Sunday, October 19, 2008

Alleged Last will of Ghazi and Karbala - IV

Shaikh Mohommad wrote:

Hence suffer and do not try to change or challenge the oppressors. Islam teaches everyone to fight and fight those who fight against you.

Shaikh Mohommad

Dear Sheikh Sahab,

If you talk of Islam then please quote Quran and Hadith because Violent Ideologies and Deviant Modus Operandi of Deviants like Mawdoodi, Syed Qutub, Hassan Al Bannah or Ayatollah Khmueini is not Hujjat [Proof] to challenge the oppressor Rulers.

Post is in 3 parts:

1- Obeying the Ruler [Quran and Hadith].

2- Conditions for Rebellion [Khurooj] against Rulers.

3- Shaykh ul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah on Rebellion Against the Rulers and A Discussion of the Khurooj Made By the Early Salaf .

1- Obeying the Ruler [Quran and Hadith]:

يَـأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ أَطِيعُواْ اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُواْ الرَّسُولَ وَأُوْلِى الاٌّمْرِ مِنْكُمْ فَإِن تَنَازَعْتُمْ فِى شَىْءٍ فَرُدُّوهُ إِلَى اللَّهِ وَالرَّسُولِ إِن كُنتُمْ تُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الاٌّخِرِ ذلِكَ خَيْرٌ وَأَحْسَنُ تَأْوِيلاً

English Translation:

O ye who believe! Obey Allah, and obey the messenger and those of you who are in authority; and if ye have a dispute concerning any matter, refer it to Allah and the messenger if ye are (in truth) believers in Allah and the Last Day. That is better and more seemly in the end.[AN-NISA (WOMEN) Chapter 4 Verse 59]

The Necessity of Obeying the Rulers in Obedience to Allah Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn `Abbas said that the Ayah,

(Obey Allah and obey the Messenger, and those of you who are in authority.) "Was revealed about `Abdullah bin Hudhafah bin Qays bin `Adi, who the Messenger of Allah sent on a military expedition.'' This statement was collected by the Group, with the exception of Ibn Majah At-Tirmidhi said, "Hasan, Gharib''. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Ali said, "The Messenger of Allah sent a troop under the command of a man from Al-Ansar. When they left, he became angry with them for some reason and said to them, `Has not the Messenger of Allah commanded you to obey me' They said, `Yes.' He said, `Collect some wood,' and then he started a fire with the wood, saying, `I command you to enter the fire.' The people almost entered the fire, but a young man among them said, `You only ran away from the Fire to Allah's Messenger. Therefore, do not rush until you go back to Allah's Messenger, and if he commands you to enter it, then enter it.' When they went back to Allah's Messenger , they told him what had happened, and the Messenger said,

«لَوْ دَخَلْتُمُوهَا مَا خَرَجْتُمْ مِنْهَا أَبَدًا، إِنَّمَا الطَّاعَةُ فِي الْمَعْرُوف»

(Had you entered it, you would never have departed from it. Obedience is only in righteousness.)'' This Hadith is recorded in the Two Sahihs. Abu Dawud recorded that `Abdullah bin `Umar said that the Messenger of Allah said,

«السَّمْعُ وَالطَّاعَةُ عَلَى الْمَرْءِ الْمُسْلِمِ فِيمَا أَحَبَّ وَكَرِهَ، مَا لَمْ يُؤْمَرْ بِمَعْصِيَةٍ، فَإِذَا أُمِرَ بِمَعْصِيَةٍ فَلَا سَمْعَ وَلَا طَاعَة»

(The Muslim is required to hear and obey in that which he likes and dislikes, unless he was commanded to sin. When he is commanded with sin, then there is no hearing or obeying.) This Hadith is recorded in the Two Sahihs. `Ubadah bin As-Samit said, "We gave our pledge to Allah's Messenger to hear and obey (our leaders), while active and otherwise, in times of ease and times of difficulty, even if we were deprived of our due shares, and to not dispute this matter (leadership) with its rightful people. The Prophet said,

