Sunday, May 29, 2011

Nawaz Sharif's Khurooj (Rebellion), Islam and Ideology of Khawarij.

LAHORE: PML-N Quaid Mian Nawaz Sharif has warned the government of a public mutiny if it continued with its policies of pledging national sovereignty to foreigners and patronising corrupt elements. “I appeal to the rulers to immediately stop their wrong practices; otherwise, the public will revolt against them, and I will definitely side with the public for setting things right,” Nawaz said, adding that he could not support rulers who were bent on destroying Pakistan. He said the government had crossed all limits of supporting corruption and even one of its ministers, Amin Fahim, was being named as receiving money in the National Insurance Company Limited (NICL) scam. He said the government had left people to bear the scorching heat in the absence of electricity. He said massive loadshedding had destroyed industry and increased unemployment manifold in the country. Nawaz was addressing a function, organised in connection with the anniversary of the nuclear blasts here on Saturday. He assured the people that an independent enquiry into the Abbottabad operation would be held and he, with the help of the public, would steer Pakistan out of the crises. He said if an independent commission is not set up to probe the Abbottabad incident, the Pakistan Muslim League-N would launch a full-fledged campaign against the government. Nawaz said the time was not far when he, with the help of the people, would bring to an end the prevailing isolation of Pakistan and they would attain prosperity with the cooperation of the world.

He deplored that the month of May witnessed two fateful incidents which tore national sovereignty into shreds and unfortunately the world was holding Pakistan accountable for it instead of consoling it. He said the entire world was pointing fingers at Pakistan. “In order to get answers to these questions, the joint session of parliament passed a consensus resolution and gave approval to the establishment of an independent commission.” “Now the establishment of the independent commission is itself a question,” Nawaz said and asked PM Yousuf Raza Gilani what happened to the consensus resolution which he himself read in the joint session. He claimed that the PM might not be worried, but he was seriously worried about it because the nation wanted to know about the commission. He assured the gathering that the PML-N, if elected, would not provide an opportunity to the world to ridicule Pakistan and that there were some elements in the government which were more powerful than parliament. He said former dictator Pervez Musharraf had to flee the country, which proved that the will of the people was more powerful than any dictator. He said he had advised the opposition leader, Ch Nisar Ali, to submit a requisition to summon the National Assembly session immediately to dig out the truth about the delay in establishing an independent enquiry commission. He regretted that the parliament’s resolutions were being thrown into the dustbin. He regretted that a mess has been created in Pakistan in the last 20 years; economic growth has deteriorated and no remedial measures have been taken to end loadshedding. “Our rupee used to be stronger than India’s, but now it has lost its worth, he recalled. He said he went for the nuclear blasts and faced the challenges boldly, despite threats and opposition. He said half of the world was with him even in those days, but unfortunately today we stand isolated. Pakistan is being blamed for the terror incidents occurring in the world. We cannot allow Pakistan being made a laughing stock.

Nawaz also deplored the role of the judiciary during martial law. He alleged that a traitor judge allowed the former dictator to amend the Constitution according to his whims, and nobody would ask any question from him in this regard. The gathering also passed a resolution calling for a review of security and foreign policies and condemned the US raid on the Abbottabad compound in which al-Qaeda chief Osama bin Laden was killed. He said the system of accountability was being blocked in Pakistan. He said democracy and accountability were correlated, as countries with strong democracy and an effective accountability system were developed and prosperous. He criticised military regimes for manipulating the country’s judiciary and mistreating judges in case of unfavourable verdicts. APP adds: Nawaz Sharif, addressing a gathering outside Circuit House in Sargodha, said the seeds of extremism and terrorism were sown during dictatorship whereas the judges, who had given relief to the dictators in the past, should be held accountable. REFERENCE: Nawaz warns of public mutiny if sovereignty not upheld Babar Dogar Sunday, May 29, 2011


Shahbaz was willing to negotiate CJ’s future DAWN May 20, 2011 (2 weeks ago)

196903 3/14/2009 11:25 09LAHORE49 Consulate Lahore SECRET “O 141125Z MAR 09
E.O. 12958: DECL: 3/14/2034
CLASSIFIED BY: Bryan D. Hunt, Principal Officer, American
Consulate Lahore, Department of State. REASON: 1.4 (d)

1. (S) Summary: In a March 14 meeting, Pakistan Muslim League – Nawaz (PML-N) President Shahbaz Sharif told Principal Officer that he and his brother — former Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif — welcomed efforts by the United States, United Kingdom, and the Pakistan Army to negotiate a political settlement between his party and the government. Shahbaz stated that the Sharifs’ key demands in these negotiations were: (1) restoration of the electoral eligibility of both Sharif brothers; (2) restoration of Shahbaz Sharif’s government in the Punjab; (3) some sort of face-saving restoration of former Chief Justice Iftikhar Chaudhry; and (4) agreement on transfers of powers between the President and the Prime Minister in accordance with the Charter of Democracy. Shahbaz noted that the lawyers would need to be brought into the discussion on Iftikhar Chaudhry’s restoration and that, in his assessment, both current Chief Justice Dogar and Punjab Governor Salman Taseer would be unable to play a role in the new system. Shahbaz rejected the proposal for a provincial unity government headed by the Pakistan Muslim League (PML), as contrary to the clear will of the electorate. Shahbaz accepted Interior Minister Rehman Malik’s proposal to negotiate an appropriate venue for the lawyers’ planned sit-in in the Islamabad/Rawalpindi area, but stated that Advisor Malik would need to negotiate such a deal with the lawyers, not simply the PML-N. As demonstrated in the meeting, the PML-N has hardened its demands and displayed little flexibility. End Summary.


2. (S) PML-N President Shahbaz Sharif welcomed efforts by the United States, United Kingdom, and the Pakistan Chief of Army Staff to negotiate a political settlement between the leadership of the PML-N and the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP). Shahbaz stated that the three parties working in concert should eventually be able to place sufficient pressure on both sides to find a durable solution to the crisis and that the Sharifs were satisfied that any deal guaranteed by the three would be implemented. Shahbaz stressed that he and his brother — former Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif — were sincere in desiring a negotiated settlement to the outstanding issues and promised that they would show “”maximum flexibility”" in trying to find a workable approach in concert with international donors and the Pakistan army. Shahbaz, however, assessed that it was President Zardari’s intransigence on restoration of former Chief Justice Iftikhar Chaudhry and his misreading of Punjabi politics that had created the current crisis and that would likely be the greatest stumbling block to quick progress in the discussions.

3. (S) Shahbaz Sharif highlighted that the PML-N currently had four core goals in the negotiation process. First, the restoration of the eligibility of both Sharif brothers to contest in national elections was a prerequisite to progress on any other issues. Shahbaz bluntly stated that his party had no room for maneuver on this demand. Second, Shahbaz insisted that his government in the Punjab province would have to be restored. Principal Officer raised the possibility of a provincial unity government headed by the minority PML, which Shahbaz rejected. The former Chief Minister argued that his party had a clear plurality in the provincial assembly, which had been established through an election that had been judged by the international community to be free, fair, and credible. Shahbaz stated that this gave his party the mandate to form the government and that the public would never accept a deal that did not restore his government to power. Shahbaz stressed that his party was not open to negotiation on this point. Shahbaz underscored that Punjab Governor Salman Taseer would need to be replaced.

4. (S) On the issue of former Chief Justice Iftikhar Chaudhry, Shahbaz claimed that the PML-N was open to negotiation, provided that Chaudhry was symbolically restored as Chief Justice of Pakistan. Shahbaz stressed that his party could not afford the political humiliation of abandoning what had become a long-standing principle in favor of Chaudhry’s restoration. At the same time, Shahbaz claimed to understand that Chaudhry was a problematic jurist, whose powers would need to be carefully curtailed. Shahbaz underscored that the Sharifs were prepared to adopt any safeguards that President Zardari desired prior to Chaudhry’s restoration, including curtailment of his powers to create judicial benches, removal of his suo moto jurisdiction, and/or establishment of a constitutional court as a check on the Supreme Court. Shahbaz also stated that following the restoration, the PML-N was prepared to end the issue and remove Chaudhry once and for all by adopting legislation proposed in the Charter of Democracy that would ban all judges who had taken an oath under a Provisional Constitutional Order (PCO) from serving. Asked about the PML-N’s openness to a new role for current Chief Justice Hameed Dogar, Shahbaz stated that Dogar was a completely discredited jurist and that his party did not believe that he should play any role in a future set-up after his mandatory retirement on March 20. Shahbaz left the clear impression that the PML-N was unwilling to show any flexibility on Dogar.

5. (S) Shahbaz raised that his party also believed any negotiated settlement should include movement towards full adoption of the Charter of Democracy, particularly its provisions related to the repeal of Musharraf’s controversial 17th amendment and the transfer of powers from the President to the Prime Minister. Shahbaz stated that this had been a long-standing demand of the PML-N (although it had not previously been raised with the international community in the context of the current political crisis) and that given the problems Zardari had caused, it was prudent to move forward. Shahbaz indicated that the actual implementation of this part of the agreement could be prolonged, but felt that his party would require, at a minimum, a guarantee from Zardari that it would eventually move forward on an agreed-upon timeframe.

Long March

6. (S) Shahbaz noted that both he and Nawaz Sharif were very concerned about the potential for criminal and/or terrorist elements to exploit the chaos created by the long march and induce violence. He thanked the Principal Officer for USG efforts to encourage former Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif to take greater precautions with his personal security, noting that Nawaz had understood the message and had promised to modify his behavior. Shahbaz stated that he was disappointed that Interior Minister Rehman Malik had only belatedly advised the Sharifs formally of threats to their security in a March 13 letter. He noted that even this had only come following the Sharifs’ independent gathering and sharing of information with the federal government on criminal elements’ intentions to make trouble during the long march. Nonetheless, Shahbaz conceded that Malik’s fears were well-founded and promised that the senior leadership would take “”full-proof”" security precautions during the rallies and minimize their exposure to the public.

7. (S) Principal Officer asked Shahbaz whether his party was prepared to negotiate the venue for the planned Islamabad sit-in with the federal government in order to minimize the security threat and disruption to governance in the capital. Shahbaz stated that “”unofficially”" the PML-N was fully prepared to discuss the issue with Malik and to compromise on a venue acceptable to both parties, even if it meant holding the sit-in in Rawalpindi or on the outskirts of Islamabad. However, Shahbaz stated that the PML-N was not the primary organizer of the event and that if Malik wished to discuss such matters, he should include the other sit-in participants, principally the lawyers’ movement leadership in the negotiations. Shahbaz was adamant that while the PML-N was prepared to be helpful, the party would have to follow the lawyers lead on this question, as the lawyers were the primary event organizers. (Note: Ambassador conveyed Shahbaz’s message to Interior Minister Rehman Malik, who requested that the PML-N take the lead in organizing a trilateral discussion including himself and the lawyers. Post has conveyed Malik’s request to Shahbaz Sharif. Shahbaz, after consulting with senior leadership of the PML-N, refused to assist. End Note.)


8. (S) As was expected, the Sharifs are expanding the issues on which they want progress as part of negotiations with President Zardari. The removal of Governor Taseer, the final retirement of Chief Justice Dogar, and progress on the Charter of Democracy provisions related to the 17th amendment are all new PML-N demands that will likely be highly controversial with President Zardari. Post believes that the Sharifs are likely flexible on the 17th amendment but will hold firm to both the Dogar and Taseer removals — for largely personal reasons. The offer to negotiate on the sit-in venue is an important concession that has the possibility to help improve security and minimize direct confrontation during the long-march and that could serve as a confidence building measure for future negotiations. However, Shahbaz’s insistence on the lawyers’ involvement in this process could easily complicate the discussions significantly, and we will need to continue to lean on the Sharifs to show leadership and bring the lawyers to a reasonable compromise.

End Comment


Sunday, May 29, 2011, Jamadi-us-Sani 25, 1432 A.H

Al-Khawaarij & Character of Khawarij

1- Obeying the Ruler [Quran and Hadith].

