أبو بكر بن العربي
Death: 543H 1148
DEFENCE AGAINST DISASTER by QADI ABU BAKR IBN AL-`ARABI
Accurately Determining The Position Of The Companions After The Death Of The Prophet, May Allah Bless Him And Grant Him Peace AL-`AWASIM MIN AL-QAWASIM
161. This report is in ‘The History’ of at-Tabari.
As-Hasan b. `Ali was another who left him. Al-Hasan and al-Husayn, Ibn `Umar, Ibn az-Zubayr and Marwan had come. He begged them to put down their arms and leave and remain in their homes. Ibn az-Zubayr and Marwan said to him, "We have resolved that we will not leave." `Uthman opened the door and the men came in against him according to the soundest of the statements.
162. The basis of this report is in ‘The History’ of at-Tabari (5:128) from Sayf b. `Umar at- Tamimi from his shaykhs. The black one killed him.
163. It is like that in the Algerian edition. ‘The History’ of at-Tabari (5:125) has "black death." The sources on which ‘The History’ of at-Tabari are published are sounder than the sources for the book in Algeria. It is well established that Ibn Saba’ was with the rebels in Egypt when they came from Fustat to Madina (at-Tabari 5:103-104). In all the roles which he played, he was very eager to act undercover. Perhaps "the black death" is a metaphorical name for that by which he means to allude to it and not to communicate their intrigues for the destruction of Islam.
It is said that Ibn Abi Bakr took hold of his beard and Kinana killed him.
164. He is Kinana b. Bishr b. `Attab at-Tujibi, the general of one of the four Egyptian groups. Before that, he was one of those whom embraced `Ammar b. Yasir in Fustat to try to make him become a Saba’ite. He was the first to enter the house of `Uthman with a naphtha torch for burning down the door. He is the one who unsheathed his sword to put it in the belly of the Amir al-Mu’minun. `Uthman’s wife Na’ila tried to shield him and Kinana cut off her hand and leaned with the sword on his chest. At-Tujibi’s end was that he was killed in the battle which started in Egypt between Muhammad b. Abi Bakr and `Amr b. al-`As in 38 A.H. "Kinana" is wrongly altered in the Algerian edition by the inscription "Ruman." It is said that it was a man from the people of Egypt called Himar,
165. I did not see the name among those who dared to commit the terrible crime. Perhaps the copyists altered the name of Safwan b. "Hamran" or the name of `Amr b. al- "Hamq". and that a drop of `Uthman’s blood fell on the Qur’an at the words, "Allah will be enough for you against them." That contains elements which remain controversial, right until today. It is related that `A’isha, may Allah be pleased with her, said, "Would I defend you from flogging and not defend `Uthman from the sword? You asked him for favours until you left him like a purified lump of boiled sugar. You washed him with the vessel and you left him like a garment cleaned of filth. Then you killed him."
166. She said that the first time when she reached Madina on her return from the Hajj. Some people gathered to her and she delivered an eloquent speech to them. This sentence comes at the end of it. (at-Tabari, 5:165-166) "Maws" is to wash with the fingers. "Qand" is sugar-cane syrup when it is hard.
167. He is one of the Imams of the Tabi’un who are followed. He died in 63 A.H. He is the one who said to `Ammar in Kufa before the Battle of the Camel, "`Abdu’l-Yaqathan, why did you kill `Uthman?" He said, "For the abuse of our honour and for beating our skin." Masruq said to him, "By Allah, you did not punish him with the same punishment which you received from him. If you had been patient, that would have been better for the patient." (at-Tabari 5:187).
....said to her, "This is your doing. You wrote to people to command them to attack against him." `A’isha said, "By the One in whom the believers believe and the kafirun reject, I never wrote anything at all to them." Al-A`mash said, "They related that it had been ascribed to her."
168. As he wrote ascribing the letters to `Ali and to `Uthman.
It was related that he did not kill anyone except for some infidels from the people of Egypt. Qadi Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, said, "This is the most likely of what is related on this subject, and the root of the question is the path of the truth. It is clear in it that none of the Companions acted against him nor held back from him. If he had asked for help, one thousand or four thousand outsiders could not defeat twenty thousand or more of that land. However, he submitted to the affliction.
169. Because he chose the lesser of two evils by that. He preferred to sacrifice himself rather than expanding the area of the strife and shedding the blood of his community by his blood. How much better a reward he has! The `ulama' disagree about someone who is in a similar situation. Does he surrender or does he ask for help?
170. Part of the policy of Islam is that in every case, you should choose what has the least evil and least harm. If the good has a dominant force which will curb evil and restrict its area, Islam guides us to curbing evil by the power of good without any hesitation. If the good does not have the strength to dominate and curb evil and restrict its area, as was the case in the situation of the Amir al-Mu’minun `Uthman with those who attacked him, then the best interests of Islam lie in the like of what `Uthman inclined to do, may Allah elevate his station in the everlasting Abode.
Some of them allow him to submit and surrender to imitate what `Uthman did and to follow the advice of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, to do that in civil war.
