Monday, October 13, 2008

Narcotics, Drug Trade and Islam

Sajjad wrote:

Zia's wife received very expensive gifts from especially Nawaz in the from of diamond necklaces while Zia turned turned a blind eye. This goes on in the White House as well. None are angels.

Dear Sajjad Sahab,

Have you ever thought that why Aijazul Haq [served in Musharraf Cabinet] s/o General Ziaul Haq [USA backed Military Dictator from 1977-1988] and Humayun Akhter [served in Musharraf Cabinet] s/o General Akhter Abdul Rehman [a colleague of General Ziaul Haq] are so filthy rich. If it is a hard work then why the common Pashtun Labour is not so rich [believe me the Pashtuns are amongst the most hard working people living on the planet. I am giving you the detail about Zia and not a single word is mine; please also find a detailed research of US Congress below.

I wonder whether the US Backed Commander of the Faithful General Ziaul Haq remembered the commandments below or forgot to follow what he and his toady Jamat-e-Islami were preaching to Pakistan and Pakistanis for 11 long and miserable years 1977 to 1988. The detailed note is at the end on Gen Zia Narco Trade after Zia's favoutie subject Islam.

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ إِنَّمَا الْخَمْرُ وَالْمَيْسِرُ وَالأَنصَابُ وَالأَزْلاَمُ رِجْسٌ مِّنْ عَمَلِ الشَّيْطَانِ فَاجْتَنِبُوهُ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ
إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ الشَّيْطَانُ أَن يُوقِعَ بَيْنَكُمُ الْعَدَاوَةَ وَالْبَغْضَاء فِي الْخَمْرِ وَالْمَيْسِرِ وَيَصُدَّكُمْ عَن ذِكْرِ اللّهِ وَعَنِ الصَّلاَةِ فَهَلْ أَنتُم مُّنتَهُونَ
Interpretation of the Meaning:
O ye who believe! Intoxicants and games of chance and idols and divining arrows are only an infamy of Satan's handiwork. Leave it aside in order that ye may succeed. Satan seeketh only to cast among you enmity and hatred by means of Intoxicants and games of chance, and to turn you from remembrance of Allah and from (His) worship. Will ye then have done? [AL-MAEDA (THE TABLE, THE TABLE SPREAD) Chapter 5 Verse 90-91]

Allah Ta’ala has described intoxicants amongst other things as being appalling, despicable and hateful acts of Satan and he has commanded us to abstain from them. This Aayah tells us how it is a detestable act of Satan, because intoxicants apart from sowing the seeds of enmity also stop you from the sole purpose of having been sent to the world. Bear in mind that when the term intoxicant is used it also encompasses narcotics, because they to among other things result in the loss of self-control.

The following Hadith clearly states that the Holy Prophet prohibited intoxicants.

Ibn Umar [RA] reported that the Messenger of Allah said, "Every intoxicant is khamr and every intoxicant is haraam (unlawful). Whosoever drinks wine in this world and dies whilst consumed in it and does not repent will not drink it in the next world. (Muslim).

Jabir [RA] narrated that the Messenger of Allah said; "Whatever intoxicates in a greater quantity is also unlawful in its smaller quantity." (Tirmidhi, Abu Dawood and Ibn Majah).

Umme Salmah [RA] narrates that the Messenger of Allah [PBUH] prohibited every intoxicant and Mufattir (anything which excites and irritates the mind, body and heart). (Abu Dawood)


1. The key to all evils.

2. The head of all errors and lapses.

3. The most terrible of major sins.

4. The mother of all atrocities.

5. The mother of all evils.

Why are drugs, intoxicants so abhorrent, awful, foul and vile in Islam? Let us look at what the scholars have said regarding the effects of drugs from a worldly and religious point:

Ibn Hajar Al-Makki rahmatullahi alaihe narrates from some scholars that they are 120 worldly and religious detriments in consuming hashish (Cannabis).