2- Conditions for Rebellion [Khurooj] against Rulers.

3- Shaykh ul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah on Rebellion Against the Rulers and A Discussion of the Khurooj Made By the Early Salaf .


1- Obeying the Ruler [Quran and Hadith]:

يَـأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ أَطِيعُواْ اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُواْ الرَّسُولَ وَأُوْلِى الاٌّمْرِ مِنْكُمْ فَإِن تَنَازَعْتُمْ فِى شَىْءٍ فَرُدُّوهُ إِلَى اللَّهِ وَالرَّسُولِ إِن كُنتُمْ تُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الاٌّخِرِ ذلِكَ خَيْرٌ وَأَحْسَنُ تَأْوِيلاً

English Translation:

O ye who believe! Obey Allah, and obey the messenger and those of you who are in authority; and if ye have a dispute concerning any matter, refer it to Allah and the messenger if ye are (in truth) believers in Allah and the Last Day. That is better and more seemly in the end.[AN-NISA (WOMEN) Chapter 4 Verse 59]

The Necessity of Obeying the Rulers in Obedience to Allah Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn `Abbas said that the Ayah,

(Obey Allah and obey the Messenger, and those of you who are in authority.) "Was revealed about `Abdullah bin Hudhafah bin Qays bin `Adi, who the Messenger of Allah sent on a military expedition.'' This statement was collected by the Group, with the exception of Ibn Majah At-Tirmidhi said, "Hasan, Gharib''. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Ali said, "The Messenger of Allah sent a troop under the command of a man from Al-Ansar. When they left, he became angry with them for some reason and said to them, `Has not the Messenger of Allah commanded you to obey me' They said, `Yes.' He said, `Collect some wood,' and then he started a fire with the wood, saying, `I command you to enter the fire.' The people almost entered the fire, but a young man among them said, `You only ran away from the Fire to Allah's Messenger. Therefore, do not rush until you go back to Allah's Messenger, and if he commands you to enter it, then enter it.' When they went back to Allah's Messenger , they told him what had happened, and the Messenger said,

«لَوْ دَخَلْتُمُوهَا مَا خَرَجْتُمْ مِنْهَا أَبَدًا، إِنَّمَا الطَّاعَةُ فِي الْمَعْرُوف»

(Had you entered it, you would never have departed from it. Obedience is only in righteousness.)'' This Hadith is recorded in the Two Sahihs. Abu Dawud recorded that `Abdullah bin `Umar said that the Messenger of Allah said,

«السَّمْعُ وَالطَّاعَةُ عَلَى الْمَرْءِ الْمُسْلِمِ فِيمَا أَحَبَّ وَكَرِهَ، مَا لَمْ يُؤْمَرْ بِمَعْصِيَةٍ، فَإِذَا أُمِرَ بِمَعْصِيَةٍ فَلَا سَمْعَ وَلَا طَاعَة»

(The Muslim is required to hear and obey in that which he likes and dislikes, unless he was commanded to sin. When he is commanded with sin, then there is no hearing or obeying.) This Hadith is recorded in the Two Sahihs. `Ubadah bin As-Samit said, "We gave our pledge to Allah's Messenger to hear and obey (our leaders), while active and otherwise, in times of ease and times of difficulty, even if we were deprived of our due shares, and to not dispute this matter (leadership) with its rightful people. The Prophet said,

«إِلَّا أَنْ تَرَوْا كُفْرًا بَوَاحًا، عِنْدَكُمْ فِيهِ مِنَ اللهِ بُرْهَان»

(Except when you witness clear Kufr about which you have clear proof from Allah.)'' This Hadith is recorded in the Two Sahihs. Another Hadith narrated by Anas states that the Messenger of Allah said,

«اسْمَعُوا وَأَطِيعُوا، وَإِنْ أُمِّرَ عَلَيْكُمْ عَبْدٌحَبَشِيٌّ كَأَنَّ رَأْسَهُ زَبِيبَة»

(Hear and obey (your leaders), even if an Ethiopian slave whose head is like a raisin, is made your chief.) Al-Bukhari recorded this Hadith. Umm Al-Husayn said that she heard the Messenger of Allah giving a speech during the Farewell Hajj, in which he said;

«وَلَوِ اسْتُعْمِلَ عَلَيْكُمْ عَبْدٌيَقُودُكُمْ بِكِتَابِ اللهِ، اسْمَعُوا لَهُ وَأَطِيعُوا»

(Even if a slave was appointed over you, and he rules you with Allah's Book, then listen to him and obey him.) Muslim recorded this Hadith. In another narration with Muslim, the Prophet said,

«عَبْدًا حَبَشِيًّا مَجْدُوعًا»

(Even if an Ethiopian slave, whose nose was mutilated...) In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

«مَنْ أَطَاعَنِي فَقَدْ أَطَاعَ اللهَ، وَمَنْ عَصَانِي فَقَدْ عَصَى اللهَ، وَمَنْ أَطَاعَ أَمِيرِي فَقَدْ أَطَاعَنِي، وَمَنْ عَصَى أَمِيرِي فَقَدْ عَصَانِي»

(Whoever obeys me, obeys Allah, and whoever disobeys me, disobeys Allah. Whoever obeys my commander, obeys me, and whoever disobeys my commander, disobeys me.) This is why Allah said,

أَطِيعُواْ اللَّهَ

(Obey Allah), adhere to His Book,

وَأَطِيعُواْ الرَّسُولَ

(and obey the Messenger), adhere to his Sunnah,

وَأُوْلِى الاٌّمْرِ مِنْكُمْ

(And those of you who are in authority) in the obedience to Allah which they command you, not what constitutes disobedience of Allah, for there is no obedience to anyone in disobedience to Allah, as we mentioned in the authentic Hadith,

«إِنَّمَا الطَّاعَةُ فِي الْمَعْرُوف»

(Obedience is only in righteousness.)

The Necessity of Referring to the Qur'an and Sunnah for Judgment

Allah said,

فَإِن تَنَازَعْتُمْ فِى شَىْءٍ فَرُدُّوهُ إِلَى اللَّهِ وَالرَّسُولِ

((And) if you differ in anything amongst yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Messenger). Mujahid and several others among the Salaf said that the Ayah means, "(Refer) to the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger.'' This is a command from Allah that whatever areas the people dispute about, whether major or minor areas of the religion, they are required to refer to the Qur'an and Sunnah for judgment concerning these disputes. In another Ayah, Allah said,

وَمَا اخْتَلَفْتُمْ فِيهِ مِن شَىْءٍ فَحُكْمُهُ إِلَى اللَّهِ

(And in whatsoever you differ, the decision thereof is with Allah). Therefore, whatever the Book and Sunnah decide and testify to the truth of, then it, is the plain truth. What is beyond truth, save falsehood This is why Allah said, u

إِن كُنتُمْ تُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الاٌّخِرِ

(if you believe in Allah and in the Last Day.) meaning, refer the disputes and conflicts that arise between you to the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger for judgment. Allah's statement,

إِن كُنتُمْ تُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الاٌّخِرِ

(if you believe in Allah and in the Last Day. ) indicates that those who do not refer to the Book and Sunnah for judgment in their disputes, are not believers in Allah or the Last Day. Allah said,

ذَلِكَ خَيْرٌ

(That is better) meaning, referring to the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger for judgment in various disputes is better,

وَأَحْسَنُ تَأْوِيلاً

(and more suitable for final determination.) meaning, "Has a better end and destination,'' as As-Suddi and several others have stated while Mujahid said, "Carries a better reward.''

2- Conditions for Rebellion [Khurooj] against Rulers.

‘Ubaydullaah ibn ‘Adiyy ibn Khiyaar reports: I went to ‘Uthmaan (radiallaahu anhu), whilst he was being besieged and I said to him: You are the ruler of the Muslims in general and you see what has befallen you. We are being led in prayer by a leader of insurrection and we are afraid of being sinful. So ‘Uthmaan said, “The prayer is the best of actions which people do so, when the people do good deeds, do good along with them. When they do evil, avoid their evil.” Reported by al-Bukhaaree.

Imaam Al-Barbahaaree Says in his Kitaab Sharh us-Sunnah To hear and obey the rulers in that which Allah loves and is pleased with. Whoever becomes Khaleefah through the consensus of the people and their being pleased with him, he is the ‘Chief of the Believers’ (Ameerul-Mu’mineen) .

It is, therefore, not permissible for anyone to spend a single night thinking that he has no Imaam over him, whether he (the Imaam) be righteous or wicked.

The Hajj and Jihaad are to be carried out under his leadership. Jumu’ah prayer behind them (i.e. the wicked rulers)

Imaam Al-Barbahaaree Says in his Kitaab Sharh us-Sunnah: Whoever rebels against a Muslim ruler is one of the Khawaarij, has caused dissent within the Muslims and has contradicted the narrations and dies a death of the days of ignorance (Jaahiliyyah)

It is permissible to fight the Khawaarij if they attack the Muslims.

It is permissible to fight the Khawaarij if they attack the persons, property or families of the Muslims,[Refer to Saheeh al-Bukhaaree] but, if they desist and flee, they may not be chased, nor are their wounded to be killed, nor set upon, nor may those taken captive be killed, nor are those who flee to be followed.

The Khawaarij are a group who first appeared in the time of ‘Alee (radiallaahu anhu). They split from his army and began the grave innovation of Takfeer (declaring Muslims, rulers or the ruled, in their view guilty of major sins, to be disbelievers).The Prophet warned against them in many authentic ahaadeeth: “The Khawaarij are the dogs of the Fire.” Reported by Ahmad and it is saheeh. He also informed us that they would continue to appear until the end of this world, saying, “A group will appear reciting the Qur’aan, but it will not pass beyond their throats. Every time a group appears, it is to be cut off, until the Dajjaal appears within them.” Reported by Ibn Maajah and it is hasan. Refer to Silsilatul-Ahaadeet h as-Saheehah.

Imaam Al-Barbahaaree Says in his Kitaab Sharh us-Sunnah: It is neither permissible to fight the ruler or to rebel against him, even if he oppresses.

This is due to the saying of the Messenger of Allah to Abu Dharr al-Ghifaaree, “Have patience, even if he is an Abyssinian slave” [Muslim] and his saying to the Ansaar, “Have patience until you meet me at the Pool.”[Reported by al-Bukhaaree] from the hadeeth of Usayd ibn al-Hudayr) There is no fighting against the ruler in the Sunnah. It causes destruction of the religion and the worldly affairs.

Hudhaifah (radiallaahu anhu) reports, in a longer hadeeth, that the Messenger of Allah said, “There will come leaders who will not follow my guidance and will not follow my Sunnah. There will be amongst them men who will have the hearts of devils in the bodies of humans.” He (Hudhaifah) asked, “What shall I do, O Messenger of Allah, if I reach that?” He eplied, “You should hear and obey the ruler, even if he flogs your back and takes your wealth, then still hear and obey.” Reported by Muslim.

Al-Khallaal reports, in as-Sunnah that: Abu Bakr related to us, saying, “I heard Abu ‘Abdullah (Imaam Ahmad) ordering that bloodshed be avoided and he strongly forbade rebellion.”

It is also related by Ibn Sa'ad in Tabaqaatul Kubraa A group of Muslims came to al Hasan al Basree (d.110H) seeking a verdict to rebel against al Hajjaaj. So they said, "O Abu Sa'eed! What do you say about fighting this oppressor who has unlawfully spilt blood and unlawfully taken wealth and did this and that?" So al Hasan said, "I hold that he should not be fought. If this is the punishment from Allah (Ta'aala), then you will not be able to remove it with your swords. If this is a trial from Allah (Ta'aala), then be patient until Allah's Judgement comes, and He is the best of Judges."

So they left Al Hasan, disagreed with him and rebelled against al Hajjaaj - so al Hajjaaj killed them all.