171. These are the words of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, according to what Imam al-Bukhari related in ‘The Book of Virtues’ (book 61, chap. 25, pt. 4, p. 177) and in ‘The Book of Seditions’ (book 92, chap. 9, pt. 8, p. 92) from his ‘Sahih’ from Abu Hurayra that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "There will be civil strife. The one who sits during it is better than the one who stands. The one who stands will be better than the one who runs. The one who contemplates them will be drawn by them. So the one who finds a shelter or a refuge should seek shelter in it." Abu Musa al-Ash’ari stated in Kufa before the Battle of the Camel that he had heard it from the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. (at-Tabari, 5:188) Qadi Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, said, "I judged between people and obliged them to perform the prayer, command the correct and forbid the objectionable so that no objectionable things would remain in the land. The situation was unbearable for the people of extortion. It was very distressing for the dissolute. Therefore they rallied together and plotted. They rose against me. I submitted to the command of Allah and I commanded all of those around me not to defend my house. I went out on the roof by myself and they wreaked havoc against me and proceeded to loot the house. If it had not been for a good decree, I would have been murdered in the house.
172. Here the author draws a reference from his own life to confirm the prophetic wisdom. Three things moved me to do that. One of them was the previous advice of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.
173. We quoted it earlier from the hadith of Abu Hurayra in the Sahih of al-Bukhari and from the hadith of Abu Musa in Kufa before the Battle of the Camel. The second was to imitate `Uthman. The third was the bad talk from which the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, fled, supported by revelation.
174. That was when Ibn Salul spoke about the raid of the Banu’l-Mustaliq, "When we return to Madina, the mightier will drive out the weaker." `Umar wanted to kill him, but the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, stopped him. He said, "People will not say that Muhammad killed his Companions."
I feared that the one who was not there, the one who envies me, would say, ‘The people went to ask him for help, and he shed their blood.’" All of `Uthman’s business was the sunna and pleasing behaviour. It is confirmed that he was murdered because the Truthful One told him he would be murdered and he gave him the good news of the garden because of an affliction which would befall him. He said that he would be a martyr.
175. The clarification of that was given earlier. It is related that he said to him in a dream, "If you wish, I will help, or else you can break your fast with us tonight."
176. This transmission by Ibn Abi’d-Dunya is from the hadith of `Abdullah b. Salam in ‘The Beginning and the End’, and in the ‘Musnad’ of Ahmad (1:72, first edition, no. 526, second edition) from the hadith of Muslim, Abu Sa`id, the client of `Uthman. He said, "`Uthman freed twenty slaves. He called for trousers and put them on, although he had not worn them either in the Jahiliyya nor in Islam. He said, ‘I saw the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, yesterday in a dream and I saw Abu Bakr and `Umar. They told me, ‘Be patient. You will break you fast with us tomorrow.’ Then he called for a Qur’an and spread it open before him. He was killed while it was in front of him." Imam Ahmad said, "This hadith from Na’ila, the wife of `Uthman (1:73, no. 536) is similar to that. In ‘The Beginning and the End’ (7:172), there is the hadith of Ayyub as-Sakhtiyani from Nafi` from `Abdullah b. `Umar b. al-Khattab and by various other paths. Look at ‘The History’ of at-Tabari (5:125).
The apostates and the ignorant men were ready to say. "All the excellent companions gathered and rebelled against him. They were satisfied with what happened to him." They contrived to write a letter full of eloquence and examples which `Uthman had supposedly written to `Ali asking for help. All of that was fabricated in order to fill the hearts of the muslims with malice towards the past salaf and rightly-guided Khalifs.
177. These forged letters and the information conveyed in them and the false letters fill up the volumes of history and books of literature. There are two ways to distinguish the true from the false. One of them is the method of the people of Hadith. They only accept reports with isnads going back to individuals with their names. Then they investigate the states of those individuals and accept those they believe to be truthful and reject the lie. The second method is that of the historians. They present every report on the character of the one from whom they quote and they add his biography to it and whether it is something that you can expect to happen from the one to whom it is attributed and whether it agrees with what is known of his antecedents and his character or not. A thorough examination of our history requires both these methods together which are used by the scholars who have firm knowledge of both of them. Qadi Abu Bakr said, "We can see in that that `Uthman was wronged. He was defeated, but without any proof."
178. As is clear in this book with its definite isnads. Look at ‘The Book of the Introduction’ by Imam Abu Bakr al-Baqillani (pp. 220-227). The Companions were innocent of his blood because they did what he wanted and submitted to his opinion when he himself submitted. Beyond what was already said, `Abdullah b. az-Zubayr said to `Uthman, "We are with you in the house as an intelligent group of men who wish to help Allah. Give us permission to fight." He said, "May Allah remind a man who sheds his blood for me."
179. When those who were going on Hajj to the House of Allah began to return to Madina, the first of those who hurried among them was al-Mughira b. al-Akhnas b. Shariq ath-Thaqafi, the Companion. He reached `Uthman before he was slain. He saw the skirmish at the door of `Uthman’s house and he sat at the door on the inside and said, "We have no excuse with Allah if we leave you while we have power. We will not leave you until we die." He was the first to go out against the attacking invaders. He fought until he was killed. Al-Hasan b. `Ali b. Abi Talib went out with him to fight them, saying to criticise what the attackers were doing:
Their deen is not my deen nor am I one of them, unless I go to the proud mountains. i.e. the lofty mountains. The one who falls from them is not saved. Muhammad b. Talha b. `Ubaydullah came out with them. He was known as as-Sajjad (the prostrator) because of his great amount of ‘ibada. He was saying: I am the son of the one who defended him at Uhud. He repelled the parties in spite of a prepared one. Look at ‘The History’ of at-Tabari (5:128-129). Salit b. Abi Salit said, "`Uthman forbade us to fight them. If he had given us permission, we would have fought them until we had expelled them from there."
