Friday, October 24, 2008

Companions after Mohammad [PBUH]'s Death - 1


العواصم القواصم

أبو بكر بن العربي‎

Death: 543H 1148



DEFENCE AGAINST DISASTER by QADI ABU BAKR IBN AL-`ARABI

Accurately Determining The Position Of The Companions After The Death Of The Prophet, May Allah Bless Him And Grant Him Peace AL-`AWASIM MIN AL-QAWASIM


The Disaster of Dhuhr

Then Allah took His Prophet to Himself, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and perfected the deen for him and us and completed His blessings on him as He, may He be exalted! said, "Today I have perfected your deen for you and I have completed my blessing on you and I am pleased with Islam as a deen for you (5:3)". Nothing in this world is perfected without imperfection coming to it in that perfection is meant for the face of Allah alone. That is right action and the next world. It is the perfect abode of Allah. Anas said, "We had not shaken the earth of the grave of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, from our hands before we doubted our hearts."

2. "Our hearts" is related in the hadith from numerous directions. Ibn Kathir indicated it in ‘The Beginning and the End’, (pp. 273-274). One of them is by Imam Ahmad from Anas, "On the Day on which the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came to Madina, all of it was illuminated. On the day he died, all of it was darkened." He said, "We had not shaken the earth of the grave of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, from our hands before we began to doubt our hearts." This is related by at-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah. At-Tirmidhi said, "This is a sahih gharib hadith." Ibn Kathir said, "Its isnad is sound according to the preconditions of the Sahih volumes.

The situation became unsettled. Then Allah corrected Islam by the oath of homage to Abu Bakr. The death of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was the disaster of dhuhr and the great calamity. As for `Ali, he kept himself out of sight in his home with Fatima.

3. Because Fatima was angry with Abu Bakr when he insisted on acting by the words of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, "We do not leave inheritance.

What we leave is sadaqa." The details of that will come. Fatima lived for six months after the death of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, withdrawn in her house. `Ali was with her. He did not cease to pray the prayers behind the Siddiq. He went out with him when Abu Bakr went out and unsheathed his sword to fight the apostates (Ahl ar-Ridda).

It is possible that when he said that `Ali kept out of sight, the author meant what he and az- Zubayr did when people were meeting in the hall of the Banu Sa`ida. `Umar b. al-Khattab indicated that in the great speech he made in Madina at the end of Dhu’l-Hijja after the last Hajj he made. This speech is in the Musnad of Imam Ahmad (1:55, first edition; part 1, no. 391, second edition) from the hadith of Ibn `Abbas.

In reality, the riwayats are confused when it comes to making clear what the position of `Ali b. Abi Talib was during the khalifate of Abu Bakr as-Siddiq. Many intrigues played their parts. Lies and fabrications have been woven around it with the intention of upsetting the one with confidence in Islam in general and the Companions in particular. They make a display of fear and enthusiasm about positions and property, even if it is in opposition to the shari`a.

We transmit in what follows the soundest of the riwayats regarding the position of `Ali. Then we will bring some of the riwayats which say that he refused to take the oath of allegiance until Fatima, the daughter of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, died. We will make the forgeries and lies clear.

Muhammad `Izza Daruza said in his book, ‘The Arab Race’ (7:14 et seq.), "At-Tabari related from `Abdullah b. Sa`id az-Zuhri from his uncle Ya`qub from Sa`id b. `Umar from al-Walid b. `Abdullah from al-Walid b. Jami` az-Zuhri that `Amr b. Harith asked Sa`id b. Zayd and said, "When was Abu Bakr given the oath of allegiance? Were you present at the death of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace?" He said, ‘Yes.’ He said, ‘On the day that the Messenger of Allah,may Allah bless him and grant him peace, died, they did not want even part of a day to pass without meeting together. `Amr asked, ‘Did anyone oppose him?’

He said, ‘No, except for the one who was an apostate or who would have apostatized if Allah had not delivered them from the Ansar.’ He said, ‘Did any of the Muhajirun abstain?’ He said, ‘No, they followed in his homage without being summoned.’ (part 2, p. 447)" It is evident that what the speaker meant by saying what he did referred to the position of Sa`d b. `Ubada and his helpers on the day of the Hall and their striving for the rulership.