Hajjaaj wasath Thaqafee, and is well known. Adh Dhahabee said in Siyar A'lamin Nubalaa at the end of his biography, "We revile him and do not love him, rather we hate him for Allah (Ta'aala). He had some good deeds, but they are drowned in the ocean of his sins, and his affair is for Allah!"

About them al Hasan used to say, "If the people had patience, when they were being tested by their unjust ruler, it will not be long before Allah (Ta'aala) will give them a way out. However, they always rush for their swords, so they are left to their swords. By Allah! Not even for a single day did they bring about any good."It is related by Ibn Sa’d in at-Tabaqaat, and by Ibn Abee Haatim in his Tafseer.

And when the fitnah occurred in the time of 'Uthmaan Gani (radiallaahu' anhu), some of the people said to Usaamah ibn Zaid (radiallaahu' anhu), "Will you not speak to 'Uthmaan?" So he replied, "You think that I will not talk to him without letting you know about it (also). Indeed, I will certainly talk to him regarding that which concerns me and him without initiating a matter which I do not love to be the first to initiate."

It is authentically reported from the Messenger of Allah Muhammad (salallaahu' alayheewasallam) in the Ahaadeeth of 'Iyaad Ibn Ghunum who said, "The Messenger of Allaah Muhammad (salallaahu' alayheewasallam) said, "Whoever desires to advise the one with authority then he should not do so openly, rather he should take him by the hand and take him into seclusion (and then advise him). And if he accepts (the advice) from him then (he has achieved his objective) and if not, then he has fulfilled that which was a duty upon him." (Reported by Ahmad and Ibn Abee 'Aasim with a Saheeh isnaad.)

And when they (the Khawaarij) opened up the evil in the time of 'Uthmaan (radiallaahu' anhu) and rejected 'Uthmaan openly, the fitnah, the killing and the mischief, which has not ceased to affect the people to this day, was brought about. And this caused the fitnah to occur between 'Alee and Mu'aawiyyah and 'Uthmaan (radiallaahu' anhu) was killed for these reasons.

(Futhermore) a large number of Companions and others besides them were killed due to this open rebellion and the open proclamation of the faults (of the ruler), until the people began to hate the one charged with authority over them and killed him. We ask Allah for success." [These were the words of the Shaykh Abdul Azeez Ibn Baaz, (hafidhahullaah) . Taken from Al-Ma'loom min Waajib il-'Ilaaqah bain al Haakim wal-Mahkoom, .]

Al-Haafidh Ibn Hajar (d.852H) – Rahimahullaah – said in Fathul-Baaree (1/138): “The advice to the leaders of the Muslims is to aid them upon that by which they will become established. And it is to warn them against negligence, and to correct their deficiency when they slip, and to unite the word upon them, and to reject the hearts that have enmity towards them. And the greatest advice is to prevent them – by using that which is good – from oppression.”

Imaam Al-Barbahaaree Says in his Kitaab Sharh us-Sunnah: When fitnah occurs, remain in your house When turmoil (fitnah) occurs, remain within your house [1] and flee from the neighbourhood of tumult. Beware of blind following and every case of fighting between Muslims for this world is discord and a trial. Fear Allah, who is alone, having no partner. Do not go out in it, do not fight in it, do not take part in it, do not take sides in it, nor incline towards either (side) and do not have love for any of their affairs, since it is said, “He who loves the deeds of a people, good or bad, is just like the one who commits them.” May Allah grant us and you those things pleasing to Him and keep us away from disobedience to Him.

Ibn az-Zubayr narrates: My close friend, Abul-Qaasim (sallallaahu alaihi wa sallam) advised me, “If you reach anything of the tumult (fitnah), go to Uhud and blunt your sword upon it, then remain in your house.” Reported by Ahmad in al-Musnad. Its isnaad is hasan, as has been mentioned by Shaikh al-Albaanee (rahimahullaah) in as-Saheehah.

Behaving well towards the oppressive ruler and praying behind him

Imaam Al-Barbahaaree Says in his Kitaab Sharh us-Sunnah Know that a ruler’s oppression does not reduce or remove anything that Allah has made obligatory upon the tongue of the Messenger (sallallaahu alaihi wa sallam). His oppression is upon himself. Your acts of obedience and good deeds, along with behaving well towards him, are complete, if Allah, the Most High, wills. Accompany them in all acts of obedience, such as the congregational and Jumu’ah prayers [and Jihaad alongside them] for you have your independent intention in that.

Shaikhul-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullaah) says in Majmoo’ al-Fataawaa , “The rulers are not to be fought due to committing sins. Even though a person may be killed for some sins, such as adultery and the like. However, it is not permitted to fight the rulers for doing things for which a person may be killed, since the corruption caused by this fighting is far greater than the corruption of a major sin committed by the ruler.”

Imaam Al-Barbahaaree Says in his Kitaab Sharh us-Sunnah If you find a man making supplication against the ruler, know that he is a person of innovation. If you find a person making supplication for the ruler to be upright, know that he is a person of the Sunnah, if Allah wills. Fudayl ibn ‘Iyaad said, “If I had an invocation that was to be answered, I would not make it except for the ruler.” It was said to him, “O Abu ‘Alee, explain that to us.” He replied, “If I made an invocation for myself, it would not go beyond me. Whereas, if I make it for the ruler, he is corrected and, through that, the servants and the land are set in order”.

Ibn al Mubaarak Rahimahullaah said (in reference to the above saying of al-Fudayl), "O teacher of goodness, who would show boldness towards this besides you?"

Imaam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal (d.241H) – rahimahullaah – said “Verily I supplicate for the ruler, for his correctness, success and support – night and day – and I see this as being obligatory upon me.’’ Refer to as-Sunnah of Aboo Bakr al-Khallaal.

We are ordered to make supplication for them (the rulers) to be upright. We have not been ordered to make supplication against them, even if they commit tyranny and oppression, since their tyranny and oppression reflect only upon themselves, but their rectitude is good for themselves and the Muslims.

Some important ahaadeeth regarding Rulers

The Prophet (salallaahu' alayheewasallam) Whosoever sees something from his leader of sin, then let him hate whatever occurs from sin. And let him not remove his hand from obedience, since whoever removes his hand from disobedience and splits off from the Jamaa’ah (united body), then he dies the death of Jaahiliyyah (pre-Islaamic times of ignorance)’’ Related by al-Bukhaaree and Muslim.

The Prophet (salallaahu' alayheewasallam) said ‘‘The person must obey in whatever he loves, and in whatever he hates, in ease and in hardship, in willingness and un-willingness; except if he is commanded to disobey Allaah. So if he is commanded to disobey Allaah, then he should not listen, not should he obey.’’ Related by al-Bukhaaree.

The Companions asked him: O Messenger of Allaah! When you mentioned that there will be rulers, ‘you will approve of some things from them, and disapprove of others things.’ They said: So what do you command us to do? He said: ‘‘Give them their right, and invoke Allaah, since He is with you.’’ ’Ubaadah (radiyallaahu ’anhu) said: ‘‘We gave the oath of allegiance to the Messenger of Allaah that we would not oppose the command, not its people.’’ He said: ‘‘Except if you were to see clear disbelief (kufran bawaahan) about which you have a proof from Allaah.’’ Related by Muslim

3- Shaykh ul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah on Rebellion Against the Rulers and A Discussion of the Khurooj Made By the Early Salaf .

All praise is due to Allaah and may the prayers and peace be upon the Messenger. To proceed:

These are some words of Shaykh ul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah that are worthy of being written in gold, as they are far reaching, explain the great wisdom contained in the Sharee’ah commands concerning those in authority, and expose what is with the contemporary groups of destruction, from the Khawaarij and other than them, who bring about nothing but mischief and corruption, in the name of rectification.

The Shaykh, Fawzee al-Atharee, in his excellent book, “Irshaad ul-Anaam Ilaa Kaifiyyat Naseehat il-Hukkaam”, quotes the following statement of Shaykh ul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah, from his Minhaaj us-Sunnah (4/527-):

“For verily Allaah the Exalted sent His Messenger (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) for the attainment of the benefits and perfection of them, and for the negation of the harmful things and their reduction. And when one of the khaleefahs took authority, such as Zaid and ‘Abdul-Malik and al-Mansoor and others, then either it was said: It is obligatory to prevent him from this authority and to fight him until someone else is given authority - as is held by those who consider it rightful to use the sword.

And this view is corrupt, for the corruption in this is greater than the benefit. And there is hardly anyone who revolted against a leader with authority except that what arose from his action of evil, was actually greater than whatever good came from it, such as those who rebelled against Yazeed in Madeenah, or like Ibn al-Ash’at1who revolted against ‘Abdul-Malik in ‘Iraaq, or like Ibn al-Mihlab also, who revolted against his son in Khurasaan, and like those who revolted against al-Mansoor in Madeenah and Basrah, and the likes of them.

And their goal is that they are victorious or they are defeated, then their rule (dominion) ceases, and so they do not have any end-result. For Abdullaah bin Alee and Abu Muslim, they are the ones who killed a great number of people, and both of them were killed by Abu Ja’far al-Mansoor. And as for the people of [the occurrence of] al-Harrah (in Madinah) and Ibn al-Ash’at and Ibn al-Mihlab, and others, then they were defeated, and their associates were also defeated. So they never established the deen and nor did they allow the dunyaa (worldly life) to remain (as it was)And Allaah, the Exalted, does not order something on account of which rectification of the deen and the dunyaa is not attained – even if the one who does that is from the Awliyaa of Allaah, the Pious ones (Muttaqeen), and from the People of Paradise.

For they are not more superior than Aa’ishah and Talhah and az-Zubair and others, and alongside (what they did), they did not praise what they fell into of fighting, and the likes of these are of greater rank and position in the sight of Allaah, and of better intention than those besides them…

And al-Hasan al-Basri used to say, “Verily al-Hajjaaj is a punishment of Allaah, so do not repel the punishment of Allaah with your hands, but you must (repel it) with humility and submission”.

And the most superior of the Muslims (from the early Muslims) used to forbid revolting and fighting in the times of tribulation, such as ‘Abdullaah ibn ‘Umar and Sa’eed bin al-Musayyab, and ‘Alee bin al-Hasan and others, all of them used to forbid, during the year of Harrah, from the revolt against Yazeed, and just as al-Hasan al-Basree and Mujaahid and others used to forbid from revolt during the tribulation of Ibn al-Ash’at.

And it is for this reason that it is firmly established with Ahl us-Sunnah to abandon fighting in times of tribulation due to the authentic ahaadeeth that are established from the Prophet (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam), and they began to mention this matter in the course of (authoring their works) on their aqeedah, and they would command with patience towards the oppression of the leaders, and the abandonment of fighting against them – even if a fair portion of the people of knowledge fought against them during the tribulation…

And whoever reflects upon the authentic ahaadeeth that are established from the Prophet (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) concerning this topic, and also considers with the consideration of those with insight and deep knowledge, will know that that which the Prophetic Texts have come with is from the best of all affairs.

And for this reason, when al-Husayn (radiallaahu anhu) desired to revolt against the people of ‘Iraaq, they wrote many letters to him, as has been indicated by the people of knowledge, such as Ibn ‘Umar, Ibn ‘Abbaas, ‘Abu Bakr bin Abdur-Rahmaan bin al-Haarith bin Hishaam, that he should not revolt, and their overwhelming belief was that he would be killed… and they were actually desiring to give sincere advice to him, and were seeking what was beneficial and better for him, and for the Muslims in general, and Allaah and His Messenger, verily, they only command with rectitude, not with corruption. However, the opinion can sometimes be correct and can sometimes be wrong.

So it has become clear that the correct affair was what they had said, and there was not to be found in the revolt any rectification or benefit for the deen and nor for the dunyaa. Rather, those oppressive wrongdoers were able to overcome the grandson of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) until they killed him as one oppressed, a martyr. And in his revolt and his fighting (against them) was such corruption and mischief that would not have occurred had he sat and remained in his own town.