180. Ibn `Abdu’l-Barr related it in the ‘Isti’ab’ (2:118-119), in the margin of the Isaba) from the hadith of Ibn Sirin from Salit. Ibn Hajar quoted a summary of it in the Isaba (2:72). `Abdullah b. ‘Amir b. Rabi`a said, "I was with `Uthman in the house. He said, "I beg all of those who think that they should obey me to restrain their hands and weapons. The best of you in ability is the one who restrains his hand and weapons."
181. In ‘The History’ of at-Tabari (5:127), it says that `Uthman summoned `Abdullah b. `Abbas and said to him, ‘Go, you are in charge of the Festival, i.e. in charge of the Hajj." Ibn `Abbas said to him, "Amir al-Mu’minun, I prefer to fight these men than to on Hajj." He begged him to go. Ibn `Abbas was in charge of the Hajj that year. It is confirmed that al-Hasan, al-Husayn, Ibn az-Zubayr, Ibn `Umar and Marwan were all armed to the teeth when they entered the house. `Uthman said, "I beg you to return and put down your weapons and stay in you houses."
182. Ibn Kathir said in ‘The Beginning and the End’ (7:181), "The siege continued from the end of Dhu’l-Qa’da until Friday, the 18th of Dhu’l-Hijja. The day before that, `Uthman spoke to the Muhajirun and the Ansar who were with him in the house. They were about seven hundred and they included `Abdullah b. `Umar, `Abdullah b. az-Zubayr, al-Hasan and al- Husayn, Marwan and Abu Hurayra and a group of his clients. If he had let them, they would have defended him. He said, "I beg whoever owes me obedience to restrain his hands and to go to his house." He said to his friend, "Whoever sheathes his sword is free." So the fighting from the inside cooled down while it was hot on the outside, until Shaytan completed what he had worked for and desired. The effect of the great atrocity on the people is clear enough. Look at what al-Baladhari quoted in the ‘Lineages of the Nobles’ (5:103) from al-Mada’ini from Salama b. `Uthman from`Ali b. Zayd from al-Hasan. He said, "`Ali came in one day to his daughters and they were wiping their eyes. He said, ‘Why are you weeping?’ They said, ‘We are weeping for `Uthman.’ He wept and said, ‘Weep then.’" When Allah finished his business as it was finished and carried out His decree, it was known that the Truth would not leave people in a fruitless situation and that people after him who needed a khalif would have to look into his case. None after the first three Khalifs would be like the fourth in merit, knowledge, taqwa and the deen so allegiance was given to him. If it had not been for the speed of taking the Oath of Homage to `Ali, something would have befallen the mob there whose disruption would not have stopped. However, the Muhajirun and the Ansar decided on him and he thought that it was his duty. That is why he submitted to it.
In ‘The History’ of at-Tabari (5:155), Sayf b. `Umar at-Tamimi related from his shaykhs who said, "Madina remained for five days after the murder of `Uthman with al-Ghafiqi b. Harb as its Amir. They searched for someone who would respond to them and undertake to rule. They did not find anyone. The Egyptians went to Madina. When they met him, he parted from them and repeatedly declared himself free of them and their position. The Kufans looked for az-Zubayr and did not find him. They sent to him when he was relaxing and he parted from them and declared himself free of them and their position. The Basrans sought out Talha. When he met them, he parted from them and declared himself free of their position. They sent to Sa`d b. Abi Waqqas and said, "You were one of the people of the Shura. We agree on you. Come forward and we will offer you allegiance." He sent to them, "I and Ibn `Umar have left it. I have no need of it." Then they came to `Abdullah b. `Umar and said, "You are the son of `Umar. Take command." He said, "This command is revenge. By Allah, I will not offer myself for it. Seek someone else."
At-Tabari (5:156) transmitted that ash-Sha`bi said, "The people came to `Ali while he was in the market of Madina. They said to him, "Stretch out your hand. We will give you homage." He said, "Do not be hasty. `Umar was a blessed man and he advised a council for it. Wait until the people gather and consult each other." The people left `Ali. Then one of them said, "If people go back to their cities with the murder of `Uthman and no one has undertaken to rule after him, we will not be protected from the disagreement of people and from the corruption of the community." They returned to `Ali. Al-Ashtar took his hand and `Ali grasped it. He said, "Is it after three? By Allah, if I were to leave it, you would have cast your eyes longingly on it for a time." So the common people offered him allegiance. The people of Kufa said, "the first to offer him allegiance was al-Ashtar." Sayf related from Abu Haritha Mihraz al-Abshami and from Abu `Uthman Yazid b. Asyad al-Ghassani said, "On Thursday, five days after the murder of `Uthman, the people of Madina gathered. They found that Sa`d and az-Zubayr had left and they found Talha in one of his gardens. When the people of Madina gathered for them, the people of Egypt said to them, ‘You are the people of Shura.
You take the Imamate and your command will be effective throughout the community. Look for a man and set him up. We will follow you.’ They all said, ‘We are pleased with `Ali b. Abi Talib.’ `Ali said, ‘Leave me and seek someone else.’ They said, ‘We ask you by Allah. Do you not see the turmoil? Do you not fear Allah?’ He said, ‘If I answer you, I will pursue you by what I know. If you leave me, I will be like one of you, although I will listen and obey you in the one you appoint to rule over you.’ Then they parted on that note and they arranged a meeting for the next day (i.e. Friday). On Friday morning, the people were in the mosque.