Not 10, not 20, but 120 harmful things occur by the consumption of drugs.

Ibn-ul-Bitaar says: A group of people used it (drugs) and they became mentally deranged (insane).

Imaam Zarakhshee narrates in his book upon the prohibition of Hashish from Zakariyah Razee, a famous doctor, that consuming hashish causes headaches, desiccates semen, brings about confusion, Neurosis, dries up all body fluids which could cause sudden death. Also it defects the mind, induces hectic fever, tuberculosis and oedema.

Ibn-e-Taymiyyah (a renowned scholar) says: All the faults, blemishes, bad things in khamr (wine) are present in hashish and more. Because the majority of faults in khamr effect religion, but hashish effects to a great extent both religion and body.

Thereafter Sheikh Taymiyyah describes its faults: -

1) From a religious point of view it is as intoxicating as wine, it destroys the mind, causes forgetfulness, causes to reveal secrets, destroys shame, incubates dissimation, quells self respects, obliterates intelligence, prevents salaah and instigates towards Haraam, forbidden things.

2) From a physical aspect it deteriorates the mind, cuts off the means for offspring, brings about leprosy, sickness, feverish shivers, bad breath, loss of eyebrows and teeth, warming of blood, tuberculosis, damages intestines, destroys body organs, punctures the liver, burns the stomach and weakens eyesight amongst other things.

The point all botanists have unanimously agreed upon is that hashish (cannabis) is an intoxicant; one of these botanists is Ibn-e-Baitaar. Ibn-e-Baitaar states that it is intoxicant.

All the scholars including Abu Ishaaq Sheeraazee rahmatullahi alaihe and Allahma Nawawee have stressed that it is intoxicating. Allahma Zarakhshee further writes that we have not seen anyone differ in opinion regarding this.

Ibn-e-Taymiyyah says that the fact is that it is an intoxicant like Wine. And Allahma Keerafe says that according to my research hashish is the cause of corruption and evil.

Shariah and rational thinking both point towards the prohibition of drugs.

As Imaam Zarakshee has mentioned in his book: -

All verses (of the Qur’aan) and Ahaadith which testify that intoxicants are haraam also include hashish (i.e. drugs)

The verses and Ahaadith regarding this have already been stated.

Another verse, which proves drugs to be prohibited, is: They as you concerning khamr (intoxicant) and gambling. Say " In them there is great sin and some gain for mankind, but sin is greater then the gain.

This verse, apart from informing us of how grave a sin it is to consume intoxicants, is also imparting a principle: Everything in which the evil and harm outweighs the gain is not allowed. Therefore, if we consider drugs, they deflect the sensory perceptions as well as producing hallucinations and illusions. They cause body lassitude, neurosis, decline in health, moral insensitivity etc. etc. the list is endless. Furthermore, there are no benefits whatsoever of taking drugs for recreational purposes. The perception (from Shaitan) that Class B drugs such as cannabis (dope, draw) is all right is utterly wrong. This verse clearly shows that although it seems like they may contain a few benefits, overall its evil is far greater.

It is narrated that in Sahih Muslim: Every intoxicant is khamr (wine) and all Khamr is haraam.

Imam Ibn-e-Taymiyyah states: It should be enough harm for a person just to know that it prevents you from the remembrance of Allah and salaah.

Some might say that all drugs do not intoxicate, that drugs like heroin and hashish are only depressants which slackens and weakens the mind. The answer to this is in the following Hadith:

It has been narrated by Umme-Salmah, she states: The Prophet prohibited every intoxicant and muftir (every substance which slackens the mine).

Imam Zarakshee notes in his kitab: The scholars have stated that muftir is everything that causes slackness.

He then states: The Hadith (which has been mentioned above) particularly proves the prohibition of hashish because if it is not regarded as an intoxicant if definitely comes under the definition of ‘muftir’ (substance which causes drowsiness and the weakening of the mind etc.).

