violent criminals produced in the past years by a mixing of jihad with crime. In the decade of the 1990s jihad brought more weapons into the underworld and gave rise to new brands of armed robbery. Youths taking to it found it easier to kill and stick around without witnesses rather than steal and flee as they used to do in old days. The arrested dacoits admitted that Dr Hafeez Shahid of Pattoki, a leader of Sunni Tehreek, had told them to kill two religious scholars because they were ‘insulters’ of the Prophet (peace be upon him). They lured a rather greedy Dr Malik out of his house on the promise that they would gift a piece of land to him and shot him dead on a deserted road. They also killed another religious scholar Prof Ataur Rehman Saqib the same year for the same ‘offence’. Both the killers turned out to be high-school dropouts who found killing and stealing an easier way of life. Their conscience was put at rest by the realisation that they were also killing in the name of Islam — in this case to protect the divine reputation of the Holy Prophet (PBUH). The man who put them up to it, Dr Hafeez Shahid, ran a religious party called Sunni Tehreek. When it hounded non-Muslims in Gujranwala, using the Blasphemy Law, it was eulogised and the government did nothing against it. But then its religious leader thought that because some fellow-ulema were not toeing his line he could get rid of them through hired killers. Now the police is looking for Dr Shahid. He may have killed many more whose deaths we have been blaming on India and the United States. The truth however is quite unsavoury as it gradually comes to light. Murtaza Malik was a rich man because of contacts with the GHQ where an Islamist general who has recently retired patronised him. So big was the sale of his books to the army that he had reportedly started up his own paper-making factory. Malik was PTV’s most patronised cleric because of the GHQ connection. Now his son Bilal is on PTV and has his father’s distinctive style. Writing in Jang (November 17, 2004) Nazir Naji stated that in the past Pakistani society was more free. People used to preach Islam but there was more emphasis on example than on coercion. Today any kind of celebration is banned. We cannot celebrate the new year, we cannot celebrate weddings if we serve food; and singing which used to be so common in the past is now disapproved. Pretty dresses for women are now frowned at. Anglo-Indian ladies who once plied their bicycles freely in Lahore have long migrated out of Pakistan. Restaurants where the youth of Lahore used to enjoy their evenings are nowhere in sight. Pakistani films show goonda-gardi and Kalashnikov culture instead of romance. Worshippers at mosques are no longer safe. Even different dresses for the different sects have been made obligatory in some communities. Pakistani society is internally riven with narrow-mindedness. If we lost our freedom it should have been for a good cause. REFERENCE: SECOND OPINION: Who killed Murtaza Malik? —Khaled Ahmed Urdu Press Review Friday, January 14, 2005 REFERENCE: SECOND OPINION: Who killed Murtaza Malik? —Khaled Ahmed Urdu Press Review Friday, January 14, 2005 http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=story_14-1-2005_pg3_4 Namoos e risalat or namoos e zia ul haq by Abbas Athar Daily Express 8 January 2010

Barelvi Scholar allows Murder for everyone on TV - Part 2 (ARY NEWS 13 Feb 2011)


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0Iuna8bFVEQ



Who killed Murtaza Malik? —Khaled Ahmed Urdu Press Review Friday, January 14, 2005: One cause could be religious scholarship. The clergy was given a chance to show what they could do, but no one has written a single respectable book since late Maulana Maududi wrote his famous exegesis Tafheem al Quran. Qazi Hussain Ahmed says he is mot a qualified cleric, so he is excused; but Maulana Fazlur Rehman has not shown any talent apart from issuing fatwas for killing nationals of a state that our youth cannot take on. Even in fatwas of death there should be some creativity involved. They are crude and difficult to carry out. Of course we have killed Americans, most of them innocent. But we have lost some very powerful clerics too. And that mostly to sectarian violence. The only great literature produced has been in the sectarian underground which arouses us to kill. Daily Jang (November 19, 2004) reported that Sindh chief minister Arbab Raheem had told 106 policemen suspended for corruption that they would be reinstated if they did two months of Islamic moral training with the Tablighi Jamaat in Lahore. On his orders bribe-taking policemen were sent on a Tablighi daura during Ramazan for ten days after which they demanded to be reinstated, but the chief minister insisted on more moral training. He has charged the imam of Yusuf Masjid in Sukkur to take them in for training and then give him report that they had forever abandoned the practice of taking graft before they would be again allowed to work as policemen. Meanwhile Tablighi Jamaat gathering in Raiwind Lahore was expected to host the Punjab governor and JUI leader Maulana Fazlur Rehman. In the past president of Pakistan Leghari attended the gathering. The police is already completely sold to jihadi terrorism which is Deobandi-Wahhabi. And Tablighi Jamaat is a Deobandi mother organisation. The man who blew up the mosque in Sindh Madrassa in 2004 was a policeman. And the 2003 attempt on the life of the president was made by a Deobandi jihadi militia which was aided by an inspector of police. At least one act of terrorism in Balochistan, too, was committed with the help of police officers. The Sindh chief minister who tends to deny honour killing and is against any liberal law against it, should be careful what he puts his police through. The idea of Tabligh is not a good one. Daily Khabrain (November 22, 2004) published reaction to federal education minister General (Retd) Javed Ashraf Qazi that Pakistan’s history books should contain chapters on Asoka and Chandra Gupta Mauriya. Teachers and students in Lahore said if this was done they would come out and hold protest rallies. One religious leader said that Islamic culture was being destroyed while another intellectual said that it was no use teaching Asoka in Pakistan. Islami Jamiat Tulaba said such additions to the course would be resisted, while Imamia Students said they would not tolerate it. Brainwash speaks against the proposal to end brainwash in favour of an understanding of history. A lesson on Asoka would lessen prejudice and a lessening of prejudice will weaken the edifice of ideology. What a retired general is proposing today, a retired general of a decade ago would not have been found dead proposing. * REFERENCE: SECOND OPINION: Who killed Murtaza Malik? —Khaled Ahmed Urdu Press Review Friday, January 14, 2005 REFERENCE: SECOND OPINION: Who killed Murtaza Malik? —Khaled Ahmed Urdu Press Review Friday, January 14, 2005 http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=story_14-1-2005_pg3_4 Abbas Athar Blasphemy Law 2 Express 2011