`Ali came and sat on the mimbar. He said, ‘People, by an assembly and by permission, if this is your command. No one has a right to it until you command it. We parted yesterday with something. If you wish, I will sit for you. If not, I will not be angry with anyone.’ They said, ‘We will have that on which we parted yesterday.’" These events and their details indicate that the homage to `Ali was like the homage of his brother before him. It came as it happened in its time. It proceeded from the pleasure of the community at that moment, not from some alleged bequest or imaginary illusory signs. Talha gave him the Oath of Homage. People said, "A paralysed hand has given homage to `Ali. By Allah, this business is not over yet."
184. The one who spoke these words was Habib b. Dhu’ayb. At-Tabari related it (5:153)
from Abu’l-Mulayh al-Hudhali. If it is said that they both gave homage....
185. i.e. Talha and az-Zubayr.
....under compulsion, we say, "Far be it that they should be forced, either them or the one to whom they gave allegiance. Even if they were compelled, that would have no effect because the oath of homage is effected and completed by one or two and it is binding for whomever gives homage, after that he is forced to do that by the Shari`a. If they had not taken the homage, that would not have had any effect on them nor on the homage offered to the Imam.
186. Qadi Ibn al-`Arabi confirmed that this judgment of the Shari`a in the oath of homage. That did not come from his opinion. Imam Abu Bakr al-Baqillani had some fitting words in the Introduction, p.231. As for the one who said, "A paralysed hand and the business is not over yet," that was the opinion of the speaker that Talha was the first to offer allegiance. It was not like that.
187. You know that the people of Kufa say that al-Ashtar was the first to offer allegiance. If the hand of Talha had been the first to offer allegiance, it would have had greater blessing because that was a hand which had defended the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. The hand of al-Ashtar was one that was still wet with the blood of the martyr who had been given the good news of the Garden. If it is said that Talha said, "I gave homage while the sword was on my neck,"
188. i.e. The sword was on my neck because of the state of fear which prevailed in Madina after the murder of the Amir al-Mu’minun `Uthman. We say, "This hadith is fabricated by the one who uses "Qafa" in the dialect as "Qafi", as he made "Hawa" into "Hawi". That is the dialect of Hudhayl, not of Quraysh.
189. It is further from the dialect of Quraysh than the dialect of Hudhayl. Ibn al-Athir said in the End (the subject of dialects) that it is the Tayy dialect. They double the ya’ of the first person. It is a lie which is not to be considered. As for their words, "A paralysed hand", if that is sound, one does not pay any attention to it. A hand paralysed by protecting the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, has every business completed for it. He is protected by it from every disliked thing.
190. Talha was one of the group who pledged themselves to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, to the death on the Day of Uhud when the muslims were routed. They were steadfast and stayed with him. Malik b. Zuhayr al-Jashami shot an arrow meant for the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. He did not err in his shooting. Talha kept it from the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, with his hand. That was why he was paralysed in his hand from his little finger. A man from the Banu `Amir was dragging his spear while he was mounted on a bay horse with a blaze. He was armed to the teeth. He shouted, "I am the one who has said farewell. Show me Muhammad!" Talha struck the hamstring of his horse and it put its tail between its legs. Then he took his spear and he did not miss. The man made a noise like an ox. Talha kept his foot on the man’s cheek until he was dead. His two daughters, `A’isha and Umm Ishaq said, "Our father was wounded 24 times over his entire body at Uhud. He fainted. In spite of that, he still carried the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, when his tooth was broken and al-Qahqahri brought him back.
Whenever any of the idol worshippers met them, he fought to defend him until he got him back to the people. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, whenever he saw Talha, "Whoever wants to look at a martyr walking on the face of the earth should look at Talha b. `Ubaydullah." Abu Nu`aym al-Isbahani related that. When Abu Bakr mentioned the day of Uhud, he said, "That was the day of Talha." `Ali b. Abi Talib heard a man saying after the Battle of the Camel, "Where is Talha?" `Ali scolded him. He said, "You were not present on the Day of Uhud. I saw him while he was defending the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, with his own body while the swords were covering him. He used himself as a shield for the Mesenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace." Ibn `Asakir related it (7:78) by way of Ibn Mundah from Talha. He said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, called me Talha al-Khayr (the good) on the Day of Uhud. He called me Talha al-Fayyad (the Bountiful) in the Battle of `Usra. It was Talha al-Jud (the Generous) on the Day of Hunayn."
The matter was completed as it should be and the decree was carried out after that according to it. The innovator is ignorant of that and fabricated a proof against it. If it is said that they offered him allegiance provided that he kill the murderers of `Uthman, we say that this is not a valid precondition of the homage. They offer him homage provided that he rules by the truth. The person who seeks blood is summoned and the one from whom it is demanded is summoned. The claim is presented and an answer is given. If there is clear proof, then judgment takes place. As for taking allegiance provided that he attack a person by a general statement or by uninformed action or by hearing some words, that is not part of the deen of Islam.
191. Look at the Introduction by al-Baqillani (p. 231, 235 and 236). The reality of the position of `Ali with the murders of `Uthman was that when they gave him homage, they held the reins of authority in Madina. The state of terror which was prevalent then did not allow `Ali or anyone else the power to take a position with them in any way like the position the Companions had when `Ubaydullah b. `Umar killed al-Hurmuzan, in spite of the great difference between the blood of the Amir al-Mu’minin, the Rightly-Guided Khalif and the magian prisoner of war who said that he had become muslim after he was captured. When `Ali moved from Madina to Iraq in order to be near Syria, `Uthman’s murderers moved with him, especially the people of Kufa and Basra among them. When they went to Basra and Kufa, they were in the fortress of their strength and the pride of their tribes. There is no doubt that `Ali proclaimed himself free of them and that he wanted to reach an understanding with the People of the Camel with whatever agreement was possible in the business. `Uthman’s murderers started the battle between the army of `Ali and the army of the People of the Camel. The People of the Camel we able to kill the Egyptians among the murderers of `Uthman with the exception of one of the Banu Sa`id b. Zayd Manah b. Tamim. His tribe tribe protected him.
