Sunday, March 22, 2009

Asghar Ali Engineer, Omar, Ali, Hussein and Yazid - 2


CENTRALITY OF JIHAD IN THE POST-QUR’ANIC PERIOD Asghar Ali Engineer

(Islam and Modern Age, March 09)

Husain stood for Islam and Islamic values and Yazid for power

URL: http://www.newageislam.com/NewAgeIslamArticleDetail.aspx?ArticleID=1232

Asghar Ali Engineer

The first casualty of transformation of khilafah into monarchy was battle of Karbala which is great tragedy of early history of Islam. It was greed for power on the part of Yazid, son of first Umayyad ruler Mu’awiyah that led to martyrdom of Imam Husain, the grandson of the Prophet (PBUH). Husain stood for Islam and Islamic values and Yazid for power. It was Umayyad greed for power which resulted in killing of members of Prophet’s family. [New Age Islam]

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The first casualty of transformation of khilafah into monarchy was battle of Karbala which is great tragedy of early history of Islam. It was greed for power on the part of Yazid, son of first Umayyad ruler Mu’awiyah that led to martyrdom of Imam Husain, the grandson of the Prophet (PBUH). Husain stood for Islam and Islamic values and Yazid for power. It was Umayyad greed for power which resulted in killing of members of Prophet’s family. [Asghar Ali Engineer]

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Yet for all these wars Tabari (the eminent historian) and others have used the term ‘jihad’ which no where comes near the sense in which Qur’an uses the term. [Asghar Ali Engineer]

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Dear Editor,

Asgher Sahab has relied upon "Duobtful History" to condemn Muawiyah and Yazeed but as per the same so-called Eminent Historian Tabari narrates that Muhammad Bin Abu Bakar [s/o Hazrat Abu Bakar Siddiq - May Allah be pleased with him and was adopted by Hazrat Ali May Allah be pleased with him] was amongst the Murderer of Hazrat Uthman [May Allah be pleased with] but I dont believe this narration because it is an indirect slander upon Hazrat Ali [May Allah be pleased with him] but since criteria by Mr Asghar Ali Engineer [Bohri Shia - A Sect of Mainstream Shia and followers of Zaid Bin Ali bin Zain Al Abidin bin Hussein bin Ali bin Abi Talib] is History through which he condemned Muawiyah and Yazeed and when Criteria is History then History also tells us:

Since History is quoted here to curse Yazid therefore I will also quote History!

Shia and Sunni Sources on Hasnain's acceptance of Muawiyah's Khilafa:

[Akhbar Al Tawal Al Denwary page 234, Tabari Page 62 Volume 6, Al Imama Wal Siyasa page 173, Maqtal Abi Mikhnaf page 4 published in Najaf]

Hazrat Muawiya [May Allah be pleased with him]'s Excellent Treatment with Hasan and Hussain [May Allah be pleased with both of them]:

Hussain used to go with Hasan to meet Muawiyah in Damascus and at one stance Muawiyah gifted 2 Million Dirham to both and at anothe ocassion he gifted Hazrat Hasan 4 Million Dirham [Al Bidaya Wal Nihaya by Ibn Kathir Page 150 and Page 127 Volume 8] This narration is confirmed by Ibn Abi Al Hadid (Mutazilli Shia) in his translation of Nehjul Balagha page 823 Volume 2] and this further confirmed by Extremist Shias like Abu Mikhnaf in his book Maqtal Abi Mikhnaf page 7].

Note: Maqtal Abi Mikhnaf is a book by Abu Mikhnaf specially written on Karbala Tragedy and from Tabari to present day Speakers of Shia Majlis, this book is quoted for narrating the Tragedy of Karbala.

"QUOTE"

Excerpts from DEFENCE AGAINST DISASTER by QADI ABU BAKR IBN AL-`ARABI Accurately Determining The Position Of The Companions After The Death Of The Prophet, May Allah Bless Him And Grant Him Peace AL-`AWASIM MIN AL-QAWASIM

