أبو بكر بن العربي
Death: 543H 1148
DEFENCE AGAINST DISASTER by QADI ABU BAKR IBN AL-`ARABI
Accurately Determining The Position Of The Companions After The Death Of The Prophet, May Allah Bless Him And Grant Him Peace AL-`AWASIM MIN AL-QAWASIM
Protection - Its Proofs
Qadi Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, said, "You are spared from the evil of hearing it, so how can anyone be disgruntled by it? After five hundred years, up until this very day when I am writing this (and I do not decrease or increase a single day of it, and it is Sha’ban, 536), what can one hope for after perfection except imperfection? The christians and the jews were not content with the Companions of Musa and `Isa just as the Rafidites were not content with the Companions of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, when they decided that they had agreed on disbelief and lies.
281. Ibn `Asakir (4:165) transmitted that al-Hasan al-Muthanna b. al-Hasan as-Sibt b. `Ali b. Abi Talib said to a Rafidite, "By Allah, if Allah gives me power over you, I will cut off your hands and feet. Then we will not accept any repentance from you." A man said to him, "You will not accept repentance from them?" He said, "We know these men better than you do. They will confirm you when they want and they will deny you when they want. They claim that that is correct for them by taqiyya (dissimulation). Woe to you; taqiyya is a door of indulgence for the muslim when he is forced to use it and he fears that the one in power will do something to him which he will be unable to avert from his responsibility to Allah. It is not a door to excellence. Excellence lies in carrying out Allah’s command and speaking the truth. By Allah, taqiyya does not reach the point where one of the slaves of Allah can use it to misguide the slaves of Allah." What does anyone hope for from these men? What will remain of them? Allah ta`ala said, "Allah promised those who believe among you and do right actions that He will establish their deen for them with which He is pleased for them and He will give them security in exchange after their fear (24:55).
282. The Shi`a case alters the deen’s foundations in good character to that of political dialectics. This is a true statement and a real promise. Then their age passed and they had no khalif or strength in them, nor was there security or tranquillity for them, then there was nothing but injustice, aggression, usurpation, chaos, splintering and rebellious agitation. The community agreed that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did not make a statement about anyone who would follow.
283. Ibn `Asakir (4:166) transmitted the hadith of Fudayl b. Mazruq from al-Bayhaqi that al-Hasan al-Muthanna b. al-Hasan as-Sibt b. `Ali b. Abi Talib was asked, "Didn’t the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, ‘If I am the master of anyone, `Ali is his master.’?" He said, "Yes, but by Allah, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did not mean the Amirate and the Sultanate by that. If he had meant that, he would have stated it more clearly. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was the most eloquent of the muslims. If the business had been as you have stated, he would have said, ‘Oh people, this one is to rule you and be in charge over you after me, so hear and obey him.’ By Allah, if Allah and His Messenger had chosen `Ali to be in command and put him in charge of the muslims after him and then `Ali had not followed the command of Allah and His Messenger, `Ali would have been the first to have abandoned the command of Allah and His Messenger." Al-Bayhaqi related it by many paths, some with more of the quotes and some with less, but the meaning remains the same.
Al-`Abbas spoke to `Ali, according to what his son `Abdullah related from him. `Abdullah b. al-`Abbas said, "`Ali b. Abi Talib, may Allah be pleased with him, left the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, while he was in his pain from which he died. People said, Abu Hasan, how is the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, this morning?’ He said, ‘He is recovering by the praise of Allah.’ Al-`Abbas b. `Abdu’l-Muttalib took his hand and said to him, ‘By Allah, after three days you will be the slave of the staff. I think that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, will die from this pain of his. I know the faces of the `Abdu’l-Muttalib at death. Let us go to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and we will ask him about who will be in charge after him. If it is for us, then we will know it. If it is for others, we will know and he can leave it to us.’ `Ali said, ‘By Allah, if we ask the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, about it and he denies it to us, then the people will never entrust it to us later. By Allah, I will not ask the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.’"
