Monday, October 20, 2008

Veracity of Tabari's Islamic History - 5

syed-mohsin naquvi wrote:

I do not see why you are quoting all these details in reply to my brief message. Yes, those things are known in history and I am not denying any of that. Imam Jafar as-Sadiq is a great-grandson HAzrat Abu BAkr from teh mother's side. I am questioning your assertion that Muawiyyah had no hand in ordering the cursing of IMam Ali from the official pulpits. I am questioning your assumption taht MUawiyyah was a SAHAABI either by your definition or by my definition of a SAHAABI. O.K., lets us discuss these points with a cool mind and an academic eye.

Thank you.


Syed-Mohsin Naquvi

Dear and Respected Naquvi Sahab,

When there is a discussion of the Companions [May Aallh be pleased with all of them] of the Prophet Mohammad [Peace be upon him] then Wisdom, Academic eyes, and Qeel-Qaal-Taweel and History should take a hike. You have agreed that Hazrat Jaffer Sadiq [Rahimaullah] was the Great Grandson of Hazrat Abu Bakar Siddiq [May Allah be pleased with him] and Hazrat Abu Bakar Siddiq [May Allah be pleased with him] was 'Siddiq' i.e. friend of Prophet Mohammad [PBUH] and this friendship is mentioned in Quran and Hadith as well, then Mohammad [PBUH]'s Hadith are final word on Hazrat Muawiyah [May Allah be pleased with him]. How can one condemn Muawiyah when the friend [Mohammad] of Hazrat Jaffar Sadiq's Grandfather [Abu Bakar] praising and giving him tidings of paradise?

إِلاَّ تَنصُرُوهُ فَقَدْ نَصَرَهُ اللَّهُ إِذْ أَخْرَجَهُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ ثَانِيَ اثْنَيْنِ إِذْ هُمَا فِى الْغَارِ إِذْ يَقُولُ لِصَاحِبِهِ لاَ تَحْزَنْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ مَعَنَا فَأَنزَلَ اللَّهُ سَكِينَتَهُ عَلَيْهِ وَأَيَّدَهُ بِجُنُودٍ لَّمْ تَرَوْهَا وَجَعَلَ كَلِمَةَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ السُّفْلَى وَكَلِمَةُ اللَّهِ هِىَ الْعُلْيَا وَاللَّهُ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ

Translation in English:

“If you help him (Muhammad) not (it does not matter), for Allaah did indeed help him when the disbelievers drove him out, the second of the two; when they (Muhammad and Abu Bakr) were in the cave, he said to his companion (Abu Bakr): ‘Be not sad (or afraid), surely, Allaah is with us.’ Then Allaah sent down His Sakeenah (calmness, tranquillity, peace) upon him, and strengthened him with forces (angels) which you saw not, and made the word of those who disbelieved the lowermost, while the Word of Allaah that became the uppermost; and Allaah is All-Mighty, All-Wise” [al-Tawbah 9:40]

Narrated Anas bin Malik:

Allah's Apostle used to visit Um Haran bint Milhan, who would offer him reals. Um-Haram was the wife of Ubada bin As-Samit. Allah's Apostle, once visited her and she provided him with food and started looking for lice in his head. Then Allah's Apostle slept, and afterwards woke up smiling. Um Haran asked, "What causes you to smile, O Allah's Apostle?" He said. "Some of my followers who (in a dream) were presented before me as fighters in Allah's Cause (on board a ship) amidst this sea cause me to smile; they were as kings on the thrones (or like kings on the thrones)." (Ishaq, a sub-narrator is not sure as to which expression the Prophet used.) Um-Haram said, "O Allah's Apostle! Invoke Allah that he makes me one of them. Allah's Apostle invoked Allah for her and slept again and woke up smiling. Once again Um Haram asked, "What makes you smile, O Allah's Apostle?" He replied, "Some of my followers were presented to me as fighters in Allah's Cause," repeating the same dream. Um-Haram said, "O Allah's Apostle! Invoke Allah that He makes me one of them." He said, "You are amongst the first ones." It happened that she sailed on the sea during the Caliphate of Mu'awlya bin Abi Sufyan, and after she disembarked, she fell down from her riding animal and died. [Bukhari : Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihaad)]