Allah saved them and made them back down and follow Abu Bakr rather than bring about division, opposition and contention. The riwaya demonstrates the strong desire of the Companions of the Messenger of Allah among the Muhajirun and the Ansar to be very swift in the business of settling the problem of leadership. It tells that the Hashimites, who were among the Muhajirun, also followed in the oath of allegiance to Abu Bakr and that none of them abstained from it.

At-Tabari related the tradition of `Ali giving homage to Abu Bakr immediately and openly when it is related with his isnads from Habib b. Abi Thabit that Ali was in his house when the news came to him that Abu Bakr was sitting for the oath of homage. He went out in his shirt without buttons or cloak in haste, not liking to delay giving him homage. Then he sat with him and sent for his garment to be brought to him and he put it on and stayed at the assembly. (2:447)


In any case, that which is agreed upon in the riwayats of the Shi`a and elsewhere is that `Ali and the Banu Hashim immediately gave homage to Abu Bakr or, as at-Tabari related from one riwaya of the Shi`a, after some hesitation they supported him. This indicated a decisive proof that there was no clear will or implicit bequest from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, that the authority should belong to `Ali after him. At-Tabari related the same as that with other isnads in the report that `Ali and the Banu Hashim refused to offer allegiance to Abu Bakr as long as Fatima was alive because Fatima and al-`Abbas came to Abu Bakr asking for their inheritance from the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, which consisted of his land at Fadak and his share of Khaybar. Abu Bakr said to them, "I heard the Messenger of Allah say, ‘We do not leave any inheritance. What we leave is sadaqa.’ The family of Muhammad will have provision from this money. By Allah, I will not leave anything that I saw the Messenger of Allah do. I will do it."

Fatima parted from him and did not speak to him until she died six months after the death of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. `Ali saw people turning their faces from him and neither he nor any of the Banu Hashim paid homage to Abu Bakr. The story is a long one, but in the end, `Ali gave his homage to Abu Bakr, i.e. after the death of Fatima. One notes that the text of the report of at-Thabari makes the question of the inheritance the cause for the refusal of `Ali and the Banu Hashim to give their homage to Abu Bakr. Their seeking the inheritance from Abu Bakr means that they must have first recognised his khalifate.

This contains a contradiction which makes the story break down. If it has any root at all, all that is possible is that after they had given their homage to Abu Bakr, they tried to get what they considered their inheritance from the Prophet. Abu Bakr brought them the hadith of the Prophet which he had heard and the business stopped at this point. Anything beyond that is an addition of the Shi`a and one of their intrigues because it is not possible that `Ali, Fatima and the Banu Hashim did not confirm Abu Bakr in the hadith which he related because they did not argue and persist after they had heard it.

It is strange that the enemies of Islam attack Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, for denying Fatima her inheritance from Fadak and her share of Khaybar while when `Ali himself was appointed khalif, he did not give any of her heirs nor any of the Banu Hashim what the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, left because of the hadith, "We do not leave inheritance."

When Abu Bakr forbade that, he also denied his daughter `A'isha this inheritance. There are other mixed and false riwayats about `Ali and the Banu Hashim rejecting the homage of Abu Bakr. We have ignored them since they are discredited. There are many riwayats which confirm that `Ali hastened to give his homage to Abu Bakr and to help him in the affairs of the khalifate. He, of all people, knew best how excellent Abu Bakr was. As for `Uthman, he was silent. As for `Umar, he talked unthinkingly, saying, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, has not died! Allah has met with him as he met with Musa.


4. An allusion to the words of Allah in sura al-Baqara (2:51), "When We appointed forty nights with Musa." He, glory be to Him! said in 7:142, "We appointed thirty nights with Musa and We completed it with ten, so the appointed time of his Lord was completed as forty nights."

The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, will return and cut off the hands and feet of some people!"