When the business developed so that blood was shed, `Ali was put in a position where he needed the force of these men, although they were known to be the murderers of `Uthman. They were led by al-Ashtar and men like him. Most of them turned against `Ali later and attacked him, claiming that he was a kafir. The `ulama’ of the sunna and the historians say that Allah set an ambush for the murderers of `Uthman. He took revenge on them by killing them and punishing them one by one, even those who lived a long time until the time of al-Hajjaj. They ended by having their blood shed as a repayment for what their hands had done. Allah is the most just of the judges.
The `Uthmanis said, "A group of the Companions held back from him. They included Sa`d b. Abi Waqqas, Muhammad b. Maslama, Ibn `Umar, Usama b. Zayd and others like him." We said, "As for his homage, they did not hold back from it. As for helping him, some people refrained from doing that. They included those you have mentioned because it was a question of ijtihad. Each one did ijtihad and acted by his opinion and reached his position.
192. Look at the Introduction by al-Baqillani, pp. 233-234.
Some people relate that when the pledge of allegiance to `Ali was completed, Talha and az-Zubayr asked `Ali for permission to go to Makka.
193. `Abdullah b. `Umar b. al-Khattab was one of those who asked him for permission to go to Makka. The reason for that was that when the oath of homage to `Ali was finished, `Ali decided to fight the people of Syria. He delegated the people of Madina to go with him. He said, "I am a man of the people of Madina. If they go, I will go with them in full obedience. But I will not go out to fight this year." Then Ibn `Umar made provisions and left for Makka (Ibn Kathir, 7:230). Al-Hasan b. `Ali opposed his father about going out to fight the people of Syria. `Ali left him in Madina as you will see later. `Ali said, "Perhaps you mean to go to Basra and Syria?" They swore that they would not do that.
194. The words of `Ali to them, and their path to them, are part of what the perpetrators of the disaster and their transmitters added. `A’isha was at Makka.
195. She and the Mothers of the Believers went to Makka when the attackers prevented water from reaching the Amir al-Mu’minin, `Uthman. He began to ask people for water. Umm Habiba brought water to him and they treated her with contempt. They struck the face of her mule and cut the rope of the mule with the sword (at-Tabari, 5:127). The Ummahat al-Mu’minin prepared to go on Hajj, to flee from the siege (Ibn Kathir, 7:229).
`Abdullah b. `Amr, the Governor of `Uthman over Basra and Ya’la b. Umayya, `Uthman’s Governor over the Yemen, fled to Makka. All of them met in Makka. They included Marwan b. al-Hakam. The Banu Umayya met and they wanted revenge for `Uthman’s blood. Ya`la gave Talha, az-Zubayr, and `A’isha four hundred dirhams. He gave two hundred dinars. They wanted to go to Syria. Ibn `Amir stopped them and said, "You have not agreed to meet Mu`awiya. I have hirelings in Basra. Go to them instead."
They came to Ma’ al-Hawa’ib.
196. Al-Hawa’ib is one of the springs on the road to Basra. Abu’l-Fath Nasr b. `Abdu’r-Rahman al-Iskandari said that Yaqut quoted him in ‘The Collection of the Lands’. Abu `Ubayd al-Bakri said in his collection that it is some water near Basra on the Makkan road. It was named al-Hawa’ub bint Kalb b. Wabara al-Quda’iyya. And the dogs barked. `A’isha asked and was told, "This is the water of al-Hawa’ib." She took his halter from him. That was because she had heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, "Which of you will be the one with the thick-haired camel
197. "Adib.": adabb. There is assimilation for the sake of the rhyme. Al-Adabb means much hair on the face, Ibn al-Athir said that in ‘The End’. when the dogs bark at her at al-Huwa’ib?" Talha and az-Zubayr testified that that was not Ma’ al-Hawa’ib and fifty men added to them.
198. They did not testify and `A’isha did not say that nor did the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say that. We will make that clear in its place in the Protection. It was the first false testimony which had occurred in Islam.
199. The false testimony came from rabble who did not fear Allah, like Abu Zaynab and Abu’l-Mawra’ as was already stated. It came from those who claimed to have the power to create a personality which Allah did not create - like whoever fabricated the name of Thabit, the client of Umm Salama, as was already stated. As for Talha and az-Zubayr, they had been promised the Garden by the Prophet of mercy, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, who did not speak from passion. They had the highest character and they were too noble to themselves and to Allah to give false testimony. This lie against them came from men who hated the Companions of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. It is not the first lie they made in Islam nor was it the last of the lies that they forged against him and his people. `Ali went to Kufa.