For whatever he intended of the attainment of good and repelling of evil, then nothing from it occurred. Rather, only evil increased by his revolt and his fighting, and the goodness diminished on account of that. And that was also the cause of a great deal of evil, and the killing of Husayn itself was what brought about the tribulations, just as the killing of ‘Uthmaan was from that which brought about tribulations.

And all of this is what explains that whatever the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) has commanded of patience towards the tyranny of the Rulers and abandonment of fighting against them and revolting against them, that this is of the most beneficial and rectifying of affairs, in both this life and the next, and that whoever opposes this deliberately, or due to an error, then no rectification is attained by his action, rather only corruption.

And for this reason the Prophet (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) praised al-Hasan with his saying, “Verily, this son of mine is a leader (sayyid) and Allaah will bring about reconciliation through him between two great factions from amongst the Muslims”, but he did not praise anyone on account of fighting in the time of tribulation, and nor on account of revolting against the leaders, and nor on account of withholding from obedience, or separating from the Jamaa’ah.

And the ahaadeeth of the Prophet (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) that are established in the Saheeh, all of them indicate this... and this explains that the reconciliation between the two parties was praised and was loved by Allaah and His Messenger, and that what was done by al-Hasan in bringing this about was from the greatest of his excellencies and his stations, on account of which the Prophet (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) praised him. And if fighting had been obligatory or reccommended - and the Prophet (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) never praised anyone for the abandonment of that which is obligatory or reccommended - and for this reason the Prophet (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) did not praise anyone on account of what happened of fighting on the Day of the Camel, and Siffeen, let alone what occurred in Madinah on the Day of Harrah, and whatever happened in Makkah in the besieging of Ibn az-Zubayr, and what happened in the fitnah of Ibn al-Ash'at and
Ibn al-Mihlab and other such tribulations.

Rather, it has been successively narrated (tawaatara) from him that he commanded fighting against the Khawaarij, the Renegades, those whom the Chief of the Believers fought against, Alee bin Abee Taalib (radiallaahu anhu), at Nahrawaan, after they had revolted against him at Harooraa. For the narrations (sunan) from the Prophet (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) were in abundance (i.e. spread, known) concerning the fighting against them (the Khawaarij), and when Alee (radiyallaahu anhu) fought against them, he rejoiced with fighting against them, and he also narrated the hadeeth concerning them, and the Companions also agreed upon fighting them.

And similarly the people of knowledge after them, this fighting (against the Khawaarij) was not like the fighting of the people of the Camel and Siffeen and other than them, from those matters in which no text of Ijmaa' has come, and neither any praise of the noble ones who entered into it. Rather, they were remorseful about it, and also returned (i.e. recanted) from it.

And this hadeeth (i.e. concerning al-Hasan) is from the signs of the Prophethood of our Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam), when he mentioned about al-Hasan whatever he mentioned, and praised him for what he praised him. So whatever he mentioned and whatever he praised was in agreement with the truth that actually occurred after more than 30 years... as occurs in the authentic hadiths, and also despite what has been reported about them in the hadeeth of Abu Umaamah, collected by at-Tirmidhi and others that they are “the most evil of those who are killed under the sky and how excellent is the one killed by them”. Meaning that they are more harmful to the Muslims than others, for there are none which are more harmful to the Muslims than them, neither the Jews and nor the Christians. For they strived to kill every Muslim who did not agree with their view , declaring the blood of the Muslims, their wealth, and the slaying of their children to be lawful, while making takfir of them. And they considered this to be worship, due to their ignorance and their innovation that caused to stray…”

Minhaj us-Sunnah 5/248.

Ibn Hubairah concerning the hadeeth of Abu Sa’eed al-Khudree, “In this hadeeth is proof that fighting the Khawarij comes before fighting the pagans, mushrikeen. And the wisdom in that is that in fighting against them is a preservation of the capital of Islaam, whereas in fighting the people of Shirk there is the seeking of increase (in capital). So preserving the capital comes first.” Fath ul-Bari 12/301.

‘Asim bin Shumaikh said, “So I saw him – meaning Abu Sa’eed al-Khudree (who reported the hadith about the killing of the Khawarij) – after he had grown old and when his hands began to tremble, saying, ‘Fighting them – meaning the Khawarij – is greater to me than fighting an equal number of the Turks”. Ibn Abi Shaybah 15/305 and Musnad Ahmad 3/33. And fighting the Khawaarij is in all times, and it is obligatory to repel them, by way of the pen, tongue or sword as they will never cease to emerge until in the midst of the last of them appears the Dajjaal. The Messenger (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) said, “A group will appear reciting the Qur’aan, it will not pass beyond their throats, every time a group appears, it is to be cut off, until the Dajjaal appears within them”. (Reported by Ibn Maajah and it is Hasan. And see Silsilat ul-Ahaadeeth as-Saheehah of al-Albaanee, no. 2455).

And the two main features of the Khawaarij are takfir by way of major sins and adopting revolt and rebellion as a methodology of reform. And a new band of Khawaarij has emerged in contemporary times under the influence of teachings, doctrines and works of their pole and axis, Aal Qutb – who have aided in the proliferation of the aqeedah and manhaj of the Khawaarij.

And this very thing is the actual wisdom that the legislator (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) was attempting to bring about and nurture in his prohibition of revolting against the rulers, and he taught abandonment of fighting in times of fitnah - even if those who fell into this considered that their intent is to enjoin the good and forbid the evil.

And it is actually from this angle (i.e. intending the enjoining of good and forbidding of evil) that the Khawaarij made lawful the (raising of the) sword against the people of the qiblah, until they killed Alee and others from the Muslims. And similarly, those who agreed with them in revolting against the Rulers, with the sword, in general terms - such as the Mu'tazilah, the Zaydiyyah, and the Fuqahaa (Jurists), and others. Such as those who revolted alongside Muhammad bin Abdullaah bin Abdullaah bin Hasan bin Husayn, and his brother, Ibraaheem bin Abdullaah bin
Hasan bin Husayn and others.

For the people of the religion are from the likes of these (i.e. those who revolted), but they err from two angles:

The first: That what they considered to be from the deen is not actually from the deen, such as the viewpoint of the Khawaarij and other than them from the people of desires. For they believe in an opinion that is an error and an innovation, and then they fight the people over it. Rather, they declare as disbelievers those who oppose them. Hence, they become errant in their opinion and also in fighting those who opppose them, or making takfir of them and cursing them.

And this is the condition of the People of Desires in general, such as the Jahmiyyah who called the people to the rejection of the realities of the Beautiful Names of Allaah, and His Lofty Attributes. They say: Verily, He does not have speech except the speech which He created in others (besides Himself), and that He will not be seen, and other such things. And they also put the people to trial, when some of the rulers inclined towards them (i.e. towards the Jahmiyyah), and so they would punish whoever would oppose them in their opinion, either with death, or with imprisonment, or with banishment and prevention of sustenance. And the Jahmiyyah did this on more than one occasion (in history), and Allaah supports His believing Servants against them.

And the Rafidah are more evil than them, when they gain authority, for they are loyal to the Kuffaar and aid them, and they show enmity towards all those from the Muslims who do not agree with their viewpoint. Similarly, those who have something within them of innovations, either the innovation of the Hulooliyyah. .. or the innovation of the Negators (of the Attributes) or those who exaggerate in affirmation (of the Attributes), or the innovation of the Qadariyyah, or that of Irjaa', or other than that. You will find him believing in corrupt beliefs, and then declare as a disbeliever or curse whoever opposed him. And the Khawaarij Renegades are the Imaams of all of these in making takfeer of Ahl us-Sunnah wal-Jamaa'ah and in fighting them.

The second:

The one who fights based upon his belief in a viewpoint to which he calls the one who opposes the Sunnah and Jamaa'ah, such as the People of the Camel, and Siffeen, and al-Harrah, and al-Jamaajim and others. However, he thinks that the desired rectification and benefit will be attained by way of this fighting, but this fighting attains no such thing. Rather, the corruption and harm becomes greater, much more than what it was initially. And then what the legislator (i.e. the Prophet) actually indicates and direct towards (of what entails true rectitude) finally becomes clear to them at the end of the affair.

And from that which is desirable to be known is that the causes of these tribulation are actually mixed, shared. For certain states and conditions come over the hearts that prevent them from knowing the truth and desiring it, and thus they resemble the state of Jaahiliyyah. Since, in Jaahiliyyah there was no knowledge of the truth and nor the desiring of this truth. And then Islaam came with beneficial knowledge and the righteous action, which is the knowledge of the truth, and desiring it.

So it is agreed that some of the rulers commit oppression by way of monopoly, control (i.e. being authoritarian and misappropriating) , and then the souls do not show patience over his oppression. And it is not possible for them to repel his oppression except by what is even greater corruption than it (i.e. his oppression). However, for the sake of the love of a person, so that his due legal right can be given, and that oppression can be repelled from him, he does not look at (and consider) the general corruption, mischief that would arise on account of his action.

And for this reason the Prophet (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) said, “Verily, you will face hardship, so have patience until you meet me at the Hawd”, and it is likewise established in the Saheeh, that he said, “Upon a Muslim is to hear and obey, in times of difficulty and in ease, in the disliked things (to which one disapproves of) and in likeable things (to which one shows zeal), and when he preference is given (to other than him)”.

For the Prophet (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) ordered the Muslims that they should be patient when they are controlled, monopolised (in oppression), and that they should obey those who in charge of their affairs, even if they (the rulers) give preference to themselves over them (the subjects), and that they should not contend for authority. And many of those who revolted against those in authority, or the vast majority of them, then they revolted so that they may contend with them (for authority), alongside their misappropriation, monopoly, over them, so they did not show patience upon this... and the one who fights remains thinking that he is only fighting him so that there is no more fitnah and so that the deen, all of it is for Allaah, and yet the greatest of that which actually motivated him (mobilised him) was seeking his portion, either of leadership, or of wealth.

Just as Allaah, the Exalted said, “If they are given part thereof (of alms), they are pleased, but if they are not given thereof, behold! They are enraged!” (At- Tawbah 9:58) and in the Saheeh from the Prophet (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) that he said, “There are three whom Allaah will not speak to, nor look at on the Day of Judgement, and nor will he purify them, and they will have a tormenting punishment.. . and a man who gives the pledge of allegiance to a leader (imaam)

and he does not do so except for the sake of the world, if he is given from it, he is pleased, and if he is prevented from it, he is enraged...” And he ordered having patience upon their misappropriation, and prohibited fighting against them, and contending with them (for authority), alongside their oppression. Because the corruption, mischief that arises from fighting during fitnah, is greater than the corruption in the oppression of those in authority.

Thus, the lighter of two evils is not to be removed by the greater of the two. And whoever reflects upon the Qur'aan and the Sunnah that is established from Allaah's Messenger (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) and considers it will find it to be in agreement with what he finds in his own soul.”

End of Shaykh ul-Islaam’s words.



The Characteristics of the Extremist Khawaarij

The Characteristics of the Extremist Khawaarij



The Prophet Mohammad [PBUH] said:

إنَّ أمّتكم هذه جُعل عافيتها في أوّلها، وسيصيب آخرَها بلاء وأمورٌ تنكِرونَها،

وتجيء فتنٌ يرقّق بعضُها بعضاً، وتجيء الفتنة فيقول المؤمن: هذه مهلكَتي،

ثم تَنكشِف، ثم تجيء الفتنة فيقول: هذِه هذه،

فمَن أحبَّ أن يُزحزَح عن النار ويُدخَل الجنّة فلتأتِه منيّتُه وهو يؤمن بالله

واليوم الآخر، وليَأتِ إلى الناس الذي يحبُّ أن يُؤتَى إليه 

“Safety of this your ummah lies in its first generation. Its later generations will be afflicted with calamities and things you will find repulsive. Trials will follow one another successively until later ones will make the former seem insignificant until the believer will say at the advent of each trial: ‘This is the one that is going to destroy me.’ So let whosoever wants to be saved from Hell and made to enter Paradise die while he is believing in Allaah and the Last Day and let him do to people what he would like them to do to him .” (Muslim)

Abd-Allaah ibn Mas’ood spoke the truth when he described the companions of the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه وسلم ) by saying:

فإن الحي لا يؤمن عليه الفتنة، أولئك أصحاب محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم من كان منكم مستنا ، فليستن بمن قد مات أبر هذه الأمة قلوبا ، وأعمقها علما ،

وأقلها تكلفا ، قوم اختارهم الله لإقامة دينه ، وصحبة نبيه ،

فاعرفوا لهم حقهم وتمسكوا بهديهم ، فإنهم كانوا على الهدى المستقيم

“Whoever wants to follow a path, let him follow the path of one who has died, for there is no guarantee that the one who is still alive will not be tempted. Those are the companions of Muhammad ( صلى الله عليه وسلم ), the most pure in heart of this ummah and the most deep in knowledge, the least sophisticated and complicated, people whom Allaah chose to establish His religion and accompany His Prophet. So acknowledge their rights and adhere to their guidance, for they are following true guidance .”

