Friday, October 24, 2008

Companions after Mohammad [PBUH]'s Death - 9


العواصم القواصم

أبو بكر بن العربي‎

Death: 543H 1148


Accurately Determining The Position Of The Companions After The Death Of The Prophet, May Allah Bless Him And Grant Him Peace AL-`AWASIM MIN AL-QAWASIM


An arrow struck and killed him.

227. Ibn `Asakir (7:85) said in the biography of Talha, "`A’isha said to Ka’b b. Suwar al-Azdi, "Leave the camel, Ka’b. Bring the Book of Allah and call them to it." She gave him a Qur`an and he went forward to the people. The Saba’ites were in front of him. They feared that there would be peace. Ka’b confronted them with the Qur`an while `Ali was behind them, urging them (to accept). They refused to do anything but advance. When Ka’b called them, they shot him once and killed him. Then they shot at the Umm al-Mu’minin. The first thing which she did when they refused was to say, "Oh people! Curse the murderers of `Uthman and their parties." She began to supplicate and the people of Basra shouted out the curse. `Ali heard the invocation and said, "What is this shouting?" They said, "`A’isha is calling and the people of Basra are praying with her against the murderers of `Uthman and their parties." `Ali began to call, "Oh Allah, curse the murderers of `Uthman and their parties!" I said, "The men of right action of both parties shared in cursing the murderers of the Amir al-Mu’minin, the wronged martyr, in the very hour in which the murderers of `Uthman started the battle between the muslim men of right action.

Perhaps it was the same with Talha. It is known that in the strife and the slaughter of the battle, those who had feuds and rancour were able to undo bonds and break agreements.

The terms were at hand and the promises were carried out.

228. Ibn `Asakir (7:86-87) quoted the words of ash-Sha`bi, "`Ali b. Abi Talib saw Talha fallen down in one of the valleys. He got down and wiped the dust from his face. Then he said, "Abu Muhammad, it pains me to see you in the dust in a valley under the stars of the sky. I complain to Allah of all my hidden faults." (Al-Asma’i said, i.e. my secrets and my sorrows which are inside of me.) He said, "Would that I had died twenty years before this day!" Abu Hubayba, the client of Talha, said, "I and ‘Imran b. Talha came to `Ali after the Camel. He greeted `Imran and brought him there. He said, ‘I hope that Allah will put me and your father among those about whom it is said, "We stripped away all rancour in their hearts as brothers, they are on couches face to face."’" Al-Harith al-A'war (Abu Zuhayr al-Harith b. `Abdullah al-Hamdani al-Hawthi al-Kufi al-A’war, one of the great men of the Shi`a. Ash-Sha`bi and Ibn al-Madini said that he was a liar.) was sitting in a corner. He said, "Allah is too just to let us kill them when they will be our brothers in the Garden." `Ali said to him, "Go to the furthest and most remote land of Allah!" "Who will be there if Talha and I are not in the Garden?" Muhammad b. `Abdullah mentioned that `Ali took an inkwell and threw it at al-A’war but it missed him. Ibn al-Kiwa’ (`Abdullah b. Abi Awfa al-Yashkuri, one of those who formed the sedition after `Uthman. After Siffin and the Arbitration, he was at the head of the Kharijites. He returned to `Ali before the Battle of Nahrawan.) said to him, "Allah is too just for that." `Ali went at him with a stick and beat him. He said to him, "You! You have no mother! Your companions deny this?!" If it is said, why did `A’isha go out when the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had told them in the Hajj of Farewell, "After this, confinement (busr) will appear."