Moving on, the unanimity of the ummah on the prohibition of narcotics is also narrated from many scholars. Imaam Zarakshee states:

The consensus of the Ummah is narrated from several scholars in the prohibition of hashish; scholars include Qiraafi and ibn-e-Taymiyyah.

And if that was not enough, Ibn-e-Taymiyyah has further said: Whosoever regards it lawful has become kafir (Irreligious; ‘God forbid’).

The scholars of all four madhab’s unanimously agree that consuming anything intoxicating is haraam, certain plants have also been included as Imam Rafee’ clearly says that, ‘The scholars have included intoxicating plants etc. within the prohibition.’

So far the prohibition of drugs has been proven by means of the Qur’aan, Sunnah and Ijmah (consensus of the ulama). Its can further be proved by ‘Qiyaas’ (deduction by analogy) i.e. logical reasoning. When a person is intoxicated (or ‘stoned’ in street language) he does not know what he is doing. He could easily kill someone or fornicate etc. In the same manner, to feed his habit, he will most probably have to steal. These are, without a shadow of a doubt, unlawful. And there is a general rule that whatever leads to something haraam (unlawful) is in itself haraam. Thus drugs have been proven as haraam by all four sources of jurisprudence (Qur’aan, Sunnah, Ijmah and Qiyaas).

1- This article appeared in the October 13, 1995 issue of Executive Intelligence Review.
The Golden Crescent Heroin Connection by Jeffrey Steinberg

Map 1: The Golden Crescent Heroin Trail (PDF, 48K)
Map 2: The Mujahideen Weapons Pipeline (PDF, 48K)

Gen. Fazle Huq, the commander of the NWFP, was arrested for covering up his own brother's drug trafficking. General Huq's personal pilot, Maj. Farooq Hamid, was arrested on heroin-trafficking charges. As early as 1983, Norwegian customs officials had arrested a Pakistani smuggling a large quantity of heroin. A follow-on investigation led to the indictment of Hamid Hasnain, the vice president of the Pakistan government's Habib Bank. Hasnain was the personal account manager for President Zia. The drug crackdown was short-lived, however. When General Zia's former finance minister, Ghulam Ishaq Khan, became President of Pakistan, many of the indictments were overturned or never prosecuted. Ghulam Ishaq Khan had been General Zia's liaison to the Bank of Credit and Commerce International, serving as the president of the BCCI Foundation, the "charity" through which drug money was laundered, and bribes were paid out.

2- Narcotics and the Afghan War

All of transcript of John Gunther Dean's oral history of his ambassadorship in India at the Jimmy Carter library is worth reading.

The boom in the poppy growing and heroin refineries in Pakistan and Afghanistan coincided with the beginning of the Afghan War in early 1990. Madame Benazir Bhutto, then Prime Minister of Pakistan, said that "today Pakistan society is dominated by the culture of heroin and the kalatchnikof rifle" . With drugs came arms. But who had heard in the United States, in 1985 when I arrived in New Delhi, about the role of General Zia-ul-Haq's adopted son and drug smuggling? Yet, in December 1983, a young Pakistani was arrested at Oslo airport with 3.5 kilos of heroin. It eventually led back to the President of Pakistan's involvement in drug smuggling.

Even as the U.S. Government was congratulating in 1984 General Zia-ul-Haq for helping control narcotics traffic, the Police of Pakistan, under Norwegian pressure, arrested Hamid Hasnain, the "adopted son" of General Zia, who turned out to be a kingpin in the drug running mafia. In Hasnain's possession were found cheque books and bank statements of Zia-ul-Haq and his family. I am relating these facts here not to undermine General Zia's reputation but to demonstrate the linkage of drug dealing with arms to fight the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan and how we interacted with these criminals to achieve our own ends, i.e., the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan and the toppling of the communist regime led by Najib Boulla in Kabul.