The first to write to him from the shaykhs of the party, according to what their historian Lut b. Yahya related, were Salman b. Surad, al-Musayyib b. Najba, Rifâ b. Shaddad and Habib b. Muzahir. They sent their letter with `Abdullah b. Sabâ al-Hamdani, and `Abdullah b. Wali. They came to Husayn in Makka on the tenth of Ramadan, 60 A.H. After two days, Qays b. Mushir al-Saydawi, `Abdur-Rahman b. `Abdullah b. al-Kadn al-Arhaji and `Umara as-Saluli went to him with fifty-three pages. After another two days, Haniâ b. Haniâ as-Subayâi and Sa`id b. `Abdullah al-Hanafi hurried to him. (at-Tabari, 6:197 has the texts of some of their letters and the names of some of its people). This continued until they would not meet with their Amir, an-Nu`man b. Bashir on Friday. They called al-Husayn to them. Then when he came, they would expel their Amir and hold him in Syria. They said to one of them, "So the fruits will grow. If you so wish, you will find a large army for you." Al-Husayn sent them his nephew Muslim b. `Uqayl to see if they would be loyal and gather so that he could come to them later. Muslim b. `Uqayl got lost on the way and those with him died of thirst. He wrote to al-Husayn asking him to relieve him of this task. He answered him, "I fear that only cowardice has led you to ask to be excused." Muslim continued until he reached Kufa and twelve thousand of them offered homage to him.

The Amir of Kufa, an-Nu`man b. Bashir, became aware of their movements. He spoke to them and forbade sedition and division. He told them, "I only fight the one who fights me. I will not punish by supposition or suspicion. If you show me your page and you break your pledge of homage, then I will strike you with my sword as long as it is firm in my hand." Yazid knew that an-Nu`man b. Bashir was a forbearing man of piety not suited to opposing a movement like this. He therefore wrote to `Ubaydullah b. Ziyad, his governor over Basra ordering him to take charge of Kufa as well. He commanded him to go to Kufa and to seek out Ibn `Uqayl as the pearl is sought until it is found. Then he should bind him and kill or exile him. `Ubaydullah appointed his brother over Basra and went to Kufa. He met its leaders and took hold of the crisis. It was not long before Muslim b. `Uqayl saw that the opinion of the twelve thousand who had given him allegiance was as thin as air. He found himself alone and cast out. Then he was taken and executed.

Al-Husayn had received the letters of Muslim b. `Uqayl before that, saying that twelve thousand had offered homage to him until death. At the end of the Hajj `Id, he left for Kufa. Ibn az-Zubayr was the only one to encourage him to go out because he knew that the people of the Hijaz would not give him homage as long as al-Husayn was with them. Al-Husayn was the heaviest of people for Ibn az-Zubayr, (At-Tabari, 6:196-197 and look at 6:216-217) and his nephew `Abdullah b. Ja`far b. Abi Talib (2:219). `Abdullah b. Ja`far asked the governor of Yazid over Makka, `Amr b. Sa`id b. al-`As, to write a letter of safe-conduct for al-Husayn to give him hopes of kindness and connection and to ask him to come back. The Governor of Makka granted all that he sought. He told him, "Write whatever you wish and I will seal the letter." He wrote to him and the governor sealed it. He sent it to al-Husayn with his brother Yahya b. Sa`id b. `Is. `Abdullah b. Ja`far went with Yahya. They tried to dissuade al-Husayn from travelling. He refused. (The Governor's letter is in The History of at-Tabari, 6:219-220). No one was above these counsellors in their intellect, knowledge, position and sincerity. `Abdullah b. Muti`, the agent of Ibn az-Zubayr, was one of his advisers who had intellect and sincerity (at-Tabari, 6:196). `Umar b. `Abdur-Rahman b. al-Harith b. Hishan al-Makhzumi held this opinion (at-Tabari, 6125-126), and al-Harith b. Khalid b. al-`As b. Hisham did not neglect to give him counsel (6:216). Even al-Farazdaq the poet told him, "The hearts of the people are with you, but their swords are with the Banu Umayya." (at-Tabari, 6:218). None of this effort turned al-Husayn from this journey which was ill-omened for him, for Islam, and for the Islamic community until this very day and will be until the Last Day.

All of this was due to the crime of his party who encouraged him to rashness, delusion and desire for civil strife, division and evil. Then they disappointed him through their cowardice, baseness, treachery and perfidy. Their heirs were not content with what their ancestors did. They devoted themselves to clouding history and changing the truth and to reversing things. and he sent Muslim b. `Uqayl, his nephew, to them to take allegiance from them and to investigate his followers. Ibn `Abbas forbade him and told him that they had disappointed his father and his brother. Ibn az-Zubayr indicated to him that he should go out, so he went out. When he reached Kufa, Muslim b. `Uqayl had been slain and all of those who had invited him surrendered him. It is enough for you in this to have the warning of the one who is warned.