«إِلَّا أَنْ تَرَوْا كُفْرًا بَوَاحًا، عِنْدَكُمْ فِيهِ مِنَ اللهِ بُرْهَان»

(Except when you witness clear Kufr about which you have clear proof from Allah.)'' This Hadith is recorded in the Two Sahihs. Another Hadith narrated by Anas states that the Messenger of Allah said,

«اسْمَعُوا وَأَطِيعُوا، وَإِنْ أُمِّرَ عَلَيْكُمْ عَبْدٌحَبَشِيٌّ كَأَنَّ رَأْسَهُ زَبِيبَة»

(Hear and obey (your leaders), even if an Ethiopian slave whose head is like a raisin, is made your chief.) Al-Bukhari recorded this Hadith. Umm Al-Husayn said that she heard the Messenger of Allah giving a speech during the Farewell Hajj, in which he said;

«وَلَوِ اسْتُعْمِلَ عَلَيْكُمْ عَبْدٌيَقُودُكُمْ بِكِتَابِ اللهِ، اسْمَعُوا لَهُ وَأَطِيعُوا»

(Even if a slave was appointed over you, and he rules you with Allah's Book, then listen to him and obey him.) Muslim recorded this Hadith. In another narration with Muslim, the Prophet said,

«عَبْدًا حَبَشِيًّا مَجْدُوعًا»

(Even if an Ethiopian slave, whose nose was mutilated...) In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

«مَنْ أَطَاعَنِي فَقَدْ أَطَاعَ اللهَ، وَمَنْ عَصَانِي فَقَدْ عَصَى اللهَ، وَمَنْ أَطَاعَ أَمِيرِي فَقَدْ أَطَاعَنِي، وَمَنْ عَصَى أَمِيرِي فَقَدْ عَصَانِي»

(Whoever obeys me, obeys Allah, and whoever disobeys me, disobeys Allah. Whoever obeys my commander, obeys me, and whoever disobeys my commander, disobeys me.) This is why Allah said,

أَطِيعُواْ اللَّهَ

(Obey Allah), adhere to His Book,

وَأَطِيعُواْ الرَّسُولَ

(and obey the Messenger), adhere to his Sunnah,

وَأُوْلِى الاٌّمْرِ مِنْكُمْ

(And those of you who are in authority) in the obedience to Allah which they command you, not what constitutes disobedience of Allah, for there is no obedience to anyone in disobedience to Allah, as we mentioned in the authentic Hadith,

«إِنَّمَا الطَّاعَةُ فِي الْمَعْرُوف»

(Obedience is only in righteousness.)

The Necessity of Referring to the Qur'an and Sunnah for Judgment

Allah said,

فَإِن تَنَازَعْتُمْ فِى شَىْءٍ فَرُدُّوهُ إِلَى اللَّهِ وَالرَّسُولِ

((And) if you differ in anything amongst yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Messenger). Mujahid and several others among the Salaf said that the Ayah means, "(Refer) to the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger.'' This is a command from Allah that whatever areas the people dispute about, whether major or minor areas of the religion, they are required to refer to the Qur'an and Sunnah for judgment concerning these disputes. In another Ayah, Allah said,

وَمَا اخْتَلَفْتُمْ فِيهِ مِن شَىْءٍ فَحُكْمُهُ إِلَى اللَّهِ

(And in whatsoever you differ, the decision thereof is with Allah). Therefore, whatever the Book and Sunnah decide and testify to the truth of, then it, is the plain truth. What is beyond truth, save falsehood This is why Allah said, u

إِن كُنتُمْ تُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الاٌّخِرِ

(if you believe in Allah and in the Last Day.) meaning, refer the disputes and conflicts that arise between you to the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger for judgment. Allah's statement,

إِن كُنتُمْ تُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الاٌّخِرِ

(if you believe in Allah and in the Last Day. ) indicates that those who do not refer to the Book and Sunnah for judgment in their disputes, are not believers in Allah or the Last Day. Allah said,

ذَلِكَ خَيْرٌ

(That is better) meaning, referring to the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger for judgment in various disputes is better,

وَأَحْسَنُ تَأْوِيلاً

(and more suitable for final determination.) meaning, "Has a better end and destination,'' as As-Suddi and several others have stated while Mujahid said, "Carries a better reward.''