1-'Umar ibn al-Khattab said, "Do not mention Mu'awiyah with anything but good. I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'O Allah, guide him!'" [Mishkatul Misabeeh]

2- The Prophet Mohammad [PBUH] said, “Oh Allah, make him [Mu’awiyah] a guide, guided, and guide people through him.” [Al-Tirmidhi and Mishkat Al-Masabeeh]

3- The Prophet Mohammad [PBUH] said, “O’ Allah, teach Mu’awiyah the Quran and math, and save him from the hellfire.” [Mawarid Al-Dam’an, by Al-Haythami]

Obey the saying of the Prophet (peace be upon him):

4- "Do not revile my companions. By (Allah) in Whose Hand my soul is!, if any one of you spends gold (piled up) like (mount) 'Uhud it will not equal a pint of any one of them, nor its half." (Bukhari, Muslim, Abu-Dawud, Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah, Musnad Imam Ahmed Bin Hanbal)

5- "When my Companions are mentioned then withhold" [Saheeh, at-Tabaranee].

6- And he also said, "Do not abuse my Companions, for if any of you were to spend gold equal to (mountain of) Uhud in charity, it would not equal a handful of one of them or even half of that" [al-Bukhaaree, Muslim].

7- And he said, "Whoever abuses my Companions, upon them is the curse of Allah, the angels and all the people" [Saheeh, At-Tabaranee].

8- Abdullah Bin Abbas (RA) once said: " Leave Amir Muawiyah (RA) alone because he is a person who has enjoyed the Companionship of the Holy Prophet (PBUH). [Bukhari Chapter Companions of the Prophet]

9- Narrated Ibn Abu Mulaika: Muawiya offered one Rak'a Witr prayer after the 'Isha prayer, and at that time a freed slave of Ibn 'Abbas was present. He (i.e. the slave) went to Ibn 'Abbas (and told him that Muawiya offered one Rak'a Witr prayer). Ibn Abbas said, "Leave him, for he was in the company of Allah's Apostle." [Sahih Bukhari Chapter Companions of the Prophet]

In the year 48 hijra when the Byzantines emperor Constantine was murdered, it was Hazrat Ameer Muawiyah [RA] turn to take advantage of the situation. He made rpeparations and organized a two pronged attack, one from the land and other from the sea. He got 1700 war ships constructed. Cyprus was already conquered. The other small Islands near Greece was conquered. Cyprus was used as the Naval base. With these preparations the muslims fleet started. There was no opposition when the Muslim fleet sailed through Dardanelles. Thus the muslims Laid siege of Constantinope, Hazrat Ameer Muawiyah [RA] sent another force by land under the commad or his son Ameer Yazid Bin Muawiyah. The siege lasted for more then seven years.

This was the first campaign by the Muslims to occupy Constantinople. The Prophet[saw] had given the good tiding of paradise who took part in the campaign. Abdullah Bin Zubair[RA], Abdullah Bin Abbas[RA], Hussain Bin Ali[RA], and other distinguished Muslims Joined the campaign under the banner of Yazid Bin Muawiyah.

" The first amongst my followers who will invade Ceaser's city will be forgiven their sins." [Sahi Al; Bukhari, Vol. I P. 109, Translation by Dr Mohd. Muhsin Khan]

What follows is a list of some of the scholars who held various opinions about Yazeed ibn Mua’wiyyah.