200. He left Madina at the end of the month of Rabi’ al-Akhir in 36 A H. in order to be near to Syria. His son al-Hasan wanted his father to stay in Madina and take it as the abode of the khalifate as the three Khalifs had done before him (at-Tabari, 5:171). Look at 5:163. `Ali travelled from Madina to Iraq by way of ar-Rabadha, Fid, ath-Tha’labiya, al-Asawid and Dhu Qar. From ar-Rabadha, he sent Muhammad b. Abi Bakr and Muhammad b. Ja`far to Kufa. They came back to him while he was at Dhu Qar, saying that Abu Musa and the people of discernment among the Kufans wanted to refrain and not to go out. He sent al-Ashtar and Ibn `Abbas. Then he sent his son al-Hasan and `Ammar to win the people over to him. While he was on his way, `Uthman b. Hanif and Hukaym b. Jabala started to fight the People of the Camel. In al-Asawid, he received news of the death of Hukaym b. Jabala and the murderers of `Uthman. Then `Uthman b. Hanif came to `Ali while he was in ath-Tha’labiyya. `Uthman had his beard plucked out and he was helpless. `Ali set up his army in Dhu Qar. Then he went to Basra with his men, where the People of the Camel were located. The two groups formed armies and met.
201. After `Ali reached Dhu Qarr, al-Qa’qa’ b. `Amr undertook to attempt to reach an agreement, `Ali went to Basra with his men. The murders of `Uthman were quick to scotch the attempts at peace by starting the battle. When `Ammar was near the howdah of `A’isha, he said, "What are you seeking?" They said, "We are seeking (revenge) for `Uthman’s blood." He said, "On this day, Allah will kill the attacker and the one who seeks blood without a right."
202. The two groups were seeking an understanding and unity. As for the attackers, they were the murderers of `Uthman. Allah killed them all except for one. That will be made clear. `Ali and az-Zubayr met. `Ali said to him, "Do you remember the words of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, that you would fight me?" Az-Zubayr left him and went back. His son tried to make him return and he would not do it. Al-Ahnaf followed him (az-Zubayr) and then murdered him.
203. Az-Zubayr’s murderers were `Umayr b. Jurmuz, Faddala b. Habis and Nufay’ at-Tamimi. Al-Ahnaf had too much fear of Allah to command them to kill him. He did hear them grumbling about the muslims fighting each other. Then they caught up to az-Zubayr and murdered him (at-Tabari, 5:197). `Ali called to Talha from a distance and said, "What do you want?" He said, "Revenge for `Uthman’s blood." He said, "May Allah fight you! We are entrusted with the blood of `Uthman. Have you not heard the words of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, when he said, ‘Be a friend to the one who is his friend and be an enemy to the one who is his enemy and help the one who helps him and disappoint the one who disappoints him.’
You are the first to offer me allegiance and then break it."
204. Talha was too true in belief and high in character to give allegiance and then break it. He wanted to unify things by investigating the murderers of `Uthman. `Ali agreed to this as will come in the following study. However, those who had committed a crime against Islam the first time when they attacked `Uthman were the enemies of Allah the next time by starting the fight between these two groups of muslims.
As for their going to Basra, that is correct without any doubt. But why did they go? There is no sound transmission regarding that and there is no one who is to be trusted in it because the reliable individuals did not transmit anything. One does not listen to the words of the partisan, including the partisan who wants to attack Islam and find fault with the Companions. It is possible that they went out to depose `Ali by something that seemed correct to them.
205. This possibility is remote in respect of those right-acting excellent ones. Nothing they did indicated this. All the events indicate that they were above it. This is what Ibn Hajar believed in ‘The Opening of the Creator’ (13:41-42). In the book, ‘The Reports of Basra’ by `Umar b. Shabba he quotes what al-Muhallab said, "No one transmitted that `A’isha and those with her debated `Ali out of desire for the Khalifate nor did any of them ask to be appointed Khalif."
That was because they had offered homage to him in order to still the rebellion, but they still sought the truth. It is possible that they went out to get power over `Uthman’s murderers.
206. This is what they used to say. However, they meant that they would reach an agreement with `Ali in any manner by which they could do that. This is what the Striving Companion al-Qa’qa’ b. `Amr attempted to do. Both parties accepted him as will be mentioned. It is possible that they went to join the groups of the muslims and to bring them together and refer them to the same law so that they would not be agitated and fight. This is what is sound and nothing else. The sound reports bring that. As for the first possibilities, they are all false and weak. As for their giving homage by force, that is false as we have clarified.
207. pp. 143-144.
As for their seeking to depose him, that is false, because deposing a person is only by a universal opinion, although it is possible that one or two may appoint. Deposing someone only occurs after evidence and clarification.
208. Look at the Introduction of al-Baqillani, pp. 211-212 and at p. 232 on the subject of deposing. As for their going out because of the business of the murderers of `Uthman, that is weak because the root before it was unity. It is possible to combine both matters.
209. The combination of the two matters very nearly took place if it had not been that the Saba’ites foiled it. The People of the Camel came about `Uthman’s murderers. That was all that they sought. However, they wanted to reach an understanding about it with `Ali because reaching an understanding with him was the first way to obtain their goal. It is related that part of the rabble among the people had made them absent. 210. i.e. Talha and az-Zubayr and `A’isha were absent from Madina. Talha, az-Zubayr and `A’isha, the Umm al-Mu’minun, may Allah be pleased with them, left hoping to return people to their source and to preserve the respect of their Prophet. As evidence against her,
211. When they induced her to go to Basra. they quoted Allah ta’ala when he said, "There is no good in much of their conspiring secretly except for the one who commands sadaqa or something correct or to put things right between people (4:114)." The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went out to make peace and he sent messengers for it. She hoped for the reward and used that story. She went out so that things would reach their proper conclusions. The people of Basra became aware of them and those who had conspired against `Uthman egged the people on and said, "Go out to them so that you can see what they have come to do." ‘Uthman b. Hanif sent Hukaym b. Jabala.