2- Conditions for Rebellion [Khurooj] against Rulers.

‘Ubaydullaah ibn ‘Adiyy ibn Khiyaar reports: I went to ‘Uthmaan (radiallaahu anhu), whilst he was being besieged and I said to him: You are the ruler of the Muslims in general and you see what has befallen you. We are being led in prayer by a leader of insurrection and we are afraid of being sinful. So ‘Uthmaan said, “The prayer is the best of actions which people do so, when the people do good deeds, do good along with them. When they do evil, avoid their evil.” Reported by al-Bukhaaree.

Imaam Al-Barbahaaree Says in his Kitaab Sharh us-Sunnah To hear and obey the rulers in that which Allah loves and is pleased with. Whoever becomes Khaleefah through the consensus of the people and their being pleased with him, he is the ‘Chief of the Believers’ (Ameerul-Mu’mineen) .

It is, therefore, not permissible for anyone to spend a single night thinking that he has no Imaam over him, whether he (the Imaam) be righteous or wicked.

The Hajj and Jihaad are to be carried out under his leadership. Jumu’ah prayer behind them (i.e. the wicked rulers)

Imaam Al-Barbahaaree Says in his Kitaab Sharh us-Sunnah: Whoever rebels against a Muslim ruler is one of the Khawaarij, has caused dissent within the Muslims and has contradicted the narrations and dies a death of the days of ignorance (Jaahiliyyah)

It is permissible to fight the Khawaarij if they attack the Muslims.

It is permissible to fight the Khawaarij if they attack the persons, property or families of the Muslims,[Refer to Saheeh al-Bukhaaree] but, if they desist and flee, they may not be chased, nor are their wounded to be killed, nor set upon, nor may those taken captive be killed, nor are those who flee to be followed.

The Khawaarij are a group who first appeared in the time of ‘Alee (radiallaahu anhu). They split from his army and began the grave innovation of Takfeer (declaring Muslims, rulers or the ruled, in their view guilty of major sins, to be disbelievers).The Prophet warned against them in many authentic ahaadeeth: “The Khawaarij are the dogs of the Fire.” Reported by Ahmad and it is saheeh. He also informed us that they would continue to appear until the end of this world, saying, “A group will appear reciting the Qur’aan, but it will not pass beyond their throats. Every time a group appears, it is to be cut off, until the Dajjaal appears within them.” Reported by Ibn Maajah and it is hasan. Refer to Silsilatul-Ahaadeet h as-Saheehah.

Imaam Al-Barbahaaree Says in his Kitaab Sharh us-Sunnah: It is neither permissible to fight the ruler or to rebel against him, even if he oppresses.

This is due to the saying of the Messenger of Allah to Abu Dharr al-Ghifaaree, “Have patience, even if he is an Abyssinian slave” [Muslim] and his saying to the Ansaar, “Have patience until you meet me at the Pool.”[Reported by al-Bukhaaree] from the hadeeth of Usayd ibn al-Hudayr) There is no fighting against the ruler in the Sunnah. It causes destruction of the religion and the worldly affairs.

Hudhaifah (radiallaahu anhu) reports, in a longer hadeeth, that the Messenger of Allah said, “There will come leaders who will not follow my guidance and will not follow my Sunnah. There will be amongst them men who will have the hearts of devils in the bodies of humans.” He (Hudhaifah) asked, “What shall I do, O Messenger of Allah, if I reach that?” He eplied, “You should hear and obey the ruler, even if he flogs your back and takes your wealth, then still hear and obey.” Reported by Muslim.

Al-Khallaal reports, in as-Sunnah that: Abu Bakr related to us, saying, “I heard Abu ‘Abdullah (Imaam Ahmad) ordering that bloodshed be avoided and he strongly forbade rebellion.”