5. The Musnad of Ahmad (3:196, first edition) has the hadith of Anas b. Malik on the day of the death of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. In it, "Then the curtain was let down and he died on that day. `Umar stood up and said, ‘The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, has not died, but his Lord has sent for him as he sent for Musa. He remained away from his people for forty days. I hope that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, will live until he cuts off the hands and tongues of some men among the hypocrites who claim that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, has died.’" In ‘The Virtues of the Companions’ in the ‘Sahih’ of al-Bukhari (Book 62, chap. 5) from `A'isha, "`Umar got up saying, ‘By Allah, it has just occurred to me that Allah will bring him to life and he will cut off the hands and feet of some men.’" Ibn Kathir quoted in ‘The Beginning and the End’ (5:242) what al-Bayhaqi related by means of Ibn Luhay`a from Abu`l-Aswad from `Urwa b. az-Zubayr. He said, "`Umar b. al-Khattab stood up and addressed the people and threatened the one who said ‘He has died’ with killing and cutting off hands. He said, ‘The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, has fainted. If he arises, he will kill and cut off hands.’" In 5:241 of ‘The Beginning and the End’ from the hadith of `A'isha who mentioned the hour in which the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, died. "`Umar and al-Mughira b. Shu`ba came and asked permission to enter. She gave them permission.

Then they got up, when he came near the door, al-Mughira said, ‘`Umar, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, is dead.’ `Umar said, ‘You lie! You are a man with whom sedition has been mixed. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, will not die until Allah eradicates the hypocrites!’" The meaning of "ahjara" is to talk irrationally and to mix words and to say a lot of words. That arose from the terror which occurred in the heart of `Umar because of this terrible event. He almost could not believe it. Al-Abbas and `Ali were concerned with their position during the illness of the Prophet,may Allah bless him and grant him peace. Al-`Abbas said to `Ali, "I see death in the faces of the Banu `Abdul Muttalib. Come so that we can ask the Messenger of Allah, we may know if this affair is ours."

6. `Ali, may Allah honour his face, answered, "By Allah, if we ask the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he denies it to us, the people will not give it to us after him. By Allah, I will not ask the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, for it." Al-Bukhari related in ‘The Book of Raids’ from his ‘Sahih’ (book 64, chap. 83, part 5, no. 2999, second edition). `Abbas and `Ali were concerned with their inheritance from what the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, left of Tabuk, the Banu’n-Nadir and Khaybar.

7. Details of it will come in the discussion about the hadith of "We do not leave inheritance. What we leave is sadaqa." The business of the Ansar was agitated with their seeking authority for themselves or sharing in it with the Muhajirun.

8. The meeting took place in the hall of the Banu Sa`ida. Sa`id b. `Ubada was among them. They thought that the command was theirs because the land was their land and they were the Ansar of Allah and the squadron of Islam. As for Quraysh, they were an army who had come on slowly to emigrate. Authority must not be cut off from the Ansar. A speaker from among them (who was al-Hubab b. al-Mundhir) said, "I am the rubbing-post and the fruitful propped-up palm. Let there be an Amir from us and an Amir from you." In addition to that, a man of the Ansar who was Bashir b. Sa`id al-Makhzumi, the father of an-Nu`man b. Bashir, preceded `Umar in offering homage to Abu Bakr. Before that, there were two right-acting men in the hall, `Uwaym b. Sa`ida al-Awsi and Ma`d b. `Adi, the ally of the Ansar. They did not like this contention from the Ansar. They left, thinking that the Muhajirun would finish the business without turning to anyone. But the wisdom of Abu Bakr and the light of iman which filled his heart had a further measure and the was more precise in managing this community at the time of its greatest calamity.
Those who had gone out with Usama b. Zayd stopped at Al-Jurf.

9. There were 700 in this army. The commander in charge of it was Usama b. Zayd. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had ordered them to travel to the approaches of al-Balqa’ (east Jordan) when Zayd b. Haritha, Ja`far b. Abi Talib and Ibn Rawha were killed. When he, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, moved to the Higher Friend, many of the Companions, including `Umar, indicated that the Siddiq should not send this army because of the commotion which had occurred among people, especially in the tribes. Ibn Kathir quoted in ‘The Beginning and the End’ (6:304-305) the hadith of al-Qasim and the `Amra from `A'isha who said, "When the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, died, the Arabs apostatized and drank in hypocrisy. By Allah, something happened to me and if it had come down on the firm mountains, they would have broken. The Companions of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, became as if they were agitated goats in the grass on a stormy night in the wild. By Allah, they did not disagree about a single dot, without my father removing their prattle, their reins and their conclusion."

Protection Allah helped Islam and the people and made sorrow pass as the clouds pass and the promise of Allah was carried out when Allah took the Messenger of Allah to Himself.

10. Allah takes someone to Himself when he dies. And established his deen in its perfection. Islam was afflicted by the calamity which befell it. Allah helped it by Abu Bakr as-Siddiq, may Allah be pleased with him.