Imām Ibn H.ajar al-Haytamī in al-S.awā`iq al-Muh.riqa cited Ibn al-Jawzī's attribution of this position to Imām Ah.mad via Abū Ya`lā in his Mu`tamad fīl-Us.ūl, the latter narrating it from S.ālih. ibn Ah.mad, from the Imām. However, Abū Muh.ammad al-Tamīmī in his `Aqīdat al-Imām Ah.mad relates a contrary position from Imām Ah.mad, as narrated by Abū Ya`lā's son in T.abaqāt al- H.anābila and Ibn Muflih. in al-Arshad:

He [Imām Ahmad] withheld saying anything about Yazīd ibn Mu`āwiya but rather committed his matter to Allāh. He would refrain from speaking against anyone from the first century. But our [H.anbalī] colleagues differ concerning him [Yazīd]. Some declared it permissible to blame him because he terrified al-Madīna and the Prophet MHMD Allah bless and greet him - cursed whoever terrifies al-Madīna. Others withheld from taking any position. Imām Ah.mad was asked about it and he said:

'People prayed behind him and took his alms.' Others considered him among the Muslims that sinned and it is better to refrain from taking any position in what is not obligatory. It was impermissible to curse any Muslim unless the Law provided a proof-text to that effect. For it is narrated and transmitted that to curse a Muslim is like killing him and that the Believer is not one given to cursing. 1

From the above it can be seen that the claim that "Imām Ah.mad ibn H.anbal permits that curses be pronounced against Yazīd" made by Shaykh Muh.ammad ibn Rasūl al- Barzanjī in al-Ishā`a fī Ashrāt. al-Sā`a (Shukrī ed. p. 77 and p. 144) is not correct even though Ah.mad did forbid narrating from him cf. T.abaqāt al-H.anābila (1:347) from Muhannā ibn Yah.yā al-Shāmī.


“The Muslims conquered Constantinople twice, first in the time of Mu’awiyah with Abu Ayub al Ansari and after that battle Abu Ayyub was buried.” [Majmou’ Al Fattawa v 18]

Abdullah ibn Umar narrated that

“The Messenger said, “the first army that conquers Constantinople will be forgiven.”

That is the conquest by Mu’awiyah (ra) and among that army was Yazeed ibn Mu’awiyah, so how dare some people insult Yazeed when Allah has forgiven that army?

The second conquest of Constantinople was the one of Abdul Malik ibn Marwan who appointed his son Maslamah and sent an expedition for Constantinople, they did not enter but agreed to build the aghia Sophia Masjid (now a museum) and to rule over it by Islam. After that Muhammad Al Fateh opened it completely.

Introductory note on the insult of Ameer Yazeed [May Allah have mercy on his soul]

Ameer al-Mu’mineen Yazeed ibn Mua’wiyyah was a believer with a correct and sound Aqeedah (belief) and accusing him to be a disbeliever is absolutely incorrect and a pure slander.

“Yazeed’s Islaam was correct as he was a believer.” (Wafyaan al-A’yaan Wa Abnaa Ibnaa az-Zamaan (1/328), Mir’atul-Janaan Wa-Ibratul-Yaqzaan Fee Ma’arifah Maa Ya’abir Min Hawaadith az-Zamaan (3/177).

Shaikh ul-Islaam al-Imaam Ibn Taymiyyah said,

“Yazeed was from the teenage muslims he was neither a disbeliever nor a Zindeeq (heretic) he used to give a lot (of wealth in charity) and he was brave. He did not have the evil and bad things which the enemies attribute to him.” (al-Waseeyatul-Kubraa (pg.300), Majmoo al-Fataawa (2/41).

He also said,

“This man (Yazeed) was a king from amongst the muslim kings and he was not like this and that (as the people claim).” (Minhaaj as-Sunnah (2/247).