It is also related by Ibn Sa'ad in Tabaqaatul Kubraa A group of Muslims came to al Hasan al Basree (d.110H) seeking a verdict to rebel against al Hajjaaj. So they said, "O Abu Sa'eed! What do you say about fighting this oppressor who has unlawfully spilt blood and unlawfully taken wealth and did this and that?" So al Hasan said, "I hold that he should not be fought. If this is the punishment from Allah (Ta'aala), then you will not be able to remove it with your swords. If this is a trial from Allah (Ta'aala), then be patient until Allah's Judgement comes, and He is the best of Judges."

So they left Al Hasan, disagreed with him and rebelled against al Hajjaaj - so al Hajjaaj killed them all.

Hajjaaj wasath Thaqafee, and is well known. Adh Dhahabee said in Siyar A'lamin Nubalaa at the end of his biography, "We revile him and do not love him, rather we hate him for Allah (Ta'aala). He had some good deeds, but they are drowned in the ocean of his sins, and his affair is for Allah!"

About them al Hasan used to say, "If the people had patience, when they were being tested by their unjust ruler, it will not be long before Allah (Ta'aala) will give them a way out. However, they always rush for their swords, so they are left to their swords. By Allah! Not even for a single day did they bring about any good."It is related by Ibn Sa’d in at-Tabaqaat, and by Ibn Abee Haatim in his Tafseer.

And when the fitnah occurred in the time of 'Uthmaan Gani (radiallaahu' anhu), some of the people said to Usaamah ibn Zaid (radiallaahu' anhu), "Will you not speak to 'Uthmaan?" So he replied, "You think that I will not talk to him without letting you know about it (also). Indeed, I will certainly talk to him regarding that which concerns me and him without initiating a matter which I do not love to be the first to initiate."

It is authentically reported from the Messenger of Allah Muhammad (salallaahu' alayheewasallam) in the Ahaadeeth of 'Iyaad Ibn Ghunum who said, "The Messenger of Allaah Muhammad (salallaahu' alayheewasallam) said, "Whoever desires to advise the one with authority then he should not do so openly, rather he should take him by the hand and take him into seclusion (and then advise him). And if he accepts (the advice) from him then (he has achieved his objective) and if not, then he has fulfilled that which was a duty upon him." (Reported by Ahmad and Ibn Abee 'Aasim with a Saheeh isnaad.)

And when they (the Khawaarij) opened up the evil in the time of 'Uthmaan (radiallaahu' anhu) and rejected 'Uthmaan openly, the fitnah, the killing and the mischief, which has not ceased to affect the people to this day, was brought about. And this caused the fitnah to occur between 'Alee and Mu'aawiyyah and 'Uthmaan (radiallaahu' anhu) was killed for these reasons.

(Futhermore) a large number of Companions and others besides them were killed due to this open rebellion and the open proclamation of the faults (of the ruler), until the people began to hate the one charged with authority over them and killed him. We ask Allah for success." [These were the words of the Shaykh Abdul Azeez Ibn Baaz, (hafidhahullaah) . Taken from Al-Ma'loom min Waajib il-'Ilaaqah bain al Haakim wal-Mahkoom, .]

Al-Haafidh Ibn Hajar (d.852H) – Rahimahullaah – said in Fathul-Baaree (1/138): “The advice to the leaders of the Muslims is to aid them upon that by which they will become established. And it is to warn them against negligence, and to correct their deficiency when they slip, and to unite the word upon them, and to reject the hearts that have enmity towards them. And the greatest advice is to prevent them – by using that which is good – from oppression.”

Imaam Al-Barbahaaree Says in his Kitaab Sharh us-Sunnah: When fitnah occurs, remain in your house When turmoil (fitnah) occurs, remain within your house [1] and flee from the neighbourhood of tumult. Beware of blind following and every case of fighting between Muslims for this world is discord and a trial. Fear Allah, who is alone, having no partner. Do not go out in it, do not fight in it, do not take part in it, do not take sides in it, nor incline towards either (side) and do not have love for any of their affairs, since it is said, “He who loves the deeds of a people, good or bad, is just like the one who commits them.” May Allah grant us and you those things pleasing to Him and keep us away from disobedience to Him.