He persisted and continued out of anger for the deen and to establish the truth. But he, may Allah be pleased with him, did not accept the good advice of the man with the most knowledge among the people of his time. That was Ibn `Abbas. He turned away from the opinion of the shaykh of the Companions, Ibn `Umar.

Well-being lay in what he preferred and his encouraging the unity of the muslims and their devotion to the spread of the call and conquest. He sought the beginning in the end and the straight in the crooked and the greenness of youth in the white hair of old age. His power was not like that nor did he have any helpers who guarded his right or who expended themselves for him. We wanted to purify the earth of the wine of Yazid,

By the claim of those who provoked the sedition who testified to something which they did not know. so we shed the blood of al-Husayn. A calamity came to us which the happiness of time cannot heal. No one came out to him except by using interpretation. They all fought him with what they had heard from his grandfather, the master of the messengers who mentioned the corruption of the situation and warned about getting involved in seditions. He said a lot about that. They included his words, may Allah bless him and grant him peace,

From the hadith of `Arfaja in The Book of the Amirate in the Sahih of Muslim: The chapter of The Judgments of the One who Divides the Muslims when they are United (book 33, hadith 59, pt. 6, p. 22). "There will be defects and flaws. Whoever wants to divide the business of this community when it is united should be struck with the sword, whoever he is." People only presented this and things like it. Even if their leader and the son of their noble al-Husayn expanded his house, his estate or his camels, and even if people came to him to establish the truth and they included Ibn `Abbas, and Ibn `Umar, one should not turn to them. He should remember what the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, warned about and what he said about his brother.

i.e "this son of mine is a master. Perhaps Allah will use him to make peace between two large groups of muslims." He saw that it had left his brother while the armies of the land and the great men were seeking him out. How then could it return to him by the dregs of Kufa while the great companions forbade him and held aloof from him? I do not think that this is anything other than submission to the decree of Allah and sorrow for the grandson of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, for all time. If it had not been for the fact that the shaykhs and notables of the community recognised that it was a matter which Allah had taken away from the people of the House and a state of civil strife which no one should become involved in, they would never have surrendered it.

Ahmad b. Hanbal, in spite of his asceticism and his immense position in the deen and his scrupulousness, still included Yazid b. Mu`awiya in The Book of Zuhd and mentioned what he used to say in his khutba, "When one of you falls ill, is treated and recovers, he should look to the best action he has and cling to it. He should look to the worst thing he has done and leave it." This indicates his immense position with Ibn Hanbal since he included him among the men of Zuhd of the Companions and the Tabi`un whose words were followed and those who are not warned. Indeed, he included him in the group of companions before he proceeded to mention the Tabi`un. Where is this in relation to what the historians say about him and wine and types of corruption? Are they not ashamed? When Allah strips them of virtue and modesty, why do you not desist and hold back when they follow the rabbis and monks rather than the men of excellence of the community? You should reject the heretics and impudent men who are affiliated with the community. "This is a clarification for people and guidance and warning for the fearfully aware." Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds."

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Hazrat Ali [May Allah be pleased with him] had indeed named his sons after Sheikhain i.e. Hazrat Abu Bakar, Hazrat Omar and Hazrat Usman [May Allah be pleased with all of them]. As per Authentic Shia Sources Prophet Mohammad [PBUH] did have biological daugthers [May Allah be pleased with them] besides Hazrat Fatimah [May Allah be pleased with her] and these daugthers were married later to Hazrat Usman [May Allah be pleased with him]. Not only that Authentic Shia Sources also accept that Hazrat Ali's Daughter Syeda Kulsoom [May Allah have mercy on his soul] was married to Hazrat Omar [May Allah be pleased with him]. Read the details below:

1 - Hazrat Ali's Family.

2 - Hazrat Ali Relationship with Hazrat Omar.

3 - Hazrat Usman's Relation with Prophet Mohammad [PBUH] and Hazrat Ali [Shia Sources]

4 - Aal-e-Ali's relationship with Bannu Ummayya and Aal Marwan [After the Tragedy of Karbala]

Now Read........ ........

Wives and Children of Hazrat Ali [May Allah be pleased with him:

1 - Hazrat Fatimah Bint Mohammad [May Allah be pleased with her]:

Hassan, Hussain, Zainab ul Kubra and Umme Kulthum [she became wife of Hazrat Omar (May Allah be pleased with him and all those who were mentioned earlier.