11. Allah helped Islam and the people by Abu Bakr. When the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, died, Abu Bakr was away at his property at Sunh.

12. In ‘The Beginning and the End’ by Ibn Kathir (5:244), the Siddiq prayed with the muslims at the morning prayer. At that time, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had fainted from the pain of his illness. The curtain of the room was raised and he looked at the muslims who lined up for the prayer behind Abu Bakr. He liked that and smiled until people were so moved that they left the prayer because of their joy at it and until Abu Bakr wanted to delay so that he could go back into the row.

He, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, indicated to them to remain as they were and the the curtain come down. It was the end of his mission, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. When Abu Bakr finished the prayer, he came to him and said to `A'isha, ‘I do not see the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, without feeling his pain.’ This was the day of Bint Kharija, one of his two wives. She lived in Sunh, in the eastern part of Madina. He rode on his horse to his house. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, died in the heat of mid-morning. Salim b. `Ubayd went after him and informed him about the death of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. The Siddiq came when the news reached him. He did what the author mentioned." Sunh consisted of some houses of the Banu al-Harith b. al-Khazraj in the upper part of Madina about one mile from the mosque of the Prophet.

He came to the room of his daughter `A'isha, may Allah be pleased with her, in which the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had died and uncovered his face. He bent over him and kissed him. He said, "My father and mother be your ransom, Messenger of Allah! You were good in life and in death. By Allah, Allah will not join two deaths for you, as for the death which Allah has written for you, you have come to it." Then he went out to the mosque where the people were and `Umar had begun to speak wild words as has already been stated. He ascended the mimbar. He praised Allah and lauded him. Then he said, "Oh people, whoever worships Muhammad, he is dead. Whoever worships Allah, Allah is the living who does not die." He then recited, "Muhammad is only a Messenger. Messengers have passed away before him. If he dies or is killed, will you turn on your heels? Whoever turns on his heels, he will not harm Allah at all. Allah will reward the thankful (3:144)". People began to recite it in the streets of Madina as if it had only been revealed on that day.

13. Al-Bukhari related it in ‘The Book of the Virtues of the Companions’ in his ‘Sahih’ (book 62, chap. 5, pt. 4, p. 194) from the hadith of `A'isha. In ‘The Beginning and the End’ by Ibn Kathir (5:242). It is from the hadith of Abu Salama b. `Abdu’r-Rahman b. `Awf az-Zuhri, one of the eminent men of the muslims, from his father, one of the ten promised the Garden, from `A'isha, Umm al-Mu'minin, in whose room these events took place and in the mosque of the Prophet onto which her room looked. All the volumes of the sunnan record this great stand by the Siddiq by the soundest hadith and their words are similar.

The Ansar met in the hall of the Banu Sa`ida to consult each other. They did not know what to do. That reached the Muhajirun and they said, "We will send for them to come to us." Abu Bakr said, "Rather we will go to them." The Muhajirun went to them. They included Abu Bakr, `Umar, and Abu `Ubayda. They consulted each other. One of the Ansar said, "We will have an Amir and you will have an Amir."

14. The one who said that was one of the speakers of the Ansar, al-Hubab b. al-Mundhir. Abu Bakr said many correct words. He spoke a great deal and went straight to the point. He said, "We are the Amirs and you are the Wazirs. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "The imams are from Quraysh".

15. The hadith is in the Musnad of at-Tayyalisi (no. 926 from Abu Barza, no. 2133 from Anas). It is in ‘The Book of Judgments’ from the ‘Sahih’ of al-Bukhari (book 93, chap. 2, pt. 8, pp. 104-105) from Mu`awiya that he heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, "This command is in the Quraysh. No one will attack them in it without Allah throwing him on his face as long as they establish the deen." From Ibn `Umar is that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "This matter will remain in Quraysh as long as two of them remain." In the Musnad of Imam Ahmad (3:129, first edition) from Anas b. Malik, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, stood at the door of the house while we were in it.

He said, ‘Imams are from Quraysh. They have a right over you ... etc.’" Imam Ahmad also related it in the Musnad (3:183, first edition) from Anas. He said, "We were in the room of a man of the Ansar. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came and stood there. He leaned on the doorpost and said ‘Imams are from Quraysh. They have a right over you and you have the like of that, etc.’" Imam Ahmad related it like that (4:421, first edition) from Abu Barza directly to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. He said, "Imams are from Quraysh. When they ask for mercy, mercy is given. When they make a contract, they fulfil it.