وَإِنَّ مِنْهُمْ لَفَرِيقًا يَلْوُونَ أَلْسِنَتَهُم بِالْكِتَابِ لِتَحْسَبُوهُ مِنَ الْكِتَابِ

وَمَا هُوَ مِنَ الْكِتَابِ وَيَقُولُونَ هُوَ مِنْ عِندِ اللّهِ وَمَا هُوَ مِنْ عِندِ اللّهِ

وَيَقُولُونَ عَلَى اللّهِ الْكَذِبَ وَهُمْ يَعْلَمُونَ

{ and verily, among them is a party who distort the Book with their tongues (while they read it) , so that you may think it is from the Book, but it is not from the Book, and they say, “This is from Allah,” but it is not from Allah; and they speak a lie against Allah while they know it.} [3:78].

Imam ibn Al-Qayyim said, “The origin of Kufr and Shirk comes from saying about Allah without knowledge, which is one of the most prohibited acts in the Sight of Allah. It produces the most harmful effects, because it entails lying with regards to Allah and describing Him with what is not appropriate. This also entails changing and altering Allah’s religion, denying what He has approved while approving what He has denied, implementing what He has rejected while rejecting what He has commanded to be carried out, hating those who are His loyalists while taking His enemies as loyal friends, detesting what He loves while loving what He hates, and describing Him with what is not appropriate with regards to His Attributes, Speech and Actions.”

Allah has forbidden us from following our lusts and desires, and declared that doing so is not the path of the believers, but instead is the path of the disbelievers and the heretics. Allah said about such people, what translated means,

أَفَرَأَيْتَ مَنِ اتَّخَذَ إِلَهَهُ هَوَاهُ

Have you seen him who takes his own lust (vain desires) as his ilah (god)? [45:23].

The Salaf used to call those who follow the sayings that contradict the Quran and Sunnah and those who innovate in the religion, “Ahlu Al- Ahwa’,” meaning the people who follow the desires.

This is because such people discard the Quran and Sunnah and what they legislate, and instead follow their opinions and desires and depend on them.

They have even made their desires and lusts as the indisputable source of legislation, and declared that the Texts of the Quran and Sunnah do not necessarily lead to certain and clear rulings.

They thus accept the Texts only if they are in harmony with their opinions and desires, and they reject the rest or alter their meanings in the manner they see fit.

The Messenger of Allaah said,

إياكم والغلو في الدين، فإنما أهلك من كان قبلكم الغلو في الدين

"Beware of extremism in religion, for it is extremism in religion that destroyed those who were before you." (Ahmad and An-Nasaaee)

Imaam Maalik said,

ينبغي للمرء أن لا يتكلم إلا فيما أحاط به خيرًا، فقد كان رسول الله وهو إمام المسلمين وسيد العالمين يُسأل في الشيء، فما يجيب حتى يأتيه الوحي من السماء

“It is incumbent upon a person not to speak on an issue until he knows everything about it. Even the Messenger of Allaah who is the leader of all Muslims would not answer a question posed to him until he received a revelation to that effect from Heaven.”

Asking the people of knowledge

فَاسْأَلُواْ أَهْلَ الذِّكْرِ إِن كُنتُمْ لاَ تَعْلَمُونَ

Ask the people of knowledge if you do not know. ( 16:43)

The Shaykh ‘Allaamah Saalih Al-Fawzaan was asked:

هل أسامة بن لادن ومن تبعه من قوله وأيدهم على مذهبهم يُعتبرون من الخوارج؟

Is Bin Laden and those who follow his views and promote his beliefs considered to be from the (deviant sect known as the) Khawaarij?

He responded:

عندكم قاعدة أن الذي يخرج على ولي الأمر أنه من الخوارج سواء أسامة بن لادن أو غيره، اللي يخرج على ولاة أمور المسلمين هذا من الخوارج .

There is a (well known) principle, and this is that everyone who rebels against those in authority is considered to be from the Khawaarij, whether this is Bin Laden or anyone else. Anyone who rebels against the Muslim leaders is deemed to be from the Khawaarij.

1427/2/5 in the lesson ‘The Explanation of the Creed'

Question: Are those who carry the ideology of the Khawarij present today?

Answer: Far removed is Allah from all imperfections! And that which is happening today, is it not from the actions of the Khawarij? And it is declaring the Muslims to be disbelievers, and more severe than that is the killing of the Muslims and transgressing against them through terrorist activities. And this is the Manhaj of the Khawarij, it comprises of three aspects:

Firstly - Takfir of the Muslims.

Secondly - Disobedience to the ruler.

Thirdly - Making permissible the blood of the Muslims.

This is the Manhaj of the Khawarij, and even if a person believed it in his heart and did not speak (with any of it) or did not act out any of it, he would still become a Khariji in his belief and opinion, which he did not express openly.

Shaykh Salih al-Fawazan

Al-Ijaabaat al-Muhimmah fee Mashaakil il-Mudlahimmah, compiled by Muhammad bin Fahd al-Husayn.

Translated by Abul-Irbaad Abid Zargar

Question: Is the one who makes Takfir of the rulers and encourages the Muslims to revolt against their rulers, to be considered from the Khawarij?

Answer: This is the Madhhab of the Khawarij. When an individual holds it permissible to revolt against the Muslim rulers, and more severe than that is to declare them to be disbelievers. This is the Madhhab of the Khawarij.

Shaykh Salih al-Fawazan

Al-Ijaabaat al-Muhimmah fee Mashaakil il-Mudlahimmah, compiled by Muhammad bin Fahad al-Husayn.

Translated by Abul-Irbaad Abid Zargar

Question: What is our position towards those who make Takfir of the Muslim rulers today, generally and in detail? Are they (those who make Takfir of the rulers) considered to be from the Khawarij?

Answer: Those who declare the Muslim rulers to be disbelievers in general, then these are from the most extreme of the Khawarij because they do not exclude anyone and give the ruling of disbelief to all the Muslims rulers. So this is most severe form of the Madhhab of the Khawarij, because they generalized (the declaration of disbelief).

Shaykh Saleh al-Fawazan

Al-Ijaabaat al-Muhimmah fee Mashaakil il-Mudlahimmah” by Muhammad bin Fahad al-Husayn

Translated by Abul-Irbaad Abid Zargar

Question: What is your advice to those who say that this country fights the deen and restricts the du’aat?

Answer: Since the Saudi state began, it has been aiding the deen and its people, and it was not set up except on this foundation.

And now it aids the Muslims in every place with financial help, building Islamic centers and masajid, sending du’aat, printing books foremost amongst them - the Noble Qur’an, opening centers of learning and Shari’ah colleges, and also it rules by the Islamic Shari’ah and has an independent body for enjoining good and forbidding evil in every town.

And all of that is a proof that this state aids Islam and its people, and it is a thorn in the throats of the hypocrites and the people of evil and splitting.

And Allah will aid His deen even if the mushrikun and those of evil intentions hate it.

And we do not say that this state is perfect in every way and that it doesn’t have any mistakes.

Mistakes occur from everyone, but we ask Allah to aid us in rectifying the mistakes.

And if the one who said this looked at himself he would find mistakes in himself which would prevent him from speaking about others and he would be ashamed to look at the people. Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzaan

إِنَّمَا جَزَاءُ الَّذِينَ يُحَارِبُونَ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَيَسْعَوْنَ فِي الأَرْضِ فَسَادًا

أَنْ يُقَتَّلُوا أَوْ يُصَلَّبُوا أَوْ تُقَطَّعَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَأَرْجُلُهُمْ مِنْ خِلافٍ أَوْ يُنفَوْا مِنْ الأَرْضِ

ذَلِكَ لَهُمْ خِزْيٌ فِي الدُّنيَا وَلَهُمْ فِي الآخِرَةِ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ

“The recompense of those who wage war against Allaah and His Messenger and do mischief in the land is only that they shall be killed or crucified or their hands and their feet be cut off from opposite sides, or be exiled from the land. That is their disgrace in this world, and a great torment is theirs in the Hereafter.” (Al-Maaidah 5:33)


Al-Khawarij is plural for “Kharij”, meaning one who rebels against the acknowledged Muslim ruler whom Islam obliges every Muslim to obey and not rebel against.

This definition of Al- Khawarij, which is taken from Islamic terminology, has become a trademark for the twelve thousand Muslims who rebelled against Caliph Ali bin Abi Talib, may Allah be pleased with him, and this includes all the groups that followed their way of understanding the religion.

These groups have since been known as “Al-Khawarij” even though they carried different names.

Among those groups are: Al- Muh’akkimah, Ash- Sharat, Al- ‘Haroriyyah, An- Nawa-sib, and Al- Mariqhah.

Al-Khawarij are the people whom the Messenger of Allah, Salla Allahu Alayhi Wasallam, mentioned when he said, what translated means, “A group will go astray during a time of division between Muslims. The closest among the adversaries (the side of Ali bin Abi Talib and the side of Mu’awiyah) to the Truth will kill them (the deviant group, Al-Khawarij).”

Also, the Messenger of Allah, Salla Allahu Alayhi Wasallam, said regarding a man who once accused him of injustice, “From among the offspring of this man there will rise a people who will read the Quran but it will not go beyond their throats (meaning it will not enter their hearts). They will kill Muslims and spare Idol-worshippers. They will deviate from Islam (as fast and clean) as an arrow pierces the game. If I live to witness their appearance, I will kill them as the people of ‘Aad (whom Allah utterly destroyed and annihilated because of their disbelief) were killed.” [Al-Bukhari & Muslim].

He further said, “Just before the end of time, young, idiotic people will rise. They will say words similar to (the good words) of the best people. They will recite the Quran, but it will not go beyond their throats. They will deviate from the religion as fast as an arrow pierces the game. If you meet them, kill them, for killing them will bring about a reward from Allah on the Day of Resurrection for whoever kills them.” [Al-Bukhari & Muslim].

The companions of the Messenger of Allah, Salla Allahu Alayhi Wasallam, were unanimous in their decision to fight Al-Khawarij. Also, the majority of the scholars of Islam state that it is an obligation to fight them.

Soon after they appeared as a distinct group, Al-Khawarij divided into seven groups, among them Al- Muh’akkimah who fought Ali bin Abi Talib.

Al-Khawarij accused Ali of Kufr and announced their animosity towards him. They departed to Haroraa’ and chose two men as their leaders, one to lead them in prayer and the other to lead their forces in battle. When Ali realized the danger posed by these people, he sent Abdullah Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, to debate them and expose their erroneous ways. Ibn Abbas argued with them and refuted the arguments supporting the positions they took. Many of them abandoned the camp of Al-’Haroriyyah and rejoined the camp of Caliph Ali bin Abi Talib.

However, their leaders and those who remained with them refused to abandon their rebellion against the righteous Khalifah, Ali. They announced that their campaign of war against their adversaries will continue. Ali bin Abi Talib then decided to meet them himself.