On the Norwegian bust of the Pakistani drug smuggling ring, I rely on the detailed newspaper article which appeared in the TIMES OF INDIA. Please note that the author is an American journalist, formerly the South Asia correspondent of the FAR EASTERN ECONOMIC REVIEW and later working on special assignment with the New York publication THE NATION.


For further reading:

Pak-Afghan Drug Trade in Historical Perspective Ikramul Haq Asian Survey, Vol. 36, No. 10 (Oct., 1996), pp. 945-963 This article consists of 19 page(s).

Drug Mafia in Pakistan

But in the process he failed to anticipate its repercussions on Pakistan. Heroin addiction spread like an epidemic during his martial administration. The UNDCP report confirms that there were 1.5 to 1.9 million drug addicts in Pakistan in 1993. 7 The regime, which was popular for its iron hand did not control free distribution of heroin and hashish in universities and colleges in Peshawar, Karachi, Lahore and Rawalpindi where these drugs were cheaply available for Rupees 15 to 60 per packet depending on their purity. 8 During this time drug traffickers operated freely and became billionaries within a short span of time and organised themselves as syndicates on the same lines as the Latin American drug barons. They established contacts in the law enforcement agencies, funded political parties, used economic platforms and bribed officers to maintain production and supply of narcotic drugs in the international market.

General Zia's involvement in drug trafficking came to light only after his death when the Minister of State for Narcotics, Mian Muzaffar Shah revealed that Pakistani drug syndicates grew under the patronage of General Zia. Raza Qureshi, a Pakistan drug trafficker who was arrested by the Norwegian Police at Oslo's Fornebu Airport in 1984, exposed Zia's drug connection. The Norwegian Police disclosed three names of Pakistani nationals-Tahir Butt, Munawar Hussain and Hamid Hussain patronised by General Zia. 9 The Norwegian Police visited Islamabad to investigate the matter and indicted these three for drug crimes. But the Pakistan government did not arrest them because of their political connections. Finally, when the Norwegian government complained against inaction by the law enforcement agencies and threatened diplomatic action, these three were arrested.

One of the culprits, Hamid Hussain was not only the vice president of Government owned Habib Bank, but was as close as a son to the wife of General Zia ul Haq. He handled Zia's account and used banking channels to launder drug proceeds. The most startling revelation that confirmed Zia's drug connection was the case of one of his ADCs, whose name was not disclosed. The ADC concealed heroin in 100 precious lamps to be gifted by General Zia to the delegates at a special session of the UN General Assembly. General Zia suddenly changed his programme to travel via Iran and Iraq. In the process of shifting his baggage one of the lamps broke spreading heroin at New York Airport. Apparently the customs official checked all the lamps which were filled with heroin and seized them. 10

The former Chief Minister and Governor of NWFP, Lt. General Fazle Haque is another important drug dealer who dominated Pakistani drug syndicates. Popularly known as the Noriega of Pakistan, Haque was responsible for promoting growth of the drug industry in the Swat Valley of NWFP. He successfully organised transshipment of heroin from Pakistan to the international market through business contacts.

Obviously during Zia's tenure drugs played an important role in decision-making. After his sudden death in a plane crash in August 1988, Gulam Ishaq Khan, a close associate of Zia, took over. An Ismaili Pathan from NWFP civil services he rose to prominence during Zia's time. His involvement in narcotics started after he joined the provincial civil service of NWFP and became a close associate of General Zia. He and the Chief of Army Staff General Aslam Beg worked together for the growth of the drug industry at the Pak-Afghan border. His drug connection came to light during the investigation of the biggest bank fraud in the world namely, the BCCI. Aslam Beg and Ishaq Khan became very close and strongly advocated the idea of Pakistan's decision to join the race for nuclear power. In the name of the Islamic Bomb they generated money from Arab countries and got away from the drug money laundered by BCCI. It is relevant to note that they founded an institute called Gulam Ishaq Khan Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, which was the main recipient of funds from BCCI. In the name of funds, for a nuclear bomb, the duo promoted growth of narcotic drugs in the Golden Crescent. 11

The situation, however, did not change when Benazir Bhutto came to power. She exposed General Zia because it suited her political agenda. Her husband Zardari is well known for his criminal connections and her government was dismissed on corruption charges. In so far as Benazir's Peoples Party (PPP) is concerned, during personal interaction with Pakistani prisoners under NDPS Act languishing in Jammu Central Jail, the author was told that the PPP members were directly involved in the drugs trade. The prisoner himself was a cousin of PPP's Lahore President. Lahore is one of the centres for narcotic drugs trade in Pakistan.