2 - Umm-ul-Bunian Bint Haram Bin Kalabia [she was related with Shimar Bin Zil Joshan (the alleged Criminal of Karabala){Ref: Jumhartul Ansab by Ibn Hazm}] who was the daughter of Hazam b. Khalid. Hadrat Ali had five sons from her, namely: Abdullah, Jafar, Abbas, Othman, and Umar. All of them were martyred in the battle of Karbala along with Hadhrat Hussain [May Allah be pleased with him].

3 - Laila Bin Masood Bint Khalid Nehshaliya Tameema who was the daughter of Masud. She was the mother of two sons, namely Ubaidullah and Abu Bakr. Both of them were martyred in Karbala.

4 - Asma who was the daughter of Umais. She was in the first instance married to Hadrat Jafar, an elder brother of Hadrat Ali. On the death of Hadrat Jafar, Hadrat Abu Bakr married her. After the death of Hadrat Abu Bakr she married Hadrat Ali. She had to sons from Hadrat Ali, namely: Yahya and Muhammad Al Asghar who martyred in Karbala.

5 - Umama [her mother Zainab was the daughter of Prophet Mohammad - PBUH]d/o of Abi Al Aa's. Her son from Hadrat Ali bore the name of Muhammad Awsat.

6 - Khaula Bint Jafariya was the daughter of Jafar Hanfiyah. She was the mother of the son known as Muhammad b. Hanfiyah aka Mohammad Al Akbar.

7 - Sehba Bint Rabia Taghlibiya who was the daughter of Rabiah. She gave birth to a son Umar, in the daughter Ruqiya.

8 - Umm Saeed Bint Urwa Bin Masood Thaqeefa who was a daughter of Urwa. She bore Hadrat Ali three daughters, namely: Umm-ul-Hasan, Ramlatul Kubra and Rumia.

9 - Mukhbita Bint Amral Qais Bin Adi Al Kalbiya Muhyat was a daughter of the famous Arab poet Imra-ul-Qais. She gave birth to a daughter who expired in infancy.

Hadrat Ali married nine wives in all including Hadrat Fatima. The number of wives at a time however did not exceed four. He had a few slave girls of whom Humia and Umm Shuaib bore him 12 daughters, Nafisa, Zainab, Ruqiya, Umm-ul-Karaam, Humaira, Umm Salma, Sughra, Khadija, Umm Hani, Umm Kulthum Jamana and Maimuna. Hadrat Ali was, in all, the father of 15 sons and 18 daughters. [total = 33 children]

Those who were martyred at Karbala are as under:

Hazrat Ali [May Allah be pleased with him] son's:

Jafar, Abdullah and Usman [sons of Ummul Banin Bin Hazam], Mohammad [son of Ummul Wald], Abu Bakar [son of Laila Bin Masood Armiya], Abbas.

Sons of Hazrat Hussain Ibn Ali [May Allah be pleased with him]:

Ali [Laila Bint Marra bin Arwa Thaqafi (Saqaf: tribe of Shia Hero Mukhtar and Sunni Nasibi Hajjaj Bin Yousuf), Abdullah (son of Rubab Bin Umral Qais Kalbi)

Sons of Hazrat Hasan bin Ali [May Allah be pleased with him]:

Abu Bakar and Qasim.

Sons of Abdullah Bin Jafar Bin Abi Talib:

Aun and Mohammad.

Aqeel Bin Abi Talib:

Jafar, Abdul Rahman, and Abdullah

Sources: [Al Milal Wan Nahal by Ibn Hazm, Jumharatul Ansab by Ibn Hazm, History by Ibn-e-Khaldun and Ansab Aal-e-Abi Talib]

Hazrat Hussain Ibn Ali [May Allah be pleased with him]'s real cousin and Brother In Law Hazrat Abdullah bin Jafar Tayyar Bin Abi Talib [May Allah have mercy on his soul]'s second daughter Syeda Umme Mohammad [May Allah have mercy on her soul] was the wife of Hazrat Ameer Yazeed Bin Muawiyah [May Allah have mercy on his soul]

Source:

{Kitab Nasbul Quraish and Jumharatul Ansab by Ibn Hazm]