When they judge, they are just. Whoever does not do that among them, the curse of Allah, the angels and all people is upon him." And he said, "I urge you to deal well with the Ansar. You should accept their good and overlook their evil."

16. In ‘The Book of the Virtues of the Ansar’ from the ‘Sahih’ of al-Bukhari (book 63, chap.11) from the hadith of Hisham b. Zayd b. Anas, he said, "I heard Anas b. Malik say, Abu Bakr and al-`Abbas, may Allah be pleased with them, passed by one of the assemblies of the Ansar and they were weeping. (It is evident that that was during the final illness of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace). He said, ‘Why are you weeping?’ They said, ‘We were remembering the assembly of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and told him that. He said, ‘The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went out with a bandage on his head. He went up the mimbar, and after that day he never went up it again. He praised Allah and glorified Him. Then he said, ‘Treat the Ansar well.


They are my close Companions to whom I have entrusted secrets. They have discharged what they had to do and what they are owed remains. Accept the good among them and overlook the bad.’" Then after that in the ‘Sahih’ of al-Bukhari, there is the hadith of `Ikrima from Ibn `Abbas and the hadith of Qatada from Anas with the same meaning. Near it is what is in the ‘Sahih’ of Muslim from Abu Sa`id al-Khudri and in ‘The Sunan’ of at-Tirmidhi from Ibn `Abbas. Allah called us ‘Truthful’ and he called you successful.

17-18. In sura 59:8-9, "It is for the poor Muhajirun who were expelled from their homes and their property, seeking favour from Allah and good pleasure, and helping Allah and His Messenger. These are the truthful. Those who make their dwelling in the city and in belief before them love those who have emigrated to them and they do not find any need in themselves for what they are given. And they prefer them over themselves even if they are in difficult straits. Whoever is guarded against the avarice of his self, those are the successful." He commanded you to be with us wherever we are by his words, ‘Oh you who believe, fear Allah and be with the truthful’ (9:119)" He had other correct words and strong proofs. The Ansar remembered that and submitted to it and offered his homage to Abu Bakr as-Siddiq, may Allah be pleased with him.

19. Ibn Kathir quoted in ‘The Beginning and the End’ (5:247) from the hadith of Imam Ahmad from Hamid b. `Abdu’r-Rahman b. `Awf az-Zuhri (the nephew of the Amir al- Mu’minin `Uthman) from the speech of Abu Bakr in the hall of the Banu Ba`ida. Part of it is "You know that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace said, ‘If people were to travel through one valley and the Ansar travelled through another valley, I would travel through the valley of the Ansar.’ You know, Sa`d, that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said while you were seated, ‘Quraysh are the rulers of this business. Good people follow the good among them and the corrupt follow the corrupt among them.’" Sa`d said to him, "You spoke the truth. We are the Wazirs and you are the Amirs."

Abu Bakr said to Usama, "Carry out the command of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace." `Umar said, "How can you send this army when the arabs are against you?" He said, "If the dogs were to play with the bangles of the women of Madina, I would not bring back an army which the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, sent out."

20. In ‘The Beginning and the End’ (6:305), Ibn Kathir quoted from Abu Bakr al-Bayhaqi the hadith of Muhammad b. Yusuf al-Firyabi (al-Bukhari said that he was the best of the people of his time) from `Ubbad b. Kathir ar-Ramli, one of his shaykhs (Ibn al-Madini said that he was reliable and there is no harm in him) from `Abdu’r-Rahman b. Hurmuz al-A’raj (one of the Tabi`un who died in Alexandria) from Abu Hurayra who said, "By Allah, there is no god but Him. If Abu Bakr had not been appointed, Allah would not have been worshipped." Then he said it a second and a third time. It was said to him, "Easy, Abu Hurayra!" He said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, sent Usama b. Zayd with seven hundred men to Syria. When he alighted at Dhu’l-Khasab, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, died and the Arabs around Madina apostatized. The Companions of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, gathered round him and they said, "Abu Bakr, turn those men back. They are sent to the Greeks when the Arabs around Madina have apostatized!?" He said, "By Allah, there is no god but Him. If the dogs were to snap at the feet of the wives of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, I still would not turn back an army which the Messenger of Allah had sent nor undo what the Messenger of Allah had tied." He sent Usama. He did not pass by a tribe who wanted to apostatize without them saying, "If it had not been that those men had strength, they would never have sent out the like of these. We will wait until they have encountered the Greeks. They met the Greeks and defeated and killed them and returned safely, so the tribes remained firm in Islam.