Barelvi Scholar allows Murder for everyone on TV - Part 3 (ARY NEWS 13 Feb 2011)


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8PHk-wpL5gk



Hate literature behind rise in extremism: Ashrafi * Pakistan Ulema Council chief says uneducated maulvis leading society towards bloodshed Daily Times Monitor Thursday, January 27, 2011 LAHORE: Pakistan Ulema Counsel (PUC) Chairman Allama Tahir Ashrafi has said that easy availability of instigating literature in the market was the core reason behind the rising extremism in the country, a private TV channel reported on Wednesday. Speaking in a programme aired by the channel, Ashrafi condemned Tuesday’s bomb blast in Lahore, which took more than 10 lives and left several others injured. He said nobody in the country mulled over the post 9/11 rising wave of terrorism in the country. Literature and CDs spreading hate against all schools of thoughts was available in the markets, he said, adding that no authority in the country took action against it. He said the country was founded in the name of Islam, but there was no true Muslim in the country at present. Followers of every sect considered the others kafir (non-believer) or issue edicts alleging others of blasphemy. Such unauthorised people were in action because the authorised ulema were silent over such issues, he added. He urged ulema to lead people to the right path as uneducated maulvis were leading society towards bloodshed. Ashrafi said it was easy to blame India, America or any other country but the issue was that our own people were being brainwashed and used against fellow countrymen. The situation was created in the 80s when attempts were made to replicate the Iranian Revolution in the country. Professor Attaur Rehman Saqib was killed on false charges of blasphemy and all schools of thought kept quite at that time, he said. He said Samiul Haq formed Milli Yakjehti Council, which fell prey to politics. He said in the past, Abdul Sattar Niazi and Samiul Haq summoned all parties’ conference in which ulema from all schools of thought participated. Then the Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal (MMA) was formed. The government should implement the Milli Yakjehti pact, singed by Shah Ahmed Noorani, Allama Sajid Naqvi, Ziaul Haq Qasmi and all schools of thought, he added. Ashrafi condemned the US-led drone attacks, and said they should be stopped as they were killing innocent people. Religion was being politicised and ulema and media should play a positive role. All schools of thought were equally responsible for the current situation, as none spared the other, the channel reported him as saying. REFERENCE: Hate literature behind rise in extremism: Ashrafi * Pakistan Ulema Council chief says uneducated maulvis leading society towards bloodshed Daily Times Monitor Thursday, January 27, 2011 http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2011%5C01%5C27%5Cstory_27-1-2011_pg7_31

Barelvi Scholar allows Murder for everyone on TV - Part 4 (ARY NEWS 13 Feb 2011)