He called upon them to rejoin the ranks of the Khalifah and abandon their deviant ways. He also refuted their arguments and nullified their misguided way of understanding the religion.

However, they persisted in their defiance of the Khalifah and camped their forces at the area of An-Nahrawan.

On their way to An-Nahrawan, Al-Khawarij met Abdullah -- the son of Khabbab bin Al-Aratt, a noble companion of the Messenger Salla Allahu Alayhi Wasallam, and seized him. They asked him, “Who are you?” He replied, “I am Abdullah bin Khabbab, the companion of the Messenger Salla Allahu Alayhi Wasallam.” They said, “Narrate to us a Hadith you heard from your father who related it to the Messenger Salla Allahu Alayhi Wasallam.” He said, “I heard my father say, ‘The Messenger of Allah, Salla Allahu Alayhi Wasallam, said, ‘There will be a Fitnah (calamity and division) in which those who sit idle are better than those who walk, and those who walk are better than those who rush. Therefore, whoever has no choice but to kill or be killed, let him be killed and let him not be the killer.’” They asked him, “What do you say regarding Abu Bakr and Umar?” Abdullah said good words of praise regarding them. They said, “What do you say with
regards to At- Ta’hkim (when Ali and Mu’awiyah reverted to some of the companions to judge between them in their dispute, according to the Quran and Sunnah)?”

He said, “I say that Ali has better knowledge in the Book of Allah, is more careful with the religion, and has more wisdom than you!” They said, “You do not follow the Truth and Guidance. Rather, you follow men according to their fame.” They then said to him, “This Quran (which you carry) around your neck commands us to kill you.” He said, “Whoever the Quran preserves his life, you preserve his life in turn.

And whoever the Quran sheds his blood, give him death in turn.” Then, they brought Abdullah bin Khabbab closer to the river, and one of them, Musmi’ bin Qhadali, slit his throat. Then, they entered his house and killed his children and also his wife, who was pregnant, and slit open her stomach.

When Ali bin Talib heard what Al-Khawarij did to Abdullah bin Khabbab and his family, he led an expedition of four thousand soldiers to arrest those who committed this atrocity. When he reached their area, he asked them to deliver those who killed Abdullah. They said to Ali’s emissary, “We all killed him. And, furthermore, if we catch you (meaning

Ali) we will kill you too.” Then, Ali prepared to fight them.

But before the battle commenced, he asked them, “What do you dislike as regards my matter?” They said, “We hate that you, when we fought with you on the Day (incident) of Al-Jamal, allowed for us their (the side of ‘Aaishah, Tal’hah, and Az-Zubair) possessions after we defeated them but did not allow us to seize their women and children as slaves. Why did you allow us to shed their blood and seize their possessions but not their women and children?” Ali said, “I only allowed you to seize their possession in return for their looting the Muslim treasury in the city of Basrah before I came to meet them (to convince them to end their rebellion). As for their women and children, they did not fight against us and they, therefore, still enjoyed the rights of Muslims who live in the Islamic state. Also, if I had allowed their women for you, who among you would have liked to take ‘Aaishah (the Prophet’s wife) as his share?” They became ashamed
and silent.

Thereafter, Ali refuted all their arguments and, as a consequence, eight thousand of them rejoined his camp. However, four thousand of them insisted on fighting, led by Abdullah bin Wahb Ar-Rasibi and Thu Al-Khuwaysirah (also known as Thu Ath-Thadiyyah), whose name was Hurqus bin Zaid.

Soon afterwards, the battle between Ali and Al-Khawarij commenced, and Ali’s army defeated and killed them all except nine people.

After the battle ended, Ali ordered his soldiers to search for Thu Ath- Thadiyyah, who was then found among the dead. Ali then said, “Allah and His Messenger have said the truth,” because before he passed away, the Prophet Salla Allahu Alayhi Wasallam had told Ali that he should search for Thu Ath-Thadiyyah among the dead when he meets these rebels.

This sect of Al-Khawarij, also known as Al-Mu’hakkimah, considers Uthman, Ali, ‘Aaishah, Tal’hah, and Az-Zubair as Kuffar. They also oblige the removal or assassination of the Muslim ruler who does not agree with their way of understanding the religion.

Furthermore, they accept the Muslim Ummah being leaderless, allow shedding the blood of the women and children of their adversaries, consider those who fall into major sins as Kuffar, and prohibit marrying the women of those who do not follow them, because they consider them also as Kuffar.

Also, among the sub-sects of Al-Khawarij is Al-Bayhasiyyah. They are the followers of Abu Bayhas, Al- Haytham bin Jabir. They claim that knowledge is only knowing Allah and what the Messenger of Allah, Salla Allahu Alayhi Wasallam, was sent with. They consider whoever falls into an action not knowing if it permissible or forbidden as Kafir, since he lacks the “knowledge”.

Al-Azariqhah is another Khawarij sub-sect. They are the followers of Nafi’ bin Al-Azraqh who was known as Abu Rashid. When he first appeared, he rebelled against Abdullah bin Az-Zubayr -- a companion of the Messenger of Allah, Salla Allahu Alayhi Wasallam. Many people from Oman and Al-Yamamah also joined Nafi’. They later moved to Persia and took over the area of Al- Ahwaz after they killed Abdullah bin Az-Zubayr’s deputy in that area. They soon controlled Al-Ahwaz and adjacent areas in Persia.

As is the case with other deviant sects, Al-Azariqhah consider their adversaries as Kuffar. They consider those who join their ranks as believers and all others who do not as Kuffar. Yet, they believe that whoever joins their ranks must first be tested to prove his allegiance by ordering him to kill a Muslim captive. Otherwise, he would be killed himself. Also, Al- Azariqhah permit killing the women and children of their adversaries and consider those adversaries to be bound to dwell in Hell for eternity along with their women and children. They also consider the areas that do not join them to be areas of Kufr. Furthermore, they abandon stoning the adulterer, compel women to pray and fast while in their menses, consider Muslims who commit major sins as Kuffar, and allow shedding the blood of Muslims who do not join their ranks. Yet, they prohibit shedding the blood of Jews and Christians who live under Muslim control!

This is just as the Messenger of Allah, Salla Allahu Alayhi Wasallam, described them that, “They kill Muslims and spare idol-worshippers.” Also, Al-Azariqhah would cut the hand and arm of the thief, while Islam commands cutting the thief’s hand only from the wrist. They also claim that the Ayah,

And of mankind there is he whose speech may please you (O Mohammad) in this worldly life.[2:204], describes Ali bin Abi Talib, and that the Ayah,

And of mankind is he who would sell himself, seeking the Pleasure of Allah. [2:207], describes Ibn Muljim, the cursed criminal who killed Ali, may Allah be pleased with him.

Najdah bin Amir was the leader of yet another Khawarij subsect called “An-Najdaat”, which established its stronghold in Al-Yamamah. They believe that it is an act of Kufr to consider as Kuffar those followers who could not physically join their forces. They also believe that those who agree with their beliefs will not enter Hell, and if they are punished in Hell, it will be because of their other sins and not because they joined their sect. They also give their loyalty to their followers who fall into major sins but consider insisting on committing minor sins as Kufr. Furthermore, they do not consider those who persist on committing major sins as Kuffar. In addition, they allow shedding the blood of their neighbors as well as their adversaries.

Another sub-sect of Al- Khawarij is As-Safriyyah, followers of Ziyad bin Al-Asfar. This group does not consider as Kuffar those who believe in their way but do not join their ranks. Also, they do not consider the children of their adversaries as Kuffar or that they will abide in Hell forever. They differ, however, on whether those who commit major sins are Kuffar or not. Some of them consider such sinners as Kuffar. Others, on the other hand, disagree, except in the case of those caught committing major sins and are thus punished for these sins by the rulers.Some of them claim that major sins that have prescribed punishment will not cause whoever commits them to become a Kafir, while actions that do not have a prescribed punishments, such as abandoning the obligatory prayer or Az-Zakat, will cause one to become a Kafir. They also allow women to assume leadership positions.

Another Khawarij sub-sect, “Al-Ajaridah”, are followers of Al- Karim bin Ajrad. This group disowns their own children before they reach the age of puberty. After the child becomes an adult, they oblige calling him unto Islam and teaching him matters of the religion. They do not allow shedding the blood of Ahlu As- Sunnah except if they meet them in battle. They also consider those who commit major sins as Kuffar.

Ath-Tha’alibah is yet another Khawarij sub-sect. This group was started by Tha’labah bin Mashkan, who used to be a follower of the Ajaridah before he started his own sect. This group later divided into six sects, the first being the followers of Tha’labah himself who persisted on his path. As for those who formed their own sects after they were followers of Ath-Tha’alibah, they include Al- Ma’badiyyah, followers of Ma’bad bin Abdurra’hman, who declare other Tha’alibah as Kuffar and who used to take Az-Zakat due on the possessions of their rich slaves. They also include Al-Akhnasiyyah, followers of Al- Akhnas bin Qays, who differed with Ath-Tha’alibah when they hesitated to call those who might appear to be disbelievers, yet conceal their Islam, as Kuffar. These sects also include followers of Rashid At-Tawsi, who were called Ar-Rashidiyyah. This sect disowned all those who disagree with them. There is also Al-Mukarramiyyah, followers of Abu Mukarram Al-’Ijli. This group considers those who fall into major sins as Kuffar because they are ignorant about Allah.Again, this group also considers those who disagree with them as Kuffar, and their adversaries from among Ath- Tha’alibah considered them Kuffar in turn. The sixth Tha’alibah sub-sect was called Ash-Shaybaniyyah, followers of Shayban bin Salam. This is the sect which Abu Muslim Al-Khurasani, the leader of the Abbasid armies, fought and defeated, killing Shayban and capturing the rest of his followers. This was the end of Ath- Tha’alibah who denied Allah’s Attributes and also resembled Allah with the creation.

Another major sub-sect of Al-Khawarij is the one still known as “Al- Ibadhiyyah”, who are the followers of Abdullah bin Ibadh Al-Murri. He permitted Al-Ibadhiyyah to marry women from Ahlu As-Sunnah and accepted the testimony of Ahlu As- Sunnah even against the Ibadhiyyah Themselves because they consider that the general name of Islam still bonds them together.

This group only allowed the shedding the blood of Ahlu As-Sunnah in battle. They fell into confusion when they considered their adversaries as Kuffar (disbelievers), but not Mushrikeen (polytheist).

Al-Ibadhiyyah also divided into six sects.

The first is Al-Yazidiyyah, followers of Yazid bin Anas who claimed that another Prophet will be sent for non-Arabs and that his law will replace Prophet Mohammad’s Law. They also claimed that Arabs who attest that there is no god except Allah and that Mohammad is His Messenger are believers even if they do not actually embrace and abide by Islamic laws. Therefore, according to this false claim, Arab Jews and Christians are considered believers if they only declare the Shahadatayn (the Testimony) with their tongues.

The second sub-sect of Al- Ibadhyyah is known as Al-Hafsiyyah, followers of Al-Hafs bin Abi Al- Miqdam. They claim that belief is merely knowing Allah and that this suffices if one disbelieves in the Prophets, the angels, Paradise, Hell, Resurrection, and Reckoning. They consider those who know Allah to be saved from Shirk even if they commit all types of major sins.

The third Ibadhi sub-sect is known as Al-’Harithiyyah, followers of Al-’Harith bin Yazid. This sect denies Predestination and Allah’s Will and condones acts of worship that are not meant for the sake of Allah. The last three Ibadhi sub-sects are Al- Ibrahimiyyah, Al-Maymoniyyah, and Al-Waqifiyyah.

We have shown how this deviant sect, Al-Khawarij, divided among themselves, and we also clarified the major beliefs of different Khawarij sub-sects.

From this short summary of their beliefs and practices, we now know the imminent danger of their beliefs, many of which still flourish among ignorant Muslims in the present time.

The beliefs of Al-Khawarij have always been and still pose grave danger to Islam and Muslims.

We ask Allah for protection and safety from the misguided beliefs of Al-Khawarij and their likes, for He is the All-Hearer and the only One Who fulfills the Du’aa’.