1 - Syeda Umme Kulsoom bint Ali Bin Abi Talib [May Allah have mercy on her soul] was the wife of Hazrat Omar [May Allah be pleased with him]

Sources:

{Khulaini reports through Muawiyah Bin Ammar, Abu Jafer Tusi in Tehzeeb Al Ahkam, Tusi reports through Hazrat Baqar, Al Kafi has whole chapter on this marriage "Bab Fi Tarweej Umme Kulsoom", Faroogh Kafi, Ibnen Shehr Ashob Mazandarani, Zainuddin Amili, Manaqib-e-Aal- e-Abi Talib}

Relationship of Hazrat Ali Ibn Talib [May Allah be pleased with him] with Banu Ummayya [Ummayyads] and that relationship through marriages after the Incidents of Siffin and Karbala.

1- Three daughters of Hazrat Ali Ibn Talib [May Allah be pleased with him] were married to Muawiyah bin Marwan, Abdulmalik Bin Marwan, and Amir Kuraiz Ummavi respectively. [Jumharatul Ansab by Ibn Hazm and Al Bidaya Wal Nihaya by Ibn Kathir]

2- Hazrat Ali [May Allah be pleased with him]'s son Hazrat Hasan [May Allah be pleased with him]'s grand-daughters married in Banu Ummayya:

3 - Syeda Nafeesa Bint Zaid Bin Hassan w/o Alwalid Bin Abdul Malik Bin Marwan [Shia Source Umdatul Talib Fi Ansab Aal Abi Talib published in India]

4- Zainab Bint Hassan Masanna w/o Alwalid Bin Abdul Malik Bin Marwan [Jumharatul Ansab by Ibn Hazm]

5 - Umme Qasim Bint Hassan Masanna w/o Marwan bin Aban [Grandson of Hazrat Usman (May Allah be pleased with him)] and after he died she married to Ali Bin Hussain aka Zainul Abideen [Jumharatul Ansab by Ibn Hazm]

6 - Hammada Bint Hassan Massanna w/o Ismail Bin Abdul Malik Bin Abdul Haris Bin Al Hakam [nephew of Marwan Bin Al Hakam (May Allah be pleased with him)] [Jumharatul Ansab by Ibn Hazm]

7- Khadija Bint Hussain Bin Hassan Bin Ali w/o Ismail Bin Abdul Malik Bin Abdul Haris Bin Al Hakam (that was before the marriage of Hammada with him) [Jumharatul Ansab by Ibn Hazm]

8- Most of the daughters [Non Fatimid] of Hazrat Ali [May Allah be pleased with him] married in Banu Jafar, Banu Aqeel, Banu Abbas and Banu Marwan [Jumharatul Ansab by Ibn Hazm]

9 - Syeda Sakina d/o Hazrat Hussain Ibn Ali [May Allah be pleased with him] after the death of Muasab Bin Zubair, married Marwan Bin Al Hakam's grandson Al Asbagh Bin Abdul Aziz Bin Marwan, his econd wife was Umme Yazeed d/o Yazid Bin Muawiyah [Jumharatul Ansab by Ibn Hazm, Al Muarif Ibn Qutaiba, Kitab Nasbul Quraish]

10 - Rabia bint Syeda Sakin Bint Hazrat Hussain Ibn Ali [May Allah be pleased with him] w/o Abbas Bin Al Walid Bin Abdul Malik Bin Marwan [Kitab Nasb Quraish]

Hazrat Uthman Ibn Affan [May Allah be pleased with him] by being son-in-law of Mohammad [PBUH] was also amongst The Ahl Al-Bayt.

As per Shia Books:

A Rafizi Abul Qasim Ali Bin Ahmed Bin Musa [Death: 352 Hijri] in his book Al Istighasa Fi Bidah-es-Salasa had denied that Ruqqaya [May Allah be pleased with her], Umme Kulthum [May Allah be pleased with her], and Zainab [May Allah be pleased with her] were also the daugthers of Prophet Mohammad [PBUH] besides Hazrat Fatimah [May Allah be pleased with her] from Hazrat Khadija [May Allah be pleased with her] whereas Ruqqayya, Zainab and Umme Kulthum were the daughters of Mohammad [PBUH] from Khadija and all three were borne before the Prophethood [Bu'saat]. Abul Qasim above meant to say that these three daughters were borne to Khadija from her earlier husband. Abul Qasim's claims are rejected by books like Nasb Al Quraish, Kashf Al Ghamma Fi Maarifatul Aimma, Umdatut Talib Fi Ansab Aal Abi Talib.