212. `Uthman b. Hanif was an Ansari from Aws. When the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, emigrated to Madina, he was one of fifteen Awsi youths who joined Abu `Amr b. Sayfi when he went to Makka, because he was angry with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. Abu `Amr was called the "Monk" in the Jahiliyya. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, called him "al-Fasiq (the deviant)", (at-Tabari, 3:16). It is clear that `Uthman b. Hanif returned from Makka and became muslim before Uhud because it was the first of his battles (Isaba 2:249). The Shi`a claim that he rebelled against the Khalif of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, Abu Bakr as-Siddiq at the beginning of his Khalifate. (‘The Revision of the Article’, by al-Mamqani (1:197). He believed that he was one of those they lied about. He was in charge of the sector of the land of Iraq and collecting its jizya and kharaj taxes for `Umar. If what they claim about his agitating against Abu Bakr is true, this would conflict with `Umar’s appointment of him unless he had repented of that.
When homage was given to `Ali at the end of 35 A.H. and he chose his governors at the beginning of 36 A.H., he appointed `Uthman b. Hanif over Basra (at-Tabari, 5:161). When the People of the Camel reached al-Hafir, about four miles from Basra, `Uthman b. Hanif sent `Imran b. Husayn al-Khuza’i, the bearer of the banner of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, for Khuza’a on the Day of the Conquest of Makka, to them to investigate them for him. When he came back to him and mentioned his conversation with the People of the Camel `Uthman b. Hanif told him, "Advise me, `Imran." He told him, "I am not going out, so you should refrain". `Uthman said, "I will stop them until the Amir al-Mu’minin `Ali comes." Hisham b. `Amr al-Ansari, one of the people of jihad in the Conquest, indicated that he should make peace with them until `Ali’s command came. `Uthman b. Hanif refused and summoned the people. "Put on your weapons!" `Uthman occupied himself with deceit (5:174-175). His end was unsuccessful and he lost power to the People of the Camel. Ibn Hanif was captured by the mob and his beard was plucked out. Then the People of the Camel rescued him from them. He retreated to the army of `Ali which was in ath-Tha’labiyya and then in Dhu Qar. This was `Uthman b. Hanif and his position with the People of the Camel. As for Hukaym b. Jabala, the reader already knows that he was one of those who murdered the Amir al-Mu’minin `Uthman. This was already stated earlier. He met Talha and az-Zubayr at az-Zabuqa, and Hukaym was killed.
213. Az-Zabuqa: a place near Basra. The first stage of the Battle of the Camel took place there after Talha, az-Zubayr and `A’isha had spoken in al-Murbadd. As for the death of Hukaym b. Jabala, that was after the first battle which ended in the victory of the People of the Camel and they had power in Basra. Hukaym b. Jabala was insolent in this new situation and he fought with three hundred of his helpers until he was killed. If he had gone out as a submitting muslim and not as a resistor,
214. i.e. fighting.
nothing would have happened to him. What good did he have in defence? What was he defending? They did not come as fighters or rulers. They were working for peace and desired to bring things together. Whoever went out to them and opposed them and fought them, opposed their goal as is done in all journeys and goals.
When they reached Basra, the people met them in a group....
215. Murbadd of Basra: the place where the camel-market was held, outside of the city. Then it was the place where the poets boasted and the assemblies of the orators were held. Then the buildings of Basra expanded and al-Murbadd became part of its inhabited areas. It was one of its most glorious streets and its market was one of its greatest markets. It became an immense quarter, full of people. When the position of Basra declined and its buildings grew old, it dwindled. Al-Murbadd became separate from it until there were three miles between it and Basra in the time of Yaqut. Al-Murbadd is a ruin. It is like a city isolated in the middle of the desert. The location of Basra at that time was near the place of the modern suburb, az-Zubayr.
....at the upper part of Al-Murbadd. There were so many of them that if a stone had been thrown, it would have fallen on a man’s head. Talha spoke, az-Zubayr spoke, and `A’isha spoke, may Allah be pleased with all of them.
216. The People of the Camel were on the right of al-Murbadd and `Uthman b. Hanif and those with him were on the left of it. At-Tabari (5:175) gave a summary of the speeches of Talha, az-Zubayr, and `A’isha. He quoted that from Sayf b. `Umar at-Tamimi from his shaykhs. They are the historians who have the best knowledge of events in Iraq.
There was a great uproar.
217. Because those who were on the left spoke while Talha and az-Zubayr were speaking. They said, "They have split! They are treacherous! They are speaking lies and command what is false! They gave homage and now they come saying this!" Those who were on the right were saying, "They are truthful! They are dutiful! They speak the truth and command the truth!" People broke up and threw pebbles at each other and spoke sharply. However, when `A’isha finished her speech, those with the Camel were firm in their constancy, but the people of `Uthman b. Hanif split into two groups. One group said, "She spoke the truth, by Allah, she is pious and has brought what is correct." The others said, "You lie! We do not recognise what you say." They broke up and threw pebbles at each other. Talha said, "Be quiet," They began to pester him and would not be silent. He said, "Shame, shame. A bed of fire and flies of ambition!" Then turned back without having clarified things.
218. When `A’isha saw what the helpers of `Uthman b. Hanif did, she went down with the people of the right side, they left Ibn Hanif and stood elsewhere. Some of those who were with Ibn Hanif went with `A’isha, others remained with `Uthman b. Hanif (at-Tabari, 5:175). They went down to the Banu Nahd, and people threw stones at them until they had descended the mountain.