229. In the ‘Musnad’ of Ahmad (2:446, first edition) from the hadith of Salih, the client of Tawa’ma from Abu Hurayra that when the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went on Hajj with his wives, he said, "It is this Hajj. The time of the appearance of confinement comes after it." In it (5:218, first edition) there is the hadith of Waqid b. Abi Waqid al-Laythi from his father that he, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to his wives in this Hajj, "After this, confinement will appear." The hadith of Abu Waqid is in the chapter of ‘The Obligation of the Hajj’ from ‘The Book of Practices in the Sunan’ of Abu Da`ud (book 11, chap.1). ‘Husur’ is the plural of ‘hasir’, i.e. staying in the house. Ibn Kathir transmitted it in ‘The Beginning and the End’ (5:215), saying that it is an indication by the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, that he himself announced his death to them and that this would be his last Hajj, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. In it, he does not commend that they should not leave confinement for a Hajj or a requirement or to make peace between people. The enemies of the Companions quoted this hadith as an absolute prohibition. Qadi Ibn al-`Arabi considered that to be a lie because it is quoted in order to use it in a manner other than that desired by the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. We say that he related two hadith to a woman. If she denies it, then there are four. Oh intellects of women! Did I not enjoin you not to relate false hadith? We already told you about the soundness of `A’isha’s presentation of the proof.

230. In the research on ‘The Aspects of Excellence and Preference’ from ‘The Book of the Imamate and Preference’, included in part 4 of ‘The Fisal’, p. 134, Imam Ibn Hazm quoted his shaykh Ahmad b. Muhammad al-Khawzi from Ahmad b. al-Fadl ad-Dinawari from Muhammad b. Jarir at-Tabari that `Ali b. Abi Talib sent `Ammar b. Yasir and al-Hasan b. `Ali to Kufa when the Umm al-Mu’minin went to Basra. When they came there, people gathered to both of them in the mosque. `Ammar spoke to them and told them that `A’isha, the Umm al-Mu’minin, had gone out to Basra. Then he said to them, "I tell you, by Allah, I know that she is the wife of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in the Garden, as she was his wife in this world, but Allah has tested you by her so that you either obey her or obey him." Masruq (or Abu’l-Aswad) said to him, "Abu’l-Yaqathan, we are with those who are promised the Garden rather than those who are not promised it." `Ammar was silent. Why do you say what you do not know? You repeat something you should disassociate yourself from, as if you did not understand. "The worst of beasts with Allah are the deaf and dumb who do not understand." As for what you mentioned about the testimony regarding Ma’ al-Hawa’ib, you have committed the greatest sin....

231. Hub: wrong action, sin. mentioning it. There is absolutely nothing in what you mentioned. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did not utter that hadith. Those words did not occur nor did anyone testify to them. You have written your testimonies with this falsehood and you will be questioned.

232. The location of al-Hawa’ib was made clear. The words which they ascribe to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and which they claim that `A’isha said when she reached that water do not have a place in the volumes of the Sunna. We saw that report with at-Tabari (5:170). We saw that he related from Isma’il b. Musa al-Fazari (and he is a man about whom Ibn `Adi said, "They objected to an excess in him towards the Shi`a.") This Shi`i related it from `Ali b. `Abbas al-Azraq (and an-Nasa`i said that he was weak). He related it from Abu’l-Khattab al-Hijri (Ibn Hajar said in the Taqrib at-Tadhhib that he is unknown). This unknown al-Hijri related it from Safwan b. Qabisa. Al-Ahmasi (adh-Dhahabi said in ‘The Balance of Harmony’ that he is unknown). This is the report of al-Hawa’ib. It is based on a bedouin. They claimed that they met him on the desert road. He had a camel which they liked and they wanted it to be `A’isha’s camel, so they bought it from him. The man went with them until they reached al-Hawa’ib. He heard these words and related them, although his name (i.e. the bedouin who owned the camel) is not known nor do we know whether he is one of the liars or the truthful. It is clear to me that he is neither one of the liars or the truthful. It is clear to me that he is neither one of the liars nor one of the truthful because he is a fictional man who did not exist because the name of `A’isha’s camel was `Askar. Ya’la b. Umayya brought it from Yemen and `A’isha rode it from Makka to Iraq. She was not walking on her feet so that they should buy this camel for her from this Bedouin whom they claim to have met in the desert. They ascribed this silly story to him so that they could say that Talha and az-Zubayr, who were promised the Garden by the one who did not speak from passion, had given false testimony. If we thought that it was permitted to transmit weak reports, opposite this report we would transmit a report which Yaqut quoted in ‘The Collection of the Lands’ (Subject: al-Hawa’ib) from Sayf b. `Umar at-Tamimi. He said that the one at whom the dogs of al-Hawa’ib barked was Umm Azml Sulma bint Malik al-Fazariyya who led the apostates between Zafr and al-Hawa’ib. These muslims captured her and she was given to `A’isha who freed her. This statement was made about her. This report is weak and the report which they related from `A'isha is weaker still. This lie continues like goods which are bartered by those who do not fear Allah.