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QITvAM5MLD4


ISLAMABAD: The US gave money to a Pakistani Muslim group that organised anti-Taliban rallies, but which later demonstrated in support of an extremist who killed a leading liberal politician, the US Embassy in Pakistan said Wednesday. US government website Usaspending.gov shows that the group, the Sunni Ittehad Council, received $36,607 from Washington in 2009. A US diplomat said that the embassy had given money to the group to organise the rallies, but that it had since changed direction and leadership. He said it was a one-off grant, and wouldn’t be repeated. He didn’t give his name because he wasn’t authorised to speak about the issue on the record. The grant was first reported by the Council of Foreign Relations on its website. The Ittehad council was formed in 2009 to counter extremism. It groups politicians and clerics from Pakistan’s traditionalist Barelvi Muslim movement, often referred to as theological moderates in the Pakistani context. The American money was used to organise nationwide rallies against militants and suicide bombings, the embassy official said. The demonstrations received widespread media coverage, and were some of the first against extremism in the country. The rhetoric at the rallies was mostly focused on opposing militant attacks on shrines, which Barelvis frequent but are opposed by Deobandi Muslims, Pakistan’s other main Muslim sect. In 2011 and also this month, however, the council led demonstrations in support of the killer of Salman Taseer, a governor who was killed a year ago for his criticism of anti-blasphemy laws. The displays have appalled Pakistani liberals and stoked international fears that the country is buckling under the weight of extremism. Taseer’s assassin, Mumtaz Qadri, is a Barelvi. He claimed he acted to defend the honour of Prophet Mohammed. At its rallies, the group maintains its criticism of the Taliban even as it supports Qadri — a seemingly contradictory stance that suggests its leaders may be more interested in harnessing the political support and street power of Barelvis than in genuinely countering militancy. Two leading members of the council who have been with the group from the beginning of its existence denied receiving any American funds. The apparent discrepancy could be explained by lack of transparency within the organisation. However, given the current anti-American climate, owning up to receiving funds from the United States would invite criticism. ”This propaganda is being unleashed against us because we are strongly opposed to Western democracy and American policies in the region and in the world,” said Sahibzada Fazal Karim, the head of the council, before reiterating the group’s support for Qadri. ”We are against extremism, but we support Qadri because he did a right thing,” he said. REFERENCE: US aided Pakistan group which supported extremists AP January 11, 2012 http://www.dawn.com/2012/01/11/us-aided-pakistan-group-which-supported-extremists.html US Aided Pakistan Group Which Supported Extremists By CHRIS BRUMMITT Associated Press ISLAMABAD January 11, 2012 (AP) http://abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory/us-aided-pakistan-group-supported-extremists-15337104#.TxbIPKXrrje http://www.usaspending.gov/explore?typeofview=complete&recipname=SUNNI%20ITTEHAD%20COUNCIL&tab=By+Prime+Awardee&overridecook=yes&frompage=assistance&target=_parent&carryfilters=on&federal_award_id=SPK33010GR009&fromfiscal=yes&fiscal_year=2010&recipientid=605899



LAHORE, Nov 22: Police claimed on Monday to have arrested two Sunni Tehrik activists allegedly involved in the murder of two religious scholars. Investigation police chief Chaudhry Shafqaat claimed at a press conference that the arrested men had murdered Prof Dr Ghulam Murtaza Malik and Prof Ataur Rehman Saqib. They had confessed to their involvement in 14 other crimes besides the killings, he maintained. One of the suspects, Muhammad Farooq, 26, a matriculate dropout, produced with a mask on his face, told reporters that he joined the Sunni Tehrik on the persuasion of one Shahbaz Ahmad. Tehrik convenor Dr Shahid had been a major force behind him. "Now I regret the acts I had been doing. They (Sunni Tehrik) exploited my religious sentiments. It (the killings) was done by me just to please Prophet Mohammad (Peace be upon him) and secure heavens." He claimed that he also tried to quit the group, but to no avail. The police chief identified the other as Muhammad Arshad, and said they were arrested from a house in Chungi Amar Sadhu, which had been raided on a tip-off. Claiming the arrest of Dr Shahid soon as teams had been sent for the purpose to Pattoki, he said the arrested men had plans to kill Maulana Muhammad Husain of Sheikhupura in near future. He said they had murdered Prof Ataur Rehman in March, 2002, near the AG Office and also killed the caretaker of an imambargah when he tried to catch them. The caretaker was on way to drop his daughter to her school when their motorcycle hit the girl and he tried to nab them. They shot Prof Dr Murtaza Malik and his driver in Gulshan-i-Iqbal in May, 2002, and murdered a policeman who attempted to intercept them while they were fleeing. Chaudhry Shafqaat said the city police chief had recommended special awards for the policemen who arrested the suspects. REFERENCE: LAHORE: Murtaza Malik's 'killers' held By Our Staff Reporter 23 November 2004 Tuesday 10 Shawwal 1425 http://archives.dawn.com/2004/11/23/local17.htm

ST (Sunni Tehrik – Sunni Movement) ———————————- 9. (S) ST is a small religious/political group with a presence in small pockets of Karachi. The group has only managed to win a handful of council seats in local elections but militarily it is disproportionably powerful because of the influx of MQM-H gunmen after the government crack-down on MQM-H (see above). ST has organized the party and its gunmen along the lines of MQM by dividing its areas of influence into sectors and units, with sector and unit commanders. ST and MQM have allegedly been killing each other’s leadership since the April 2006 Nishtar Park bombing that killed most of ST’s leadership. ST blames MQM for the attack. There appears to have been a reduction in these targeted killings since 2008. REFERENCE: 2009: US assessment of Karachi violence http://www.dawn.com/2011/05/23/2009-us-assessment-of-karachi-violence.html

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