Hazi Iqbal Beg is another important Pakistani drug dealer with political connections. A Lahore based landlord and owner of innumerable business enterprises he organised a powerful drug syndicate. Beg along with his partners, Sohail But (brother-in-law of Nawaz Sharif) and Shaukat Ali Bhatti were elected members of the Punjab Legislative Assembly on the ticket of Islamic Jahmuri Ittehad (IJI), a political party formed by an ISI Chief General Hamid Gul. Nawaz Sharif maintained close association with Beg and helped him acquire denationalised industrial units including the Muslim Commercial Bank where he (Sharif) is a benami partner. 12 Beg continued to nurture his ties with the Pakistani premier and simultaneously funded election of Mehraj Khalid of PPP who later became Chief Minister of Punjab. Beg thus remained loyal to both Sharif and Benazir. After the fall of Benazir's government he was charge-sheeted for narcotic drugs smuggling. However, his close association with Sharif got him released on bail.

Another equally important drug dealer Malik Waris Khan Afridi, was appointed by Benazir as Minister of state for Tribal Affairs. He was elected on a PPP ticket from Khyber Agency (N-33, Tribal Areas VII) in 1988. His commitment to PPP was so strong that he tried to save her government by bribing members against the no confidence motion tabled by Nawaz Sharif in 1989. After the fall of the Benazir government he was convicted for smuggling of opium and hashish from Khyber Agency.

These are some of the many instances of the drug syndicate's control over Pakistan politics. There are hundreds of political leaders into drug business in Pakistan. The very fact that South West Asia (Pak-Afghan) is the biggest supplier of heroin to the international market and that Pakistan earns US $1.5 billion (UNDCP, 1993 estimate) from export of refined heroin substantiate that the narcotic drugs trade goes on under the nose of government law enforcement agencies. Since political leaders are beneficiaries of the international drug trade, it is not possible to keep intelligence and army away from the scene especially in the light of the fact that these two play a significant role in Pakistan politics.

The ISI is the key to intelligence services in Pakistan. It holds political clout and is the most important cell in decision-making. It operates in collaboration with the military intelligence known as Field Intelligence Unit (FIU). Its importance could be analysed from the fact that Hamid Gul, the former Chief of ISI launched a political party called Islami Jahmuri Ittehad as mentioned earlier, its candidates became members of state and national assemblies. The drug connection of the army and intelligence services came to light when at the instance of Robert Oakley, the US Ambassador to Pakistan, Benazir ordered investigation into the BCCI bungling. The entire exercise turned into an eye wash when Mirza Iqbal Beg, was released on bail despite ample evidence of his involvement. It is believed that Benazir could not cope with the military and ISI interference. An American scholar, Selig Harrison, rightly said that Pakistan has ten Noriegas very high up in military and it was very difficult to disclose their names. 13 The genesis of this unholy alliance of narcotic drugs, army and intelligence goes back to 1978 when the US government launched its combat mission against the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. The US analysts have now awoken to the problem of narco-terrorism in this region. They were the first to use it during 1970s and 80s against the Soviet expansionism. As a matter of fact the US government encouraged drug trafficking to raise funds for Mujahideen fighting against the Soviets. The DEA had to close its offices in Afghanistan and Pakistan during 1980s by order. The CIA was in full command of the region and purposely allowed the illegal drugs trade to flourish. 14