He also said,

“Rather the Islaam of Mu’awiyyah, Yazeed, Banee Ummayyah and Banee Abbaas is established with Tawatur (ie so many narration’s) and similarly their praying, fasting and Jihaad against the non-believers is also established.” (Minhaaj as-Sunnah (1/163)

Abdul-Hayy Husainee said,

“Attributing Fisq (open sinning) and disbelief to Yazeed ibn Mu’awiyyah is unlawful (haraam) and considering this to be lawful (ie these attributions to him) are unlawful (haraam).” (Nazhatul-Khawaatir Wa Bahjatul Masaama’a Wan-Nawaazir (7/514).

Ibn Hajr al-Makkee said,

“Yazeed was a believer from amongst the believers.” (as-Sawaa’iq al-Meharqah (pg.223).

Mulla Alee Qaaree said,

“Yazeed having Eemaan is not something which is hidden.” (Sharh Fiqhul al-Akbar (pg.88).

Ibn Khaldoon said,

“A majority of the companions were with Yazeed and they did not hold it permissible to rebel against him.” (Muqaddimah Ibn Khaldoon (pg.217).

None of the four imam and the authors of the six well known books of hadeeth declared Yazeed to be a disbeliver or a heretic

1. Imaam Muhammad Ghazzalee (d.505H) Imaam Muhammad Gazzalee said he was a muslim with a correct aqeedah and a complete muslim and it is not permissible in the sharee’ah to curse and abuse him. (see Ahyaa al-Uloom (3/108), Wafyaat al-A’yaan (1/328), Miratul-Janaan (3/176), al-Bidaayah Wan-Nihaayah (12/173), Hayaat al-Haiwaan (2/176), Sawaa’iq al-Meharqah (pg.222), Dhuu al-Ma’alee (pg.49), Sharh Fiqhul-Akbar (pg.87), Nibraas (pg.551), Shadhraat adh-Dhahab Fee Akhbaar Minal Madhab (1/69), Tafseer Rooh al-Ma’anee (13/73), Fataawa Azeezee (1/100), Fataawa Abdul-Hayy (1/60), Aqaa’id al-Islaam (pg.223).

2. Imaam Qaadhee Abu Bakr ibn al-Arabee (Maalikee) (d.543H) He did not hold permissible the cursing and abusing of Yazeed nor declaring him to be a disbeliever. He said, “If it is said justice and knowledge are from the conditions of Khilaafah and Yazeed neither had justice or knowledge, then we will say what is the thing by which he have to come to know Yazeed had no justice or knowledge.” (al-Awaasim Minal Qawaasim (pg.222) He also said, “Where are those historians who wrote against Yazeed in mentioning alcohol and open sinning, do they not have any shame?” (al-Awaasim Minal Qawaasim (pg.222)

3. Shaikh Abdul-Mugeeth Hanbalee (d.583H) He was not in favour of cursing Yazeed nor declaring him to be a disbeliever, rather he authored a biography of Yazeed with the title of, “Fadhal Yazeed.” “and his (Abdul-Mugeeth’s) book ‘Fadhal Yazeed bin Mu’awiyyah’, in it he has mentioned strange incidences.” (Hidaayatul A’aarifeen Asmaa al-Mu’allifeen Wa Athaar Musannifeen (5/623), al-Bidaayah Wan-Nihaayah (12/328). Haafidh Ibn Katheer said about him, “He was from the righteous Hanbalee’s who the common folk referred to.” (al-Bidaayah Wan-Nihaayah (12/328). Imaam Ibn al-Jawzee said, “I hope from Allaah that me and Abdul-Mugeeth will be together in Paradise. Muhib ud deen Abul-Baqaa said from this we find (ibn al-Jawzee) knew Abdul-Mugeeth was from the righteous worshippers of Allaah and may he have mercy on both of them.” (Dhail Tabaqaat Hanabillah (1/356) of Ibn Rajab.)