The war took place between the people of Syria and the people of Iraq.

233. In a place called Siffin, close to ar-Ruqqa on the shore of the Euphrates at the end of the borders of Iraq. It is the beginning of Syrian territory. `Ali went there with his armies at the end of Dhu’l-Qa’da, 36 A.H. One side called for homage to `Ali and unity on the Imam, and the others called for power over `Uthman’s murderers. They said, "We will not offer allegiance to the one who gives refuge to the murderers."

234. When `Ali finished the Battle of the Camel and left Basra for Kufa, he entered it on Monday, 12th of Rajab. He sent Jarir b. `Abdullah al-Bajili to Mu`awiya in Damascus to call him to obey. Mu`awiya gathered the leaders of the Companions, the generals of the armies, and the aides of the people of Syria and he consulted them about what `Ali demanded. They said, "We will not give him allegiance until he kills `Uthman’s murderers or surrenders them to us." Jarir took that back to `Ali. `Ali appointed Abu Mas`ud `Uqba b. `Amr over Kufa and left it. The army was at an-Nukhayla, the beginning of the road to Syria from Iraq. Some people indicted that he should remain in Kufa and send someone else to Syria. He refused. Mu`awiya heard that `Ali had prepared and gone out himself to fight him. His men advised him to go out himself. The Syrians went towards the Euphrates in the direction of Siffin. `Ali advanced with his army to that place. `Ali’s army had one hundred and twenty thousand and the army of Mu`awiya was seventy thousand. The Battle started in Dhu’l-Hijja, 36 A.H. and the fighting resumed later. Seventy thousand men were killed in this war. There were ninety battles in one hundred and ten days. This war was distinguished by noble courage in the fighting and noble dealings and contact during the truce and rest periods. Then the document of arbitration was written on the Ramadan at Duma al-Jandal in a place there called Adhruh. `Ali used to say, "I do not empower someone who seeks a right over a person to carry out whatever he wants from him without any judgment or judge." Mu`awiya said, "We will not offer allegiance to one who is suspected or his killer. He is one of those who is sought, so how can we let him rule or give him allegiance. He is a khalif who has overstepped and given himself (power)?"

In the details about that, they mentioned some words which resulted in the use of letters,

235. i.e. Their ascription is a lie and it has no basis. Most of what you find in what the historians of the Shi`a relate comes from unknown transmitters or liars. The least of them in vehemence was Abu Makhnaf Lut b. Yahya. Adh-Dhahabi said, "Abu Makhnaf was a historian and a writer. He is not reliable. Abu Hatim and others left him." Ibn `Adi said about him, "A burning Shi`i who is one of their historians." Then others after him came who were worse for the History of Islam. They corrupted what the community knew of their past. Copying statements, composing poetry, and making examples outside of the path of the salaf.

The successors confirmed these things and their successors rejected them.

236. "Khalf" are the mischievous. In the revelation, "There succeeded after them a succession who inherited the Book, taking the goods of this lower world." "Khalaf" are the right-acting. There is the hadith, "This knowledge is carried by ever successor of its just ones. They remove the twisting of the fanatics, the plagiarism of the liars and the interpretation of the ignorant."


As for the war between them, that definitely took place. It is also known that this was the cause. As for `Ali being the one who was right in it because the claimant for blood cannot properly give judgment and the claimant’s suspicion of the qadi does not necessitate that he attack him. He must seek his right from the judge. If the judgment is clear, he has the judgment. If it is not, he is silent and patient. Allah has given judgment in many a right. If he does not have any deen, then he attacks him and he has an excuse in this world.