Ibn az-Zubayr narrates: My close friend, Abul-Qaasim (sallallaahu alaihi wa sallam) advised me, “If you reach anything of the tumult (fitnah), go to Uhud and blunt your sword upon it, then remain in your house.” Reported by Ahmad in al-Musnad. Its isnaad is hasan, as has been mentioned by Shaikh al-Albaanee (rahimahullaah) in as-Saheehah.

Behaving well towards the oppressive ruler and praying behind him

Imaam Al-Barbahaaree Says in his Kitaab Sharh us-Sunnah Know that a ruler’s oppression does not reduce or remove anything that Allah has made obligatory upon the tongue of the Messenger (sallallaahu alaihi wa sallam). His oppression is upon himself. Your acts of obedience and good deeds, along with behaving well towards him, are complete, if Allah, the Most High, wills. Accompany them in all acts of obedience, such as the congregational and Jumu’ah prayers [and Jihaad alongside them] for you have your independent intention in that.

Shaikhul-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullaah) says in Majmoo’ al-Fataawaa , “The rulers are not to be fought due to committing sins. Even though a person may be killed for some sins, such as adultery and the like. However, it is not permitted to fight the rulers for doing things for which a person may be killed, since the corruption caused by this fighting is far greater than the corruption of a major sin committed by the ruler.”

Imaam Al-Barbahaaree Says in his Kitaab Sharh us-Sunnah If you find a man making supplication against the ruler, know that he is a person of innovation. If you find a person making supplication for the ruler to be upright, know that he is a person of the Sunnah, if Allah wills. Fudayl ibn ‘Iyaad said, “If I had an invocation that was to be answered, I would not make it except for the ruler.” It was said to him, “O Abu ‘Alee, explain that to us.” He replied, “If I made an invocation for myself, it would not go beyond me. Whereas, if I make it for the ruler, he is corrected and, through that, the servants and the land are set in order”.

Ibn al Mubaarak Rahimahullaah said (in reference to the above saying of al-Fudayl), "O teacher of goodness, who would show boldness towards this besides you?"

Imaam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal (d.241H) – rahimahullaah – said “Verily I supplicate for the ruler, for his correctness, success and support – night and day – and I see this as being obligatory upon me.’’ Refer to as-Sunnah of Aboo Bakr al-Khallaal.

We are ordered to make supplication for them (the rulers) to be upright. We have not been ordered to make supplication against them, even if they commit tyranny and oppression, since their tyranny and oppression reflect only upon themselves, but their rectitude is good for themselves and the Muslims.

Some important ahaadeeth regarding Rulers

The Prophet (salallaahu' alayheewasallam) Whosoever sees something from his leader of sin, then let him hate whatever occurs from sin. And let him not remove his hand from obedience, since whoever removes his hand from disobedience and splits off from the Jamaa’ah (united body), then he dies the death of Jaahiliyyah (pre-Islaamic times of ignorance)’’ Related by al-Bukhaaree and Muslim.

The Prophet (salallaahu' alayheewasallam) said ‘‘The person must obey in whatever he loves, and in whatever he hates, in ease and in hardship, in willingness and un-willingness; except if he is commanded to disobey Allaah. So if he is commanded to disobey Allaah, then he should not listen, not should he obey.’’ Related by al-Bukhaaree.

The Companions asked him: O Messenger of Allaah! When you mentioned that there will be rulers, ‘you will approve of some things from them, and disapprove of others things.’ They said: So what do you command us to do? He said: ‘‘Give them their right, and invoke Allaah, since He is with you.’’ ’Ubaadah (radiyallaahu ’anhu) said: ‘‘We gave the oath of allegiance to the Messenger of Allaah that we would not oppose the command, not its people.’’ He said: ‘‘Except if you were to see clear disbelief (kufran bawaahan) about which you have a proof from Allaah.’’ Related by Muslim

3- Shaykh ul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah on Rebellion Against the Rulers and A Discussion of the Khurooj Made By the Early Salaf .