The claim of the above Rafizi was thoroughly rejected by a noted Shia Scholar Abdullah Mamqani in his book Tanqeeh ul Maqal Fi Ahwal Ir Rijal and declared that Prophet Mohammad [PBUH] had four daughters [May Allah be pleased with all of them]. Rafizi Abul Qasim was declared apostate by several noted Shia Scholars like Sheikh Abbas Al Qumi in his Tatamma Al Muntaha, and by another Shia Scholar Allama Aaqa Meer in his Naqd ur Rijal and by another Giant Shia Scholar Mohammad Bin Yaquob Al Kulaini in his Usool ul Kafi's Chapter Bab-e-Tareekh also accepted that Prophet Mohammad [PBUH] has four daughters from Khadija [May All be pleased with her].

Following Shia Books accpeted that Prophet Mohammad [PBUH] had four daughters from Khadjia [[May All be pleased with her].

1- Kitaabul Khisal by Sheikh Sadooq.

2- Tazkaratul Masoomeen.

3- Tuhfatul Awam.

4- Manaqib Ibn-e-Sheher Ashoob.

5- Hayatul Quloob.

6- Jilaul Uyoon.

7- Tehzeeb Al Ahkam.

8- Al Istabsar Mara'atul Uqool.

9- Firoo Kafi.

10- Saafi Sharah Kafi.

11- Kashful Ghama.

12- Qarbul Asnad.

13- Majalisul Momineen.

14- Ailaam ul Wari.

15- Anwaar-e-Naimania.

16- Rijal-e-Kashi.

17- Amali Sheikh Toosi.

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"QUOTE"

Maliki scholar Qadhi Abu Bakr ibn al Arabi in AL-`AWASIM MIN AL-QAWASIM [DEFENCE AGAINST DISASTER] says

He was killed by the sword of his Grandfather's . Yet, ibn al-Arabi did say something very similar. See the text below taken from al-Awasim min al-Qawasim, (pg 231-236, Maktaba al-Asriyyah, Beirut, 2004).

Hanafi School of thought on Khurooj:

Hazrat Hussain Ibn-e-Ali [May Allah be pleased with him] going against Ameer Yazid [May Allah have mercy on his soul] and the Sunni view on Yazid:

O ye who believe! Obey Allah, and obey the messenger and those of you who are in authority; and if ye have a dispute concerning any matter, refer it to Allah and the messenger if ye are (in truth) believers in Allah and the Last Day. That is better and more seemly in the end.[AN-NISA (WOMEN) Chapter 4 Verse 59]

2) Sayyiduna Abu Huraira (Allah be pleased with him) narrates that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: Whoever obeys me, obeys Allah, and whoever disobeys me, disobeys Allah. And whoever obeys my ruler (amir), obeys me, and whoever disobeys my ruler, disobeys me (Sahih al-Bukhari, no. 6718 & Sahih Muslim, no. 1835).

3) Sayyiduna Anas ibn Malik (Allah be pleased with him) narrates that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: Listen to and obey your ruler, even if he is an Abyssinian slave whose head looks like a raisin (Sahih al-Bukhari, no. 6723 & Sahih Muslim).

4) Sayyiduna Ibn Abbas (Allah be pleased with him) narrates that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: Whoever sees his ruler doing something he disapproves of, he should be patient, for no one separates from the (Muslim) group even for a span and then dies, except that he will die a death of (pre-Islamic) ignorance. (Sahih al-Bukhari, no. 6724 & Sahih Muslim, no. 1849).

5) Sayyiduna Abd Allah (Allah be pleased with him) narrates that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “A Muslim must listen to and obey (the order of his ruler) in things that he likes or dislikes, as long as he is not ordered to commit a sin. If he is ordered to disobey Allah, then there is no listening and no obedience. (Sahih al-Bukhari, no. 6725 & Sahih Muslim, no. 1839).

The above evidences are clear in establishing the fact that one must obey the ruler even if he is corrupt or a sinner (fasiq). The reason for this, in the words of Allama al-Ghunaymi, is that, there have been many corrupt rulers in Islamic history and never did the predecessors (salaf) rebel against them, rather they used to submit to their rule and establish Jumuâah and Eid prayers with their permission. Also, piety is not a pre-requisite for leadership. (Sharh al-Ghunaymi, p. 110).