237. `Uthman’s murderers were in `Ali’s army. That is true and no one disputes that. Al- Ashtar, who was one of the leaders of those who attacked `Uthman, was one of those who did the most to kindle the war between the Companions of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, who were in the army of `Ali and in the army of Mu`awiya. When `Ali asked Mu`awiya, the Companions and the Tabi’un who were with him to give him allegiance, they appealed to him regarding `Uthman’s murderers and demanded that he carry out the hadd of Allah on them. We already excused the Amir al-Mu’minin `Ali in this matter for when the murderers of `Uthman went with `Ali to Iraq, they were in the stronghold of their strength and the pride of their tribes. `Ali thought that if he killed them, that would open a door which he would not be able to close later. The lofty Companion al-Qa’qa’ b. `Amr at-Tamimi pointed out this reality and he mentioned it to the Umm al-Mu’minin, `A’isha, and the two Companions of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, Talha and az-Zubayr. They conceded his point and they excused `Ali. They agreed to come to an understanding with him which would lead them out of this civil strife. The murders of `Uthman quickly started the war between the two groups. Those who sought to carry out the hadd of Allah on the murderers of `Uthman were excused because they were seeking a right, whether they were from the People of the Camel or the people of Syria. `Ali was unable to carry out the hadd of Allah due to the well-known constraint in which he found himself.

However, when `Uthman’s murderers started the war between the first two groups in Basra, it would have benefited Islam if the war of Siffin had not started between the other two groups. The grandson of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, al-Hasan b. `Ali, did not want his father to leave Madina for Iraq since he feared that a war would start with the people of Syria. If `Ali had not moved from Kufa to prepare for this fight, Mu`awiya would not have moved a single inhabitant to fight. Ibn Taymiyya said in ‘The Path of the Sunna’ (2:219), "Mu`awiya was not one of those who chose to start the war." If `Ali was suspected of the murder of `Uthman, then every Companion of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in Madina was suspected of it. There is little information that he killed him because a thousand men who came to kill `Uthman could not defeat 40,000 men..

Not a single man of the people of the Sunna suspected `Ali of the murder of `Uthman, not in our time nor in his time. That has already been discussed in this book. The only fact is that the murderers of `Uthman were with `Ali. `Ali had a position in relation to them, and he had his excuse between himself and Allah for that position. We all have the opinion of al-Qa’qa’ b. `Amr that the position of `Ali was due to constraint. However, some historians from the Shi`a added reports to `Ali which imparted other than what his heart contained of love, pleasure, friendship and support for `Uthman during his trial. They behaved badly to `Ali when they wanted to behave badly to `Uthman. As for Mu`awiya and his group, they did not mention `Ali at all in the attack on `Uthman except by virtue of the connection of `Uthman’s murderers to him and his seeking their help. The murderers of `Uthman were those who behaved badly to Islam - to `Uthman and to `Ali as well. Allah will take their reckoning. If all the muslims had been like `Abdu’r-Rahman b. Khalid b. al-Walid in his resolution before the sedition got out of control and the reins had been taken from the hands of the men of intellect, then the business would not have gone to what it reached.

That would lead you to say that `Ali, Talha and az-Zubayr helped each other in the murder of `Uthman. What kept the Companions, both the Muhajirun and the Ansar and those who were counted among them and joined them from helping him? There is the possibility that it was because they thought that these men sought a right and acted correctly. That would be a testimony against `Uthman, so the people of Syria had no statement. If they had refrained from it in order to mock the deen and they did not have any opinion about the situation nor any concern for Islam or the confusion which occurred in it, that would be apostasy and not rebellion because weakness in the hudud of the deen and surrendering the sacred things of the Shari`a to waste is kufr. If they refrained, it was because they did not think that they should go beyond `Uthman’s limit and what he indicated.

What wrong action do they have in that? What proof do Marwan, `Abdullah b. az-Zubayr, al-Hasan and al-Husayn, Ibn `Umar and these who helped him in his house have, since they came in and then left with weapons and arms while those who sought were outside watching? If they had had a force or could have sought refuge in a strong pillar, they would not have allowed anyone of them to see him or attack him. They were onlookers. If al-Hasan and al-Husayn, `Abdullah b. `Umar and `Abdullah b. az-Zubayr had stood in front of him, they would not have dared attack. If they had killed them, none of the attackers would have been left alive on the earth. However, `Uthman surrendered himself. He was left to his opinion. It is a question of ijtihad as we already stated.