The story of Ibn Abbas’s (May Allah be pleased with him and his Father) debate against them is in the Mustadrik of Hakam (2/150-152) in an authentic chain and upon the conditions of acceptance of Imam Muslim.

In it is the statement of Ibn Abbas:

أتيتُكم من عند صحابة النَّبيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم من المهاجرين والأنصار، لأبلِّغكم ما يقولون،المخبرون بما يقولون، فعليهم نزل القرآن، وهم أعلمُ بالوحي منكم، وفيهم أنزل، وليس فيكم منهم أحد

“I come to you from the Companions of the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه وسلم ) from amongst the Muhajireen and Ansaar to inform you of what they say. They were present when the Qur’an was revealed, and they are more knowledgeable about the revelation than you are and were present at its descending, and not a single one of you is from them. So some of them said: لا تخاصموا قريشاً Do not dispute with a person from the Quraish because

Allah says: بَلْ هُمْ قَوْمٌ خَصِمُونَ But they are a quarrelsome people Ibn Abbas (May Allah be pleased with him and his Father) said:

وأتيتُ قوماً لم أرَ قوماً قطُّ أشدَّ اجتهاداً منهم، مسهمة وجوههم من السَّهر، كأنَّ أيديهم وركبهم تثنى عليهم، فمضى من حضر

“I never saw a people striving harder in doing deeds. Their faces were marked with lines from abstaining from sleep. It was as if their hands and knees praised them.

So those who were present proceeded, and some of them said,

لنكلِّمنَّه ولننظرنَّ ما يقول

“By Allah we will speak to him and debate what he says”I asked:

أخبروني ماذا نقمتم على ابن عمِّ رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وصهره والمهاجرين والأنصار؟

“Why do you have resentment against the cousin of the Messenger of Allah ( صلى الله عليه وسلم ) his in-laws, the Muhajireen and Ansaar? They said:” (because of) ثلاثاً Three things” I asked: ما هنَّ؟ “What are they?”

They said: أمَّا إحداهنَّ فإنَّه حكم الرِّجالَ في أمر الله، “As for the first one it is that he made men arbitrators in the matters of Allah. And Allah said:

إِنِ الْحُكْمُ إِلاَّ لِلّهِ Verily! The decision rests only with Allah [Yusuf: 67]

I said: هذه واحدة “ This is one” And they said:

ولَم يسْب ولَم يغنَم، فلئن كان الذي قاتل كفَّاراً لقد حلَّ سبيُهم وغنيمتهم،

ولئن كانوا مؤمنين ما حلَّ قتالُهم

“As for the other, it is that he fought and did not take captives or booty of war. If the ones being fought are disbelievers, then indeed it is permissible to take them captive and take the booty of war, and if they were believers it would not be permissible to fight them.

I said: هذه ثنتان، فما الثالثة؟ “ That’s two, so what is the third one?”

They said: إنَّه مَحا نفسَه من أمير المؤمنين، فهو أمير الكافرين “He wiped out the title of ‘Amir al-Mu’mineen’ for himself, so he is the Amir of the disbelievers.”

I said: أعندكم سوى هذا؟ “Do you have anything others than these? They said: حسبنا هذا “ This suffices us” So I said to them:

أرأيتم إن قرأت عليكم من كتاب الله ومن سنَّة نبيِّه صلى الله عليه وسلم

ما يُردُّ به قولُكم أتَرضَون؟

“If I read of the Qur’an and Sunnah that which refutes these claims, will you be pleased? They said: نعم! “Yes” So I said:

أمَّا قولكم: حكَّم الرِّجال في أمر الله، فأنا أقرأ عليكم ما قد رُدَّ حكمُه إلى الرِّجال في ثمن ربع درهم، في أرنب ونحوها من الصيد

As for your statement: ‘A man has arbitrated in the matter of Allah’, I will read to you what has given the power of arbitration to men concerning a killed rabbit and the likes of that which is hunted which price is worth a quarter of a dirham. Allah says:

:(( يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ لاَ تَقْتُلُواْ الصَّيْدَ وَأَنتُمْ حُرُمٌ ))

إلى قوله: (( يَحْكُمُ بِهِ ذَوَا عَدْلٍ مِّنكُمْ ))،

O you who believe! Kill not game while you are in a state of Ihram (for Hajj or 'Umrah), and whosoever of you kills it intentionally, the penalty is an offering, brought to the Ka'bah, of an eatable animal (i.e. sheep, goat, cow, etc.) equivalent to the one he killed, as adjudged by two just men among you; [Maidah: 95]

فنشدتكم الله: أحُكم الرِّجال في أرنب ونحوها من الصيد أفضل أم حكمهم في دمائهم وصلاح ذات بينهم؟!

وأن تعلموا أنَّ الله لو شاء لَحَكم ولَم يُصيِّر ذلك إلى الرِّجال، وفي المرأة وزوجها

I ask you by Allah, is the arbitration of men concerning a rabbit and its like of hunted animals better than their arbitration regarding bloodshed and reconciliation between themselves? And you are aware that if Allah wished he would have decided the matters himself and not left it to men. And concerning a woman and her husband Allah says:

وَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ شِقَاقَ بَيْنِهِمَا فَابْعَثُواْ حَكَماً مِّنْ أَهْلِهِ وَحَكَماً مِّنْ أَهْلِهَا إِن يُرِيدَا إِصْلاَحاً يُوَفِّقِ اللّهُ بَيْنَهُمَا

"If you fear separation between them, appoint an arbitrator from his family and from her family; if they both wish for peace, Allah will cause their reconciliation" [Nis’aa: 35]

فجعل الله حكم الرِّجال سنة مأمونة، أخَرَجتُ من هذه؟

So Allah has made the judgement of men a reliable Sunnah. Have I convinced you on this?” They replied: : نعم! “Yes” (I said to them):

قاتَل ولم يسْب ولم يغنم، أَتَسبُون أمَّكم عائشة، ثمَّ تستحلُّون منها ما يُستحلُّ من غيرها؟!

فلئن فعلتم لقد كفرتُم، وهي أمُّكم، ولئن قلتُم: ليست أمَّنا لقد كفرتُم

Regarding your saying ‘You fought them, but did not seize their booty nor capture them,’ Can you capture your Mother 'Aisha then make permissible concerning her what is permissibility concerning other female slaves.

If you say that she can be captured and treated like any of the other female slaves, you have surely committed disbelief, because she is your mother. If you say that ‘she is not our mother’ than you have also committed disbelief, for Allah says:

النَّبِيُّ أَوْلَى بِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ مِنْ أَنفُسِهِمْ وَأَزْوَاجُهُ أُمَّهَاتُهُمْ

The Prophet is closer to the believers than their ownselves, and his wives are their (believers') mothers (as regards respect and marriage). [Ahzab: 6]

فأنتم تدورون بين ضلالَتين، أيّهما صرتُم إليها صرتُم إلى ضلالة، فنظر بعضُهم إلى بعض،

You are thus hovering between two deviations. Whichever one you go towards, you go towards misguidance.”

So some of them began to look at each other.I asked: أخرجتُ من هذه؟ “Have I convinced you?” They replied: نعم! “ Yes” (I said to them):

مَحا اسمَه من أمير المؤمنين، فأنا آتيكم بمَن ترضَون وأريكم، قد سمعتُم أنَّ النَّبيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم يوم الحُديبية كاتَبَ سُهيل بن عمرو وأبا سفيان بن حرب،

فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم لأمير المؤمنين

اكتب يا علي: هذا ما اصطلح عليه محمد رسول الله، فقال المشركون:

لا والله! لو نعلم أنَّك رسول الله ما قاتلناك،

فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم : اللَّهم إنَّك تعلمُ أنِّي رسول الله، اكتب يا علي:

هذا ما اصطلح عليه محمد بن عبد الله، فوالله لرسول الله خيرٌ من علي،

وما أخرجه من النبوة حين محا نفسَه

And as for your statement that he wiped out the title of ‘Amir al- Mu’mineen’ for himself, I will show and bring you proof by one whom you are pleased with. I heard on the Day of Hudaybiyyah, when the treaty was being drafted by Suhail bin Amr and Abu Sufyan bin Harb, the Messenger of Allah ( صلى الله عليه وسلم ) say to the Amir ul Mu’mineen: "Write O’ 'Ali: ‘This is what has been agreed upon by Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah’." The Mushrikeen objected to this saying: "No, By Allah, if we believed that you were the Messenger of Allah, we would not have fought you." Upon this, the Messenger of Allah ( صلى الله عليه وسلم ) said: O’ Allah you know that I am the Messenger of Allah. Write O’ Ali ‘This is what has been agreed upon by Muhammad bin Abdullah.’ …For I swear by Allah that the Messenger of Allah ( صلى الله عليه وسلم ) is better than Ali, and erasing his title did not remove his

Abdullah Bin Abbas (May Allah be Pleased with him and his Father) said:

: فرجع من القوم ألفان وقُتل سائرُهم على ضلالة

So (after this), two-thousand of them (the Khawaarij) returned to the truth and the rest of them were killed upon falsehood.


Shaykhul Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah said,

فإن عامة ضلال أهل البدع كان بهذا السبب، فإنهم صاروا يحملون كلام الله ورسوله على ما يدعون أنه دال عليه، وليس الأمر كذلك

“Majority of innovations have their roots in misunderstanding of Islaamic texts, for those who established innovations had wrongful perception of the Word of Allaah which they used to back up their innovations.”

The scholars say,

من اتباع المتشابهات الأخذ بالمطلقات قبل النظر في مقيِّداتها، أو في العمومات من غير تأمل في مخصِّصاتها، وكذلك العكس بأن يكون النص مقيدًا فيُطلق، أو خاصًا فيُعمّ بالرأي من غير دليل سواه، فإن هذا المسلك رميٌ في عماية واتباع للهوى بالدليل، وحينئذ فالخلل في هذه المسالك الاجتهادية يوقع في أخطاء فاحشة عقائدية وفرعية

“It is part of following the ambiguous evidences to take to absolute evidences before looking at its restricted aspects or to take to general rules and disregard its particular aspects like making particularized or restricted evidence a general or unrestricted one or vice versa without any tangible evidences. This may cause grave mistakes.

For instance, the Khawaarij who revolted against ‘Alee said, “There is no judge save Allaah”, misinterpreting the Word of Allaah, “The judgement is but Allaah’s.” They thereby gave this verse a wrong meaning.

The Khawaarij sect was later influenced by scholastic theology and its principles became very close to those of the Jahmite and Mu’tazilite sects.

They center upon the following matters:

(1) Imputing kufr upon ‘Ali, ‘Uthmaan and other sahaabah ﻦﻴﻌﻤﺟأ ﻢﻬﻨﻋ ﷲا ﻲﺿر .

(2) The right to rebel and fight the Muslim rulers who may err or sin.

(3) Justifying the rebellion and fight against disobedient Muslims (rulers and/or ruled) and that it is permissible for them to secede from the general body of the Muslims.

(4) They believe that the Qur’aan is created. However, the Qur’aan is the literal Word of Allaah Who uttered it in letter and sound and which He Spoke to Jibreel عليه وسلم , directly without a mediator, and who then brought it down to the Prophet Muhammad ( صلى الله عليه وسلم ). The Qur’aan is neither the word of Jib reel nor the word of Prophet Muhammad ( صلى الله عليه وسلم ).

(5) They distort the meanings of Allaah’s Attributes by resorting to figurative interpretation.

(6) Like the twelver Shee’ites and other deviant sects, they deny that the believers will see Allaah on the Day of Resurrection. This contradicts what is asserted in the Qur’aan and authentic sunnah .

(7) Imputing kufr on the Muslims who commit major sins.

(8) The majority of the Khawaarij deny the actual punishment in the grave that Allaah inflicts upon those who deserve it.