284. Al-Bukhari related in ‘The Book of the Raids’ from his ‘Sahih’ (book 64, chap. 73, pt. 5, p. 140-141). Ibn Kathir quoted it in ‘The Beginning and the End’ (5:227-251) from the hadith of az-Zuhri from `Abdullah b. Malik from Ibn `Abbas. Imam Ahmad related it in his ‘Musnad’ (1:263 & 325, no. 2374 & 2999). Qadi Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, said, "In my opinion, the opinion of al-`Abbas is sounder and nearer to the next world and clearer in precision. This invalidates the claim of the one who claims that there was any indication that `Ali should be appointed, so how can he claim that there is a text to that effect?
As for Abu Bakr, a woman came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he ordered her to come back to him. She said to him, "and if I do not find you?" It was as if she meant death. He said, "You will find Abu Bakr."
285. In ‘The Book of the Virtues of the Companions from the ‘Sahih’ of al-Bukhari (book 62, chap. 5, pt. 4, p. 191) from the hadith of Jubayr b. Mut’im. He said, "A woman came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he told her to return to him. She said, ‘What do you think if I come and do not find you?’ as if she meant death. He said, ‘Then if you do not find me, go to Abu Bakr.’" The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, spoke to `Umar when some words had passed between `Umar and Abu Bakr. The face of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went dark,
286. His face darkened: changed from joy, and the shining colour which was in it left. until Abu Bakr felt sorry for `Umar because of it. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Will you leave my Companion alone? (Twice) I was sent to you and you said, ‘You have lied.’ while Abu Bakr said, ‘You spoke the truth.’ I clear the due of friendship to every friend."
287. In ‘The Book of the Virtues of the Companions’ from the ‘Sahih’ of al-Bukhari (book 62, chap. 5, pt. 4, p. 192) from Abu’d-Darda’, The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "If I were to take a bosom friend in Islam, I would have taken Abu Bakr as a bosom friend, but he is my brother and my Companion."
288. In this chapter from ‘The Book of the Virtues of the Companions’ in the ‘Sahih’ of al-Bukhari (pt. 4, p. 197) from the hadith of ‘Ikrima from Ibn `Abbas, Allah took your Companion as a close friend. "All the gates of the mosque should be closed except the door of Abu Bakr."
289. There is confusion and imperfection in this sentence. Look at this meaning in the hadith of Abu Sa`id al-Khudri in that place of the ‘Sahih’ of al-Bukhari (pt. 4, pp. 190-191) and the hadith of Ibn `Abbas in the ‘Musnad’ of Ahmad (1:270, no. 2432) and ‘The Beginning and the End’ (5:229 & 230).
The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "While I was asleep, I dreamed that I was at a well,
290. Qalib: the well which is not deep. in which there was a bucket. I took as much of it as Allah wished. Then Ibn Abi Quhafa took it and took one or two buckets of it,
291. Dhunub: the great bucket when it is filled with water. Ibn Abi Quhafa is Abu Bakr.
and there was some weakness in his drawing. May Allah forgive him. Then it turned into a big bucket.
292. i.e. then it became great. It became like a wide bucket made from the skin of an ox because of its great size. Ibn al-Khattab took it and I have never seen such a mighty one among the people as `Umar doing such hard work. People drank to their full and watered their kneeling camels there."
293. i.e. until people around it had their camels kneel for abundant water. The hadith is in that place in the ‘Sahih’ of al-Bukhari (pt. 4, p. 193) from the hadith of Sa`id b. al-Musayyib from Abu Hurayra. It was confirmed that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, climbed up Uhud with Abu Bakr, `Umar and `Uthman, may Allah be pleased with all of them. It shook with them. He said, "Uhud, be still. There is only a Prophet, a Siddiq and two martyrs on you."
294. In ‘The Book of the Virtues of the Companions’ in the ‘Sahih’ of Muslim (book 62, chap. 5, pt. 4, p. 197) from the hadith of Qatada from Anas b. Malik. He, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "There were men among those before you in the Banu Isra`il who are spoken to, although they are not prophets., If any of them is in my community, it is `Umar."
295. In ‘The Book of the Virtues of the Companions’ in the ‘Sahih’ of Muslim (book 62, chap. 6, pt. 4, p. 200) from the hadith of Abu Salama from Abu Hurayra. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to `A’isha, may Allah be pleased with her, in his illness, "Call Abu Bakr and your brother for me so that I can write a document. I fear that people will have desires and say, ‘I am more entitled.‘ Allah and the believers refuse anyone except Abu Bakr."