239. The subject has been dealt with earlier in text and commentary.

What could `Ali say after the homage had been completed for him and if the relative of `Uthman had come and told him, "The Khalif was faced by a thousand persons who killed him. They are known "? What could he say except, "I am firm, take." On that day he was firm unless they had proven that `Uthman deserved to be killed.

240. The author admitted that the proof rested with the one who had the means because the crime was famous and the criminals were public in their outrage and made no attempt to conceal it. How could justice be carried out and who would undertake to see to it while the city of the Messenger was humbled under the force of the terror? Who would guarantee `Ali’s life for him when he gave this judgment? Aren’t those the very ones who discussed killing him when they formed their plot in Dhu Qar after `Ali’s speech which he gave to the new men before they went to Basra (at-Tabari, 5:165)? Wasn’t al-Ashtar angry with the Amir al-Mu’minin `Ali after the Battle of the Camel because he had appointed his nephew, `Abdullah b. `Abbas, over Basra and did not appoint al-Ashtar. Then he left him in anger and `Ali caught up to him and corrected his evil (at-Tabari, 5:194). Didn’t the Kharijites who came out against `Ali grow from this kernel? When `Ali was killed, wasn’t he killed by a weapon similar to the one which killed `Uthman?

By Allah, company of muslims, you know that what they said about `Uthman was nothing but injustice. The moment gave the seeker power, was useful to the seeker in that situation and made it easier for him to reach the one he sought.

241. The moment gave the seeker power, even if there had been a force in Madina for which `Uthman wished. It is said that a force from the army of Syria had left Damascus, heading for Madina. When the news of the martyrdom of the Amir al-Mu’minin `Uthman reached them, they went back. Madina remained in the power of the murderers of `Uthman until the homage was given to `Ali. If these murderers had yielded to the judgments of this homage which held no harm for them, there is no doubt that they would have turned into savage beasts if the judgments of Allah had been given against them and the hudud had been carried out for the atrocious crime which they had committed.

That which refutes the lie in that, is, that when the command went to Mu`awiya, he did not kill any of `Uthman’s murderers unless it was by a judgment - not counting those who were killed in a war (by interpretation) or those who intrigued against him as was said.

242. The force of Allah and His lofty justice fell on most of `Uthman’s murderers. None of them were left during Mu`awiya’s rule except for the fugitive who fearfully sought for a stone where he could hide. Their power vanished and their evil decreased. Mu`awiya had no need to pursue them. This lasted until the time of al-Hajjaj. Then they were killed by more suspicion, not by reality.

243. The author alluded to the incident with `Umayr b. Dabi and Kumayl an-Nakh`i. That report was already given. It is clear to you that they became liable for what they did. It will cool your breasts to know that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, mentioned the sedition. He indicated and clarified them. He warned about the Khawarij and he said, "The group closest to the truth will kill them."

244. The name Khawarij has come about a group who went out against `Ali b. Abi Talib and his company because he had accepted arbitration. They said that the judgment of Allah was clear and that this arbitration was not necessary. Their slogan was "Only Allah had judgment." They were also called the al-Haruriyya, from a village in Kufa called Harura’. They went out to it. The Amir al-Mu’minin `Ali, may Allah be pleased with him, fought them in a famous battle called the Battle of an-Nahrawan. He defeated them and killed many of them. However, he was not able to eradicate them. Then they worked out a ruse which killed him at the hand of `Abdu’r-Rahman b. Muljam, may Allah give him what he deserves! The Kharijites claimed that `Uthman was a kafir by his changes and alterations and that `Ali was a kafir when he accepted arbitration. They attacked the People of the Camel. All of that came from their ignorance and misguidance. Part of their theory was that the khalifate was by the free choice of the muslims. In that, they opposed the Shi`a who said that the khalifate was confined to the House of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. That was also opposed to the people of the Sunna who said that the Khalifate was in Quraysh when they were present and proved to be worthy.

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