All praise is due to Allaah and may the prayers and peace be upon the Messenger. To proceed:

These are some words of Shaykh ul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah that are worthy of being written in gold, as they are far reaching, explain the great wisdom contained in the Sharee’ah commands concerning those in authority, and expose what is with the contemporary groups of destruction, from the Khawaarij and other than them, who bring about nothing but mischief and corruption, in the name of rectification.

The Shaykh, Fawzee al-Atharee, in his excellent book, “Irshaad ul-Anaam Ilaa Kaifiyyat Naseehat il-Hukkaam”, quotes the following statement of Shaykh ul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah, from his Minhaaj us-Sunnah (4/527-):

“For verily Allaah the Exalted sent His Messenger (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) for the attainment of the benefits and perfection of them, and for the negation of the harmful things and their reduction. And when one of the khaleefahs took authority, such as Zaid and ‘Abdul-Malik and al-Mansoor and others, then either it was said: It is obligatory to prevent him from this authority and to fight him until someone else is given authority - as is held by those who consider it rightful to use the sword.

And this view is corrupt, for the corruption in this is greater than the benefit. And there is hardly anyone who revolted against a leader with authority except that what arose from his action of evil, was actually greater than whatever good came from it, such as those who rebelled against Yazeed in Madeenah, or like Ibn al-Ash’at1who revolted against ‘Abdul-Malik in ‘Iraaq, or like Ibn al-Mihlab also, who revolted against his son in Khurasaan, and like those who revolted against al-Mansoor in Madeenah and Basrah, and the likes of them.

And their goal is that they are victorious or they are defeated, then their rule (dominion) ceases, and so they do not have any end-result. For Abdullaah bin Alee and Abu Muslim, they are the ones who killed a great number of people, and both of them were killed by Abu Ja’far al-Mansoor. And as for the people of [the occurrence of] al-Harrah (in Madinah) and Ibn al-Ash’at and Ibn al-Mihlab, and others, then they were defeated, and their associates were also defeated. So they never established the deen and nor did they allow the dunyaa (worldly life) to remain (as it was)And Allaah, the Exalted, does not order something on account of which rectification of the deen and the dunyaa is not attained – even if the one who does that is from the Awliyaa of Allaah, the Pious ones (Muttaqeen), and from the People of Paradise.

For they are not more superior than Aa’ishah and Talhah and az-Zubair and others, and alongside (what they did), they did not praise what they fell into of fighting, and the likes of these are of greater rank and position in the sight of Allaah, and of better intention than those besides them…

And al-Hasan al-Basri used to say, “Verily al-Hajjaaj is a punishment of Allaah, so do not repel the punishment of Allaah with your hands, but you must (repel it) with humility and submission”.

And the most superior of the Muslims (from the early Muslims) used to forbid revolting and fighting in the times of tribulation, such as ‘Abdullaah ibn ‘Umar and Sa’eed bin al-Musayyab, and ‘Alee bin al-Hasan and others, all of them used to forbid, during the year of Harrah, from the revolt against Yazeed, and just as al-Hasan al-Basree and Mujaahid and others used to forbid from revolt during the tribulation of Ibn al-Ash’at.

And it is for this reason that it is firmly established with Ahl us-Sunnah to abandon fighting in times of tribulation due to the authentic ahaadeeth that are established from the Prophet (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam), and they began to mention this matter in the course of (authoring their works) on their aqeedah, and they would command with patience towards the oppression of the leaders, and the abandonment of fighting against them – even if a fair portion of the people of knowledge fought against them during the tribulation…

And whoever reflects upon the authentic ahaadeeth that are established from the Prophet (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) concerning this topic, and also considers with the consideration of those with insight and deep knowledge, will know that that which the Prophetic Texts have come with is from the best of all affairs.

And for this reason, when al-Husayn (radiallaahu anhu) desired to revolt against the people of ‘Iraaq, they wrote many letters to him, as has been indicated by the people of knowledge, such as Ibn ‘Umar, Ibn ‘Abbaas, ‘Abu Bakr bin Abdur-Rahmaan bin al-Haarith bin Hishaam, that he should not revolt, and their overwhelming belief was that he would be killed… and they were actually desiring to give sincere advice