Other scholars emphasize that uprising against corrupt leadership results in more tribulation and destruction then the initial oppression of the ruler. With forbearance and tolerance, one's sins will be forgiven. And in reality, the corrupt ruler is imposed by Allah due to our own wrongdoings, thus it becomes necessary that we repent and seek Allah's forgiveness coupled with good actions, as Allah Most High says: Whatever misfortune happens to you, is because of the things your hands have wrought (42:30).. And He says: Thus do we make the wrongdoers turn to each other, because of what they earn (6:129). Therefore, if a nation wants to free themselves from the oppression of their leader, they must refrain themselves from oppressing others.

Imam al-Tahawi (Allah have mercy on him) states in his famous al-Aqida al-Tahawiyya:

We do not recognize uprising against our Imam or those in charge of our affairs even if they are unjust, nor do we wish evil on them, nor do we withdraw from following them. We hold that obedience to them is part of obedience to Allah, The Glorified, and is therefore obligatory as long as they do not order us to commit sins. We pray for their guidance and their wrongdoings to be pardoned . (al-Aqida al-Tahawiyya with the Sharh of al-Ghunaymi, P. 110-111).

363. Well-being lay in what he preferred and his encouraging the unity of the muslims and their devotion to the spread of the call and conquest. He sought the beginning in the end and the straight in the crooked and the greenness of youth in the white hair of old age. His power was not like that nor did he have any helpers who guarded his right or who expended themselves for him. We wanted to purify the earth of the wine of Yazid,

364. By the claim of those who provoked the sedition who testified to something which they did not know. so we shed the blood of al-Husayn. A calamity came to us which the happiness of time cannot heal. No one came out to him except by using interpretation. They all fought him with what they had heard from his grandfather, the master of the messengers who mentioned the corruption of the situation and warned about getting involved in seditions. He said a lot about that. They included his words, may Allah bless him and grant him peace,

365. From the hadith of `Arfaja in The Book of the Amirate in the Sahih of Muslim: The chapter of The Judgments of the One who Divides the Muslims when they are United (book 33, hadith 59, pt. 6, p. 22). "There will be defects and flaws. Whoever wants to divide the business of this community when it is united should be struck with the sword, whoever he is." People only presented this and things like it. Even if their leader and the son of their noble al-Husayn expanded his house, his estate or his camels, and even if people came to him to establish the truth and they included Ibn `Abbas, and Ibn `Umar, one should not turn to them. He should remember what the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, warned about and what he said about his brother.

366. i.e "this son of mine is a master. Perhaps Allah will use him to make peace between two large groups of muslims." He saw that it had left his brother while the armies of the land and the great men were seeking him out. How then could it return to him by the dregs of Kufa while the great companions forbade him and held aloof from him? I do not think that this is anything other than submission to the decree of Allah and sorrow for the grandson of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, for all time. If it had not been for the fact that the shaykhs and notables of the community recognised that it was a matter which Allah had taken away from the people of the House and a state of civil strife which no one should become involved in, they would never have surrendered it.

Ahmad b. Hanbal, in spite of his asceticism and his immense position in the deen and his scrupulousness, still included Yazid b. Mu`awiya in The Book of Zuhd and mentioned what he used to say in his khutba, "When one of you falls ill, is treated and recovers, he should look to the best action he has and cling to it. He should look to the worst thing he has done and leave it." This indicates his immense position with Ibn Hanbal since he included him among the men of Zuhd of the Companions and the Tabi`un whose words were followed and those who are not warned. Indeed, he included him in the group of companions before he proceeded to mention the Tabi`un. Where is this in relation to what the historians say about him and wine and types of corruption? Are they not ashamed? When Allah strips them of virtue and modesty, why do you not desist and hold back when they follow the rabbis and monks rather than the men of excellence of the community? You should reject the heretics and impudent men who are affiliated with the community. "This is a clarification for people and guidance and warning for the fearfully aware." Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds."

UNQUOTE"

2 comments:

Ashraf said...

It is wonderful historical facts, no body can denies. Please just correct one mistake after name of female there should be "Bint" means daughter not "Bin" which means Son.
Hope you will correct it. Jazakallah.
Ashraf M. Quraishi.

Aamir Mughal said...

Dear Ashraf Sahab,

Thanks for pointing out the mistakes. Please check the post again, I have made correction as per your advice.