219. At-Tabari (5:176-177) has a fine description which Sayf b. `Umar at-Tamimi transmitted from his two shaykhs, Muhammad b. `Abdullah b. Suwad b. Nuwayra and Talha b. al-A’lam al-Hanafi about the sound position of the People of the Camel in this battle and the excess of Hukaym b. Jabala when he started the fight. They both said, "`A’isha commanded her companions and they went to the right, to the cemetery of the Banu Mazin. Then night separated the two groups. The following day, the People of the Camel moved to the side of Dar ar-Razq. In the morning, `Uthman b. Hanif and Hukaym b. Jabala renewed the fight. Hukaym continued to curse the Umm al-Mu’minin, `A’isha, and he killed the men and women who censured him for that. `A’isha’s herald told people not to fight, they refused. When evil touched them and held to them, then the companions of `A’isha called for peace. Talha, az-Zubayr and `Uthman b. Hanif, the Governor of `Ali over Basra, met. They agreed in writing between them not to fight, that `Uthman had the House of the Amirate, the Mosque, and the Treasury and that Talha and az-Zubayr could stay wherever they wished in Basra and the two parties would not turn against each other until `Ali had come.
220. The text of the peace treaty is in ‘The History’ of at-Tabari (5:177). When `Ali heard
what had happened, he wrote to `Uthman b. Hanif, describing him as a failure. Talha and az-Zubayr gathered the people and went to the mosque. They waited for `Uthman b. Hanif. He was late and did not attend. Turmoil grew in the mosque from the rabble of Basra, the followers of Hukaym b. Jabala. That made some people react and they went to `Uthman b. Hanif to summon him. The people trampled on him and plucked out his beard. Mujashi’ b. Mas`ud as-Sulami, the leader of Hawazin, the Banu Sulayman and some members of the tribes of Basra, told them to do that, (at-Tabari, 5:178).
It is related that Hukaym b. Jabala opposed them and he was killed after the truce.
221. The clarification of that is in ‘The History’ of at-Tabari (5:179-182).
`Ali came to Basra
222. He camped in a place there called az-Zawiya. The People of the Camel camped in a
place called al-Furda. and they drew near so as to see each other.
223. In the place where the castle of `Ubaydullah b. Ziyad is located. That was Thursday in the middle of Jumada al-Akhira, 36 A.H. (at-Tabari, 5:199). The lofty Companion al-Qa’qa’ b. `Amr at-Tamimi stood between the two groups attempting intelligent mediation. The People of the Camel answered him and `Ali submitted to that as well. `Ali sent to Talha and az-Zubayr saying, "If you still hold to what you told al-Qa’qa’ b. `Amr, then hold off until we come and investigate this matter." They sent to him, "We hold to what we told al-Qa’qa’ b. `Amr regarding peace between the people." Ibn Kathir said in ‘The Beginning and the End’ (7:239), people were reassured and tranquil. Each group gathered with its people. In the evening, `Ali sent `Abdullah b. `Abbas to them. They sent Muhammad b. Talha as-Sajjad to `Ali. They all decided on peace and spent the best night they had ever spent in wellbeing. Those who had agitated in the business of `Uthman spent the worst night they had ever spent. They were looking in the face of destruction. They began to consult each other for the entire night until they agreed to start the war secretly. They concealed that, fearing that the evil they desired would become known. They went out in the dark of night so that their neighbours would not be aware of them. They slipped into that business. As well as ‘The History’ of Ibn Kathir, look at ‘The History’ of at-Tabari (5:202-203) and ‘The Path of the Sunna’ (2:185 and 3:225 & 241). That is how they started the war between `Ali and his brothers, az-Zubayr and Talha. The People of the Camel thought that `Ali had deceived them. `Ali thought that his brothers had deceived him. Each of them had too much fear of Allah to do that even in the Jahiliyya. How then could they do it after they had reached the highest rank of the qualities of the Qur’an?
The people of the sects did not leave them alone. They hastened to shed blood and the war started. There was clamour in the mob. All of that was done so that there would not be a clear proof and the state would not be clarified and the murderers of `Uthman could remain hidden. If one man in the army can pervert its direction, then how is it when there are a thousand perverting it? It is related that when Marwan saw Talha in the ranks, he said, "We do not seek for traces after finding the source." and that he shot his arrow and killed him.
224. The bane of reports are their transmitters. In Islamic knowledges, there is a cure for the bane of false lies. Every person who relates a report is demanded by Islam to specify his source according to the rule, "From where did you get this?" No community knows precision like this in seeking only the sources of reports as the muslims knew it, especially the people of the Sunna among them. This report from Talha and Marwan is "picked up." Neither his father nor his Companion is known. Since no one reliable transmitted it with a known isnad from reliable men, Qadi Ibn al-`Arabi can say with deep conviction, "Who knows this except the One who knows the Unseen Worlds?" Who knows this except the One who knows the Unseen Worlds since no reliable source transmitted it? It was related that he was hit by an arrow at the command of Marwan, not that Marwan himself shot it.
225. This claim is like the previous claim from az-Zubayr that al-Ahnaf was the one who
commanded his murder. Ka’b b. Suar brought out a Qur`an which was open in his hand, begging the people by Allah not to shed blood.
226. Ka’b b. Suwar al-Azdi was the first of the Qadis of the muslims in Basra. The Amir al-Mu’minin `Umar appointed him. Ibn `Abdu’l-Barr said, "He was a muslim in the time of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, although he did not see him."