(9) They speak ill about the scholars الطعنُ في العلماء See the incident with Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم and Ibn Abbaas, how they treated them, this is the common amongst the mis-guided youths of today, ignorant, foolish in understanding.

The aforementioned are some of the major characteristics of the Khawaarij.

I intended to give the reader some background about this very dangerous sect and which has influenced many Muslim groups and parties in our times leading to bloodshed in many parts of the Muslim World. The bloody confrontations are hard to stop in some places and that has distorted the view of Islam in many parts of the world. The truth, however, is emerging and will inshaa’ Allaah completely emerge on the hands of the true followers of Islam who are working hard to correct this problem with the good word without compromising the ‘aqeedah nor the manhaj . We should be able to present the truth without imitating the kufaar and their ways. In this respect, the words of Imaam Maalik ) ﷲا ﻪﻤﺣر ( are remembered: “Nothing will benefit this ummah to come except that which benefited its early generations .” Related by Imaam Ibn ‘Abdil-Barr in At-Tamheed (23:1).

This refers to the correct creed, methodology and righteous deeds. Another point of benefit is that the Muslim should be aware that the principles of many of these sects are still alive and propagated by certain individuals and/or groups, and accordingly the believer must be cautious

And what shows the danger of extremism and deviation from the truth and staying away from what Ahlus Sunnah wal Jama’ah is upon, is the statement of the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه وسلم ) from the Hadith of Jabir (May Allah be pleased with him):

إنَّ أخوفَ ما أخاف عليكم رجل قرأ القرآن،

حتى إذا رُئيت بهجته عليه وكان ردءاً للإسلام،

انسلخ منه ونبذه وراء ظهره، وسعى على جاره بالسيف ورماه بالشرك،

قلت: يا نبيَّ الله! أيُّهما أولى بالشرك: الرامي أو المرمي؟ قال: بل الرامي

Indeed what I fear most for you is that a man reads the Qur’an until magnificence is seen upon him and he is a support for Islam and it is withdrawn from him and he throws it behind his back and strives against his neighbor with the sword and he accusing him of shirk. I said O’ Prophet of Allah, which one is more worthy of (the accusation of) shirk, the accuser or the accused? He said: The accuser . [Collected by Imam Al-Bukhari in his Taarikh and Abu Ya’ala and Ibn Hibban and Al-Bazaar. See Sahih Al-Albani 3201]

The Prophet ( صلى الله عليه وسلم ) said:

ومَن خرج على أمَّتي يضرب برَّها وفاجرَها، ولا يتحاش من مؤمنها،

ولا يفي لذي عهد عهدَه،فليس منِّي ولستُ منه

“Whoever rebels against my Ummah and fights the righteous and unrighteous of them, does not avoid its believers and does not fulfill his obligation to whom he has a contract, then they are not from me and I am not from them . [Muslim 1848]

Ibn Al-Qayyim said,

نهيُ النبيِّ عن قتال الأمراء والخروج على الأئمة وإن ظلموا أو جاروا ما أقاموا الصلاة، سدًّا لذريعة الفسادِ العظيم والشرِّ الكثير بقتالهم كما هو الواقع، فإنّه حصل بسبب قتالهم والخروج عليهم أضعافُ أضعافِ ما هم عليه، والأمّة في بقايا تلك الشرور إلى الآن

"The Prophet forbidden taking arms against the rulers and revolting against them even if they were unjust as long as long as they established prayers. He said this in order to prevent great corruption and evil that could emanate from taking arms against them.

The reality has shown that taking arms and revolting against them had brought harm and evil that that was much greater than their corruption."

While speaking about undesirability of forbidding vices if that could lead to a greater vice he said,

ومن تأمّل ما جرى على الإسلام في الفِتن الكبار والصِّغار رآها مِن إضاعةِ هذا الأصلِ وهو إنكار المنكر إذا كان يترتّب عليه ما هو أنكرُ منه، ومِن عدم الصبر على المنكَر،

فيُطلَب إزالتُه، فيتولّدُ منه ما هو أكبر منه

"Like revolting against kings and rulers, for this is the foundation of all evils and calamities. If one reflects over what happened to Islaam during minor and major crises one will realize that it caused by the negligence of this very principle."

‘Umar said,

إنا لا ننتصر على عدوّنا بعددٍ ولا عدة، وإنما ننتصر بطاعتنا لله ومعصيتهم له، فإن عصينا الله فقد استوينا وإياهم في المعصية، وكان لهم الفضل علينا

“We do not defeat our enemy through our great numbers and or sophisticated ammunitions, we defeat them through our obedience to Allaah and our enemies’ disobedience to Him. But when we disobey Allaah, we become like them in sins and they will then defeat us.”


Question: As you know, there are a number of ahaadeeth concerning how Muslims are to deal with the Muslim rulers, including the sinful and oppressive rulers.How would you respond to the one who claims that these ahaadeeth are concerning the khaleefah of the Muslims, not the various leaders, kings, or prime ministers of today?

The Answer: This Shubuha (misconception) that the Ahaadeeth of obedience to the Rulers are restricted to the general Khaleefah (greater Imaam) is, al-hamdulillah , already answered by the scholars of Islaam. Here are some of their statements:

1- Sh. Al-Islam Ibn Taymeyah ( rahimahullaah) said: "The sunnah is that the Muslims have one Imaam and the rest are his deputies. Suppose, however, the Ummah abandoned this due to a sin from some part of it and incapacity from the rest or for a reason other than that and which led to having number of Imaams, then it is binding upon each Imaam to establish the Hudood (prescribed punishments) and fulfill the rights (of people)." [Majmoo' al- Fataawaa, 35/175-176].

2- Imaam Ash-Shawkaani ( rahimahullaah) said: "In Principle, all Muslims should have one Imaam. However, after the spread of Islam and the expansion of its territories and their remoteness, it is known that in each region there became a ruler or Imaam and so with the rest of the regions, none of them having authority to command and forbid in the other regions... So the presence of various (multiple) Imaams and Rulers is of no harm, and it is binding to obey each one of them after giving him the bay'ah (pledge of allegiance) in the region in which his commands and prohibitions are executed therein. And similarly in the case of the one in charge of another region. And it is not obligatory upon the people of the other regions to obey him, nor to be under his governorship due to the remoteness of the regions..."

Then he said: "You should know this, since it is fitting to the Sharee'ah Foundations, and in full agreement to what is indicated by the evidences. And turn down what is being said in opposition to this, since the difference between the condition of the early Islamic wilaayah (administrative governship) and its state nowadays is clearer than the sun during the day." [Imaam Ash-Shawkaani in As- Sayelul Jarraar, 4/512].

3- Sh. Imaam Muhammad bin 'Abdil Wahaab ( rahimahullaah) said:

"The Imaams from each Madh-hab are unanimous that whoever overtakes a country or countries (seizes power) is entitled to assume the same rulership as the Imaam in ALL affairs. Were it not so, the affairs of this worldly life would not be upright. And for a long time, since before the time of Imaam Ahmad ( rahimahullaah) and until our time, people were not in agreement upon one Imaam, and they have no account of a scholar stating that the validity of (the applicability) of any of the rulings (of sharee'ah) is conditional upon the presence of the Greater Imaam ." [In Ad-Durar As-Saniyyah, 7/239].

4- Al-'Allaamah (esteemed scholar) As-San'aani ( rahimahullaah) said in his explanation of the hadeeth of Abu Hurairah ( radiya Allaahu 'anhu), raised to the Prophet ( _ : salllaallaahu 'aleihi was-sallam):

"One who defected from obedience (to the Amir) and separated from the main body of the Muslims - if he died in that state - would die the death of one belonging to the days of Jahiliyya (i. e. would not die as a Muslim). [Saheeh Muslim, Book 20, # 4555, English Translation] that the "obedience" is the obedience to the Khaleefah upon whom there isagreement, and it seems that what is intended is the khaleefah on any region from the regions, since people were not on agreement on a single khaleefah over the entire Islamic lands since the Abbasid Rule. Rather each region became independent under a ruler running its affairs. And if we carry the hadeeth to apply only to one khaleefah upon whom the Muslims are unanimous then its (the hadeeth) benefit would be diminished.

And that the saying (in the hadeeth) "and separated from the main body of the Muslims," means: separated from the Jamaa'ah who agreed upon an Imaam under whom their body and affairs are organized, their world is united, and their protection from their enemy is achieved."

So, it becomes clear that negating the validity of governership on separate Muslim states leads to evil in the sense that its sets the stage for rebellion against the rulers, and this is forbidden in Islaam even if the ruler is an oppressor as this constitutes the creed of ahl-us-Sunnah .

And Allaah Knows Best.

May Allaah, the Most High, guide me, you, and all Muslims to abide by the way of the Salaf and make us from those who relate the unclear matters to the clear so that they reach that which is clear and pleasing to Allaah.

Shaykh `Alee al-Faqeehee on The Ways Used By the Khawaarij To Incite the Youth

Shaykh `Alee bin Naasir al-Faqeehee explained that what is said regarding the excellence of these miracles (karaamaat), then that is amongst the ways of stirring up the youth and he also said:

Verily, the ideology of the Khawaarij which is exemplified in declaring the Islamic societies to be disbelieving (societies) has not ceased to spread, and it has its callers and those who organise for it to be spread.

It is spread using these means by way of the Internet and the callers (to this ideology) spread it amongst the youth (in order) to employ their religious zeal. This is done by spreading what they claim to be miracles of the mujaahideen, and this is amongst the ways of stirring up the youth and using their zeal.

It is for this reason that they approach them from the avenue of their religion, and there has come in a hadeeth of Abu Bakr for a hadeeth of `Alee bin Abee Taalib (radiyAllaahu `anhu) in description of the Khawaarij - and Ibn Hajr has related it in the explanation of the hadeeth - "Then Satan will come to them from the avenue of their religion". And this is happening today, because what is spread on the World Wide Web is from unknown (unidentified) people, not known for knowledge and nor for religion.

And all of that (is done) in order to stir up the youth from the angle of their religion. The likes of this is not befitting for an intelligent person in that he turns to an unknown ignoramus (on the Internet), and such a one could be a plant (placed) by certain orientations who have goals that are enmitous to Islaam and which are not openly announced to the people.

And when we notify the youth of the likes of this (affair), we do not (at the same time) reject the miracles of the Awliyaa (pious friends of Allaah), rather these affairs are established and they are from the creed of Ahl us-Sunnah wal-Jamaa`ah.

And we do not also reject what Islaam and the Muslims are subjected to by its enemies. These affairs are well-known, and it is obligatory upon every Muslim to do what he is able towards this. However, Jihaad in the path of Allaah has conditions and rulings, and it is the Scholars and the Jurists of the religion who explain all of that .

About the Book:

This is a complete translation of the small booklet “Al-Masaa’il-ul-Muntaqaat min Sifaat al-Khawaarij-ul-Ghulaat” [Selected Examples from the Characteristics of the Extremist Khawaarij] compiled and prepared by a student of knowledge, ‘Aadil bin ‘Alee Al-Furaydaan, and reviewed and examined by Shaikh Saalih bin Fawzaan Al-Fawzaan and Shaikh Muhammad bin ‘Abdir-Rahmaan Al-Khumayyis.

In this treatise, the author briefly touches upon the definition, history, and characteristics of the Khawaarij, one of the first and most dangerous sects in Islamic history whose effects and ideologies continue to exist up to today and will remain until the Final Hour. The majority of the treatise is dedicated to outlining the major and distinguishing attributes of the Khawaarij, which the author counts at 58.

It is important to study and be aware of these attributes so that one may avoid characterizing himself with them and thus fall into the ranks of the Khawaarij. This is from the perspective of learning evil in order to avoid it. And it is also beneficial since today, the ways and ideologies of the Khawaarij are prevalent, as can be seen in terrorist acts, suicide missions, assassinations and political strife. So by understanding the characteristics of the Khawaarij, the reader will be able to identify the perpetrators of such crimes, acknowledge their remoteness from Islaam and the fact that they are indeed from the extremist Khawaarij.


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