296. In the ‘Musnad’ of Ahmad (6:144, first edition) from the hadith of az-Zuhri from `Urwa b. az-Zubayr from `A’isha. Look at the ‘Musnad’ (6:47 & 106) and the Tabaqat of Ibn Sa`d (3 : 127) and the ‘Musnad’ of Abu Da`ud at-Tayyalisi (hadith no. 1508). Ibn `Abbas said, "A man came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, "Messenger of Allah, last night I dreamed that a tent was oozing with fat and honey. I saw people begging with their hands, both those who were asking for a lot and those asking for a little. I saw a rope reaching from heaven to the earth. I saw you take it and you went up it. Then another man took it and went up it. Then another man took it and went up. Then another man took it and it broke. Then it reached him and he went up it.’" (And he mentioned the hadith.) Then Abu Bakr interpreted it and said, "As for the rope which reached from the heaven to the earth, it is the truth which you have. You took it and Allah will bring you up.
Then another will take it after you and he will climb it. Then another man will take it and climb up. Then another man will take it and it will break with him and then it will reach him and he will climb it.
297. In ‘The Book of Interpretation’ in the ‘Sahih’ of al-Bukhari (book 91, chap. 47, pt. 8, pp. 83-84) from the hadith of `Abdullah b. `Abbas and in ‘The Book of Dreams’ from the ‘Sahih’ of Muslim (book 47, hadith 17, pt. 7, pp. 55-56) from the hadith of Ibn `Abbas. In the ‘Musnad’ of Ahmad (1:236, first edition, no. 2113) from the hadith of Ibn `Abbas. It is confirmed that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said on that day, "Who has seen a dream?" A man said, "I dreamed that it was as if there was a balance which descended from heaven. You and Abu Bakr were weighed and you were the heavier. Abu Bakr and `Umar were weighed and `Umar was the heavier. Then the balance was taken away." I saw dislike in the face of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace."
298. In ‘The Book of the Sunna’ from the ‘Sunan’ of Abu Da`ud (book 39, chap. 8, hadith 4634) from the hadith of Abu Bakra. In ‘The Book of the Dream’ from the Collection of at-Tirmidhi (chap. 1) from the hadith of Abu Bakra. Look in the ‘Musnad’ of Ahmad (5:259, first edition) at the hadith of Abu Umama about the scale of Abu Bakr weighing more than the scale of all of the community.
These hadith are like mountains of clarity and mountains regarding the reason for the truth if Allah has given one success. Oh Sunnis, you only have the words of Allah ta`ala, "If you do not help him, yet Allah helped him already, when the unbelievers drove him out, the second of the two, when the two were in the cave." (9:40) He put the community
299. i.e. the community.
in one half and Abu Bakr in the other half. All the Companions stood with him. When you look at these realities, the state of the khalifs will not be hidden from you in their qualities, the rule and their organisation, particular and general. Allah ta`la said, "Allah has promised those of you who believe and do right actions that he will make them khalifs in the land as he made those before them khalifs and that he will make their deen firm for them which he has approved for them and he will give them security in exchange after their fear. They will worship Me and not associate anything with Me (24:55)." . If this promise was not carried out for the khalifs, then for whom will it be carried out? If it is not in those men, then in whom will it be? The proof of it is the consensus that no one has preceded them in excellence until this very day and there is disagreement about those who came after them. Those men are definite and their Imamate is certain. It is confirmed that Allah’s promise to them was carried out. They defended the territory of the muslims and established the policy of the deen. Our `ulama' said, "Who will be followed after them among the Imams who are the pillars of the religion and the supports of the Shari`a, those who advise the slaves of Allah and guide those who are right-guided to Allah? As for those who are unjust rulers, their harm is confined to this world and its judgments.
As for those who preserve the deen they are the Imams, those who give good counsel for the deen of Allah. They are of four sorts: The first rank preserved the reports of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. They are in the position of those who guard the food of life. The second rank are the `ulama' of the roots. They defend the deen of Allah from the people of stubbornness and the people of innovations. They are the courageous ones of Islam and its heroes who defend it in the crisis of misguidance.