The drug connection of the ISI and army got cultivated in the fertile land of poppy. Landi Kotal, the capital of NWFP, is the main centre for business transaction of opium, heroin and weapons. Officially the opium bazars at Landi Kotal, Jamrud, Bara, Darra Adam Khel and the entire poppy growing fields constitute part of Pakistan. In practice the situation is not the same. The NWFP falls under direct jurisdiction of local tribes namely-Afridi, Khatake, Wazirs, Orakzai, Banggash, Turis and Mashuds. Drugs and guns are part and parcel of their socio-economic and political life. As mentioned earlier narcotic drugs are the main source of their income, which is promoted by the tribal administration in an organised network. The Pakistan government would invite trouble if they intervene in their local affairs. 15 Therefore, it exercises control though the ISI and army, whose presence has brought changes in the tribal economy in the region. With the help of ISI agents and army personnel several refineries were set up to produce heroin, which is in great demand in the Western market. Ever since the ISI and the army came into the picture, opium refining techniques have become more sophisticated in this region. Chinese chemists were hired for refining laboratories at Landi Kotal and Derra to improve the quality and production. The DEA also confirmed that by 1981, the Chinese have established themselves in refining laboratories in this region. 16 The very fact that the American and the European markets are flooded with heroin from Afghanistan and Pakistan reemphasises growth of the drug industry in this region. This was not possible without the collaboration of the ISI and the army.

Money Laundering

Illicit drug trade is highly lucrative and a short cut route to acquire wealth and affluence overnight. It was easy to make money, but difficult to move the funds to their destination. The drug traffickers had to face major problems in transaction of the drug proceeds. There were very few banks to take the risk, though there are instances of banks involvement in monetary transactions of drug money. The dealers had to explore some ways for the movement of cash. Therefore, innumerable channels were explored and created by drug syndicates. Their unorganised but systematic method of monetary transaction is popularly known as money laundering.

Money laundering is defined as use of money derived from illegal activity by concealing the identity of the individuals who obtained money and converts it to assets that appear to have come from a legitimate source. 25 The large sum generated from narcotic drugs has become part of the international monetary system. It plays an important role in the corporate sector and international monetary market. The black money is used to influence politics and economy. This money can buy politicians, fund elections, topple an elected government, take over business enterprises and destabilise an established politico-economic system.

The cash accumulated from narcotic drugs trafficking is laundered into licit money through investments in foreign banks, real estate, hotels, transport and entertainment business. 26 More than banks, private financial institutions have helped drug barons to manage their finances. Switzerland, Hong Kong, India, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Thailand are among the important countries involved in money laundering activities in an organised fashion. Banking laws and lavish life style of the elite facilitates covert operations and monetary transactions of drug traffickers.

The best instances of money laundering through legitimate financial institutions is the case of Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI) and Pakistan's Habib Bank. The BCCI's involvement in money laundering was to such an extent that it was nicknamed Bank of Crooks and Criminals. Founded by a Pakistani banker-Aga Hassan Abedi in 1972 in Luxembourg, BCCI had business interests in 70 countries and assets worth 20 billion US dollars by the 1980s. This bank was initially financed by Sheikh Zayed bin Al Nahayan of Abu Dhabi. Abedi fiddled with an idea of a bank for developing countries or a 'Third World's Bank' for publicity. His vision carried many developing countries. Even Bank of America had an investment of US dollars 2.5 million in BCCI. 27 Within ten years the bank had grown to a considerable size. But voluminous monetary transactions by BCCI raised doubts about its clients and modus operandi. The Bank of America withdrew its investment in 1986 apprehending its drug connection. Many cases of drug profits gradually surfaced. Latin American drug cartels and drug syndicates of South East and South West Asian regions were the main clients of BCCI. They approached the BCCI with drug proceeds without any hesitation. The managers of the bank namely Muesella, Awann, Bilgrami, Akbar, Baaksa, Naqvi and others welcomed the leaders of the syndicates. The Pakistanis dominated this bank. Finally their narcotic drugs laundering drama came to an end in 1991 when the US Grand Jury indicted the managers and others involved in the transaction for fraud and racketeering.