`Umar and others said to him, " If the Arabs deny you the zakat, then be patient with them." He said, "By Allah, if they will not give me a camel-halter which is due to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, I will fight them for it. I will fight those who make any distinction between zakat and the prayer!"

21. When the army of Usama went on its course to eastern Jordan, the delegates of the tribes began to come to Madina. They confirmed the prayer but refused to pay zakat. Ibn Kathir said (6:311), "Some of them used as a proof His words, may He be exalted! ‘Take sadaqa from their property by which to purify them and pray over them. Their prayer is a comfort for them.", (9:103) They said, ‘We only give our zakat for his prayer which is a comfort for us.’ The Companions spoke with the Siddiq about leaving them alone in spite of their refusing to pay zakat and to unite them until iman was firm in their hearts. Then after that they would give zakat. The Siddiq refused to do that and rejected it." Most people related in their books - except for Ibn Majah - from Abu Hurayra that `Umar b. al-Khattab said to Abu Bakr, "How can you fight people when the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘I am commanded to fight people until they testify that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. When they say that, their blood and their property are protected from me except by a right.’" Abu Bakr said, "By Allah, if they refuse to give me a camel-halter (or rein), which they used to give to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, I will fight them for refusing it." `Umar said, "I see that Allah has expanded Abu Bakr’s breast to fight the one who makes a distinction between the prayer and zakat. I recognise that it is the truth." This hadith is in the Musnad of Ahmad (1:11 & 19 and 35-36, first edition, pt. 1, no. 67, 117 & 239, second edition) from the hadith of `Ubayd b. `Abdullah b. `Utba from Abu Hurayra. In ‘The Beginning and the End’ (6:312), al-Qasim b. Muhammad b. Abu Bakr as-Siddiq (and he is one of the seven fuqaha’) said, "Asad, Ghatafan and Tayy’ gathered with Tulayha al-Asadi and they sent delegations to Madina and stayed with the notable people who put them up with the exception of al-`Abbas.

They took them to Abu Bakr for him to allow them to do the prayer and not pay the zakat. Allah made Abu Bakr resolve on the truth and he said, "If they refuse a camel-strap to me, you must fight them." It was said, "With whom will you fight them?" He said, "By myself until the side of neck is on its own." He sent Amirs over the armies and governors into the lands chosen for them with due consideration. That was one of the most exact things that he did and the best of what he did for Islam.

3 comments:

prof.jokhio shafiq ahmed said...

aSIR AAMIR MUGHAL ESQ.
I HAVE RED THE DETAILED ARTICLE ETC. IN C/W SYEDNA MUHAMMAD PEACE BE UPON HIM & ASHAAB KRAAM WA UZAAM . YOUR DETAIL ARTICLE IS APPRECIATED & VALUABLES KNOWLEDGE & PATH OF HIGHWAY TO HEAVEN FOR US ALONG WITH MY OTHERS FRIENDS IF THEY USE TO DEEP STUDY OF THE SAME / DUST OF YOUR FEET JOKHIO SHAFIQ AHMED

prof.jokhio shafiq ahmed said...

aSIR AAMIR MUGHAL ESQ.
I HAVE RED THE DETAILED ARTICLE ETC. IN C/W SYEDNA MUHAMMAD PEACE BE UPON HIM & ASHAAB KRAAM WA UZAAM . YOUR DETAIL ARTICLE IS APPRECIATED & VALUABLES KNOWLEDGE & PATH OF HIGHWAY TO HEAVEN FOR US ALONG WITH MY OTHERS FRIENDS IF THEY USE TO DEEP STUDY OF THE SAME / DUST OF YOUR FEET JOKHIO SHAFIQ AHMED

Aamir Mughal said...

Saeen Jokhio Sahab,

Cho tha Sharminda Kayo, Maan owhan jay pairan Ji Khak Ahyan, Ghulam Ahyan.

Lakh Qurb,

Duaan mein Yaad Kanda.