300. knocking down: attack and defence.
The third class are a people who were exact in the roots of `ibada and the laws of behaviour and they distinguished the halal things from the haram, and they mastered the kharaj tax and the blood-wits and they made the meanings of oaths and vows clear. They detailed the judgments in the claims. In the deen, they are in the position of the agents who deal with property. The fourth group devoted themselves to service and they applied themselves to `ibada. They withdrew from people. In the next world, they are like the elite of the men of this world. In ‘The Book of the Lamp of the Murids’, in the fourth section of ‘The Sciences of the Qur`an’, we made it clear which of the positions are the best, in those classes and how they are organised.
Qadi Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, said, "All of these are allusions or statements or proofs or information. All of that indicates the soundness of what has passed and the confirmation of what the men of intellect have. After this clarification, we will speak about another position. If there is a text about Abu Bakr or `Ali, it would be inevitable that `Ali would have used it as a proof or another of the Muhajirun or Ansar would have used it as a proof. The hadith of Ghadir Khumm....
301. That which occurred in the disaster. Look at the explanation of this hadith by al-Hasan al-Muthnana ....does not have any proof because he appointed him over Madina during his lifetime as Musa appointed Harun while he was alive when he went to speak with Allah for the Banu Isra`il. All of their brother jews agreed that Musa died after Harun, so where then is the Khalifate?
As for his words, "Oh Allah, be a friend to the one who is his friend ..." These are sound words and a supplication which was answered. None opposed him except for the Rafidites. They put him in other than his proper place. They ascribed to him what was not in his degree. Adding to the limit is to diminish the limit. If Abu Bakr had attacked him, he was not the only aggressor. It was all of the Companions as we have stated, because they would have been helping him in what was false.
Do not think that these words of theirs are strange. They said that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, knew them and meant them in reference to hypocrisy and taqiyya. Where are you in relation to the words of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, when he heard `A’isha’s words, may Allah be pleased with her, ‘Tell `Umar to pray with the people’ "You are the women of Yusuf! Tell Abu Bakr to pray with the people.".‘
302. The ‘Sahih’ of al-Bukhari (book 10, chap. 39, 46, 47, 67, 68 & 70, pt. 1, pp. 161-162 & 165, 174-176) from the hadith of `A’isha and Abu Musa al-Ash`ari. We have already given these hadith.
303. i.e. previously in this book. They did something terrible. They forged a great lie. `Umar only made it a council to imitate the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and Abu Bakr when he said, "If I appoint, I will appoint one who is better than me. If I do not appoint, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did not appoint."
304. In ‘The Book of the Amirate’ from the ‘Sahih of Muslim (book 33, hadith 11 & 12, pt. 6, pp. 4-5) from the hadith of `Urwa b. az-Zubayr from Ibn `Umar and from the hadith of Salim from Ibn `Umar and in the ‘Musnad’ of Ahmad (1:43, no. 299) from `Urwa from Ibn `Umar and (1:46, no. 322) from Hamid b. `Abdu’r-Rahman from Ibn `Abbas and (1:47, no. 332) from az-Zuhri from Salim from Ibn `Umar. No one refuted these words. He said, "Make it a council between some people with whom the Messenger of Allah was pleased when he died."
305. From the long hadith of `Amr b. Maymun in ‘The Book of the Virtues of the Companions’ from the ‘Sahih’ of al-Bukhari (book 62m chap. 8, pt. 4, pp. 204-207). Look above at this book of ours. He was pleased with most of them, but there were those with whom he was pleased the most, and he testified that they were worthy of the Khalifate. As for their statement that Ibn `Awf used a device so that he could give it to `Uthman, if that was a trick and was only that, it was because power was not his.