These two cases are explicit examples of illicit monetary transactions through legal channels. There are several other ways to launder drug proceeds through professional smugglers and gangsters. Many of these criminals deal only in narcotic drugs and run a parallel government to manage their global network. These groups are well organised and are popularly known as 'drug syndicates'. They launder the drug proceeds through various means such as:-

Bank Deposits and Loans or 'Smurfing'

Double Invoicing

Investment in Foreign Business

Investment in Real Estate

Travel and currency exchange Agencies

Hawala Transactions

Currency Smuggling

Conversion of Cash in Kind,

Gambling Joints

Tax Havens (VDS etc.)

Needless to highlight that South West Asia especially India, Pakistan and Afghanistan offer vast opportunity for money laundering. It is a known fact that the real estate boom in India during the 1980s and early 1990s was because of unprecedented investment in property business by Daud Ibrahim (currently in Pakistan) and his associates. Similar was the case of the entertainment industry in Mumbai, Daud Ibrahim & Co. emerged as the real financier for films and the music industry during this time. His gang dominated the money market for ten years by funding such business enterprises in Mumbai. The unholy alliance of drug smugglers, criminals, builders, film producers and petty business enterprises came to light only after the Bombay Blasts in 1993. Until then no one that knew that illicit drug proceeds had already converted into legitimate business and government could do nothing about it as there was no document or paper, a prerequisite for legal action against the crime committed.

CIA covert weapons shipments are sent by the Pakistani army and the ISI to rebel camps in the North West Frontier province near the Afghanistan border. The governor of the province is Lieutenant General Fazle Haq, who author Alfred McCoy calls Pakistani President Muhammad Zia ul-Haq’s “closest confidant and the de facto overlord of the mujaheddin guerrillas.” Haq allows hundreds of heroin refineries to set up in his province. Beginning around 1982, Pakistani army trucks carrying CIA weapons from Karachi often pick up heroin in Haq’s province and return loaded with heroin. They are protected from police search by ISI papers. [McCoy, 2003, pp. 477] By 1982, Haq is listed with Interpol as an international drug trafficker. But Haq also becomes known as a CIA asset. Despite his worsening reputation, visiting US politicians such as CIA Director William Casey and Vice President George H. W. Bush continue to meet with him when they visit Pakistan. Haq then moves his heroin money through the criminal Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI). A highly placed US official will later say that Haq “was our man… everybody knew that Haq was also running the drug trade” and that “BCCI was completely involved.” [Scott, 2007, pp. 73-75] Both European and Pakistani police complain that investigations of heroin trafficking in the province are “aborted at the highest level.” [McCoy, 2003, pp. 477] In 1989, shortly after Benazir Bhutto takes over as the new ruler of Pakistan, Pakistani police arrest Haq and charge him with murder. He is considered a multi-billionaire by this time. But Haq will be gunned down and killed in 1991, apparently before he is tried. [McCoy, 2003, pp. 483] Even President Zia is implied in the drug trade. In 1985, a Norwegian government investigation will lead to the arrest of a Pakistani drug dealer who also is President Zia’s personal finance manager. When arrested, his briefcase contains Zia’s personal banking records. The manager will be sentenced to a long prison term. [McCoy, 2003, pp. 481-482]

When Pakistani police picked up Hamid Hasnain, V.P. of gvt's Habib bank, they found in his briefcase the personal records of president Zia. Blatant official corruption continued until General Zia's death in an air crash. Typical of misinformation that blocked any U.S. action against Pakistan's heroin trade, the State Department's semi-annual narcotics review in September called General Zia a strong supporter of anti-narcotics activities in Pakistan. McCoy, A.W. (1991). The Politics Of Heroin: CIA Complicity in the Global Drug Traffic 456.

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