4. Allaamah Abul-Khair Qazwainee. (d.590H) Imaam Ibn Katheer said, “After he left Qazwain he went to Baghdaad where he became a teacher in Madrassah Nizaamiyyah and he would admonish and deliver lectures to the people. So on the day of Ashoorah he sat on the minbar to admonish the people, it was said to him to curse Yazeed bin Mu’awiyyah. He replied, “He was but an Imaam Mujtahid.” (al-Bidaayah Wan-Nihaayah (9/13), Risaalah al-Mustarfah Lee-Bayaan Mashoor Kitaab as-Sunnah al-Musharfah (pg.132).

5. Allaamah Ibn as-Saalah (d.646H) He was also not in favour of cursing Yazeed or saying he was a disbeliever. Ibn Hajr Makkee writes, “Ibn Salaah who is from our jurists and scholars of hadeeth, I have seen in his Fataawa that when he was asked concerning the individual who would only curse Yazeed because he ordered the death of Hussain. Then in answer to this he said, according to us Yazeed ordering the death of Hussain is not correct and cursing and abusing Yazeed is not the sign of a believer…..” (as-Sawaa’iq al-Meharqah (pg.222).

6. Shaikh ul-Islaam Imaam Ibn Taymiyyah (Hanbali)(d.728H) He was neither in favour of cursing Yazeed nor declaring him to be a disbeliever. He says, “And the people who curse Yazeed and other such people like him then it is UPON them to bring evidence, Firstly: that he (Yazeed) was an open sinner and an oppressor and therefore prove he really was an open sinner and an oppressor. As allowing them to be cursed also needs to be proven that he continued this open sinning and oppression to the end up until his death. Secondly: Then after this they must prove that it is permissible to curse specific people like Yazeed.” He goes onto say, “and the verse, “May the Curse of Allaah be upon the oppressors.” Is a general verse like the verses concerning punishment.”

He goes onto say, “And the hadeeth of Bukhaari states the first army to wage Jihaad against Constantinople is forgiven and the first army to do Jihaad against Constantinople, their Ameer was Yazeed ibn Mu’waiyyah and the word army entails a specific number and every member of this army is included in this forgiveness………..”

(Minhaaj as-Sunnah an-Nabawiyyah Fee Naqdh Kalaam ash-Shee’ah Wal-Qadariyyah (2/252), al-Muntaqa Minhaaj al-Ei’tidaal Fee Naqdh Kalaam ar-Rafdh Wal-Ei’tizaal (pg.290).

7. Haafidh Imaam Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah (Hanbali) (d.751H). Haafidh Ibn Qayyim writes in his book al-Manaar al-Muneef, “ALL the narration’s that mention the censure of Yazeed bin Mu’awiyyah are lies.” The he goes onto say on the same page, “ALL the narration’s that mention the censure of Mu’awiyyah are lies.” (al-Manaar al-Muneef Fis-Saheeh Wadh-Dha’eef (pg.220).

8. Haafidh Imaam Ibn Katheer (Hanbali)(d.774H) After mentioning the position of al-Haraasee (of the permissibility of cursing) he mentions his statements and says, “Imaam Ghazzalee has opposed the attribution of open sinning and tyranny to Yazeed and has prohibited from abusing Yazeed because he was a muslim and it is not established he expressed happiness or joy on the death of Hussain….” (al-Bidaayah Wan-Nihaayah (12/173).

9. Haafidh Ibn Rajab (Hanbali)(d.795H) Haafidh Ibn Rajab also did not hold the opinion of cursing and declaring Yazeed to be a disbeliever. On the contrary he refute the allegation on Imaam Ahmad bin Hanbal that he cursed Yazeed. So he writes in clear words, “The statement of Imaam Ahmad only establishes cursing on all of the oppressors and there is no clarification or specification for the permissibility of cursing Yazeed only.” (Dhail Tabaqaat Hanabillah (2/356).

10. Mulla Alee Qaaree (Hanafi) (d1014H). Mulla Alee Qaaree said, “The majority of the Scholars have prohibited cursing Yazeed and Hajjaaj.” (Mirqaat Sharh Mishkaat (4/52).

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