306. Rather to Allah. Allah is the One who gave success to Ibn `Awf and the rest of his brothers, the Companions, so that they were based in that position on what Allah desired them to have - pure intention, sincere goal, and action for Allah alone. The choice of the Khalif `Umar in choosing a council is a higher example for the human self when it is in the highest rank of nobility and stripped of all thoughts of passion. If the action of the slaves is a stratagem or it is a judgment from strength, strength and power belongs to Allah. Everyone knew that only one could take it on. `Abdu’r-Rahman b. `Awf had his own opinion in the business after he had removed himself, i.e. that he should strive for the muslims to find the one who was the most correct and the strongest. It was as he did and he appointed the one who deserved that and none except him was better entitled to it as we have made clear in ‘The ranks of the Khalifate’ from ‘The Lights of Dawn’,
307. It is in ‘The Great Tafsir’ by Qadi Ibn al-`Arabi in 80 volumes. and in other books of the hadith. `Uthman was killed, and none remained on the earth worthier of it than `Ali. It came to him by his worth and in its time and place. Allah made judgments and knowledges clear at his hands as Allah wished to make them clear. `Umar said, "If it had not been for `Ali, `Umar would have been killed."
308. This is along with the words of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, "Allah has placed the truth on the tongue of `Umar who spoke it." He, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "If there had been a prophet after me, it would have been `Umar." Part of his fiqh and knowledge appeared in the fight against the people of the qibla in summoning them and debating them and not letting them go first and going to them before a war began with them. His call was: "We do not begin the war nor is a follower followed nor is the wounded finished off nor is a woman disturbed nor is property taken as booty from them." His command was to accept their testimony and to pray behind them until the people of knowledge said, "If it had not been for what happened, we would not know how to fight the people of aggression."
As for Talha and az-Zubayr going out, that has already been made clear.
309. It was a way for mutual understanding and mutual help to establish the hudud of the Shari`a for the murder of the Amir Al-Mu’minin. As for their making people unbelievers, they are the unbelievers. We clarified the states of the people of wrong actions and there is no abuse towards them without a book. We have explained it in every section. If it is said, "Al-`Abbas spoke about `Ali as the Imams related," al-`Abbas and `Ali argued in the presence of `Umar regarding the business of the awqaf of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. Al-`Abbas said to `Umar, "Amir al-Mu’minin, decide between me and this sinful despotic unjust one."
310. This claim of al-`Abbas and `Ali before the Amir al-Mu’minin `Umar was already mentioned from the hadith of Malik b. Aws b. al-Hadathan al-Basri in the ‘Sahih’ of al- Bukhari. Ibn Hajar said in ‘The Fath al-Bari’ (book 56, chap. 1, pt. 6, p.125), "Shu`ayb and Yunus added that `Ali and al-`Abbas called each other names." In the version of `Uqayl from Ibn Shihab in ‘The Shares of Inheritance’, "Decide between me and this unjust one." They called each other names." In the version of Juwayriyya, "Between this perfidious, deceitful, wrongdoing liar." Ibn Hajar said, "I did not see anything in the paths of transmission that `Ali said anything about al-`Abbas as opposed to what one understands from the words in `Uqayl’s version, "They called each other names." Al-Maziri approved of those who omitted these phrases from this hadith. He said, "Perhaps one of the transmitters erred in it. If it is recorded, it is good to take it to mean that al-`Abbas said it indicating `Ali, because he was in the position of a son with him. He wanted to make him retract what he thought was a mistake.
The group said to `Umar, "Amir al-Mu’minin, decide between them and give them relief from each other." `Umar said, "I ask you by Allah, by whose permission the heaven and the earth is established, do you know that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘We do not leave any inheritance. What we leave is sadaqa.’ Meaning himself when he said that?" They said, "He said that." He turned to al-`Abbas and `Ali and said, "I ask you by Allah, do you know that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said that?" They said, "Yes." `Umar said, "Allah gave this booty to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and it was something which He did not give to anyone else. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, acted that way in his lifetime. Then he died and Abu Bakr said, ‘I am the guardian of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.’ Then he died after two years in his amirate. He acted in it as the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had acted. Then you both claim that Abu Bakr was a perfidious deceitful liar?
311. Ibn Hajar (6:125) said, "az-Zuhri used to relate it sometimes and he would be explicit. Then another time, he would delete it." It is the same with Malik. He omitted that in the version of Bishr b. `Umar from him with al-Isma`ili and others. It is the same as what al-`Abbas said to `Ali. Allah knows that he was truthful, dutiful, right-guided, following the truth." He mentioned the hadith. We said: As for what al-`Abbas said to `Ali, they are the words of a father to a son. That is possible at the very beginning. It is used by way of forgiveness if it is used between the old and young, so how is it with fathers and sons when the forgiven is close? As for `Umar’s words that they believed that Abu Bakr was unjust, treacherous and perfidious, that is a report about the disagreement in an incident of judgment. He had this opinion regarding it and those men had another opinion regarding it. Abu Bakr and `Umar gave judgment by what they thought was correct. Al-`Abbas and `Ali did not have that opinion. However, when judgment was given they submitted to their judgment as one submits to the judgment of the Qadi, even when he disagrees with it. As for the one against whom judgment is given, he thinks that it is an error. However, he remains silent and submits to it.
If it is said: that was at the beginning of the business when the matter was not clear since the judgment in it was done by ijtihad. Later, the judgment led to Fatima and al-`Abbas being denied the inheritance by the words of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, "We do not leave inheritance. What we leave is sadaqa." The wives of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and his ten Companions knew it and testified to it. Therefore what you have said is not true.
312. Look at the clarity of the Qadi’s exposition. We said: It is possible that that was at the beginning of the business while the matter was not yet clear. They thought that you do not act by the single report when it contradicts the Qur`an, the roots, and the judgments known in a time unless the business is confirmed. When it is confirmed, they submit and obey by the proof which we already gave from one sound hadith to another. So look into it. This is not a text in the question because his words, "We do not inherit. What we leave is sadaqa" can mean, "The inheritance is not valid and we do not deserve it since it is not my property and I am not involved in anything of this world being transferred from me to anyone else." It is possible that "We do not inherit" is one judgment and his words "What we leave is sadaqa" is another specific judgment which says that he spent the sadaqa which came to him from his share as Allah allowed him. That was a special privilege for him in booty for which the muslims did not move their horses or camels. He also had his share with the muslims in what they took as booty by force. It is possible that "Sadaqa" refers to the situation of what a person leaves when he dies. This is what the Companions of Abu Hanifa indicate. It is weak and we will clarify that in its proper place.
However, the course of the dispute will come to you in this question as well as the object of ijtihad. That is not by any text from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. Therefore it is possible that both correctness and error can exist in the mujtahid, Allah knows best.
Then `Ali was killed. The Rafidites said that it was entrusted to al-Hasan and then al-Hasan surrendered it to Mu`awiya. Therefore, he was called "The one who blackened the faces of the unbelievers."
313. One of the elements of the creed of the Rafidites, rather the first element of their belief was their belief that al-Hasan, his father and his brother were infallible as were nine of the descendants of his brother. From this infallibility of theirs - and al-Hasan is at the front of it after his father - it follows that they do not err. All that comes from them is the truth, and the truth is not contradicted. The most important thing that al-Hasan b. `Ali did was to offer allegiance to Mu`awiya. Therefore they are obliged to enter into this homage and believe that it is the truth because it was done by someone whom they considered to be infallible. However, we see that they rejected it and opposed their infallible Imam in it. This must arise from one of two reasons: either they are lying when they claim infallibility for their twelve Imams - so their deen is demolished at its foundation because belief in infallibility is their foundation and their only foundation, or they believe that al-Hasan was indeed infallible and that his offering allegiance to Mu`awiya came from the action of someone who is infallible.
However, they attacked their deen and opposed the one whose opinion is infallible and opposed that with which he wanted to meet Allah. They advised each other to attack the deen, generation after generation, class after class, so they persisted in opposing the infallible Imam out of wilfulness, obstinacy, arrogance and disbelief. We do not know which of the two reasons was the most responsible for taking them into the abyss of destruction. There is no third reason. Those of them who said that al-Hasan was "the one who blackened the faces of those of the believers" only have this applied as meaning, "blackened the faces of those who believed in idols." As for those who believe in the prophecy of the grandfather of al-Hasan, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, they thought that his making peace with Mu`awiya and offering him allegiance was one of the signs of prophecy because it carried out what the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had spoken about regarding his grandson, the master of the youths of the Garden. He said that Allah would use him to make peace between two large groups of muslims, as will be made clear. All those who rejoiced in this prophecy and this peace consider al-Hasan to be the one "who brightened the faces of the believers." One group of Rafidites declared that he was a deviant and another group said that he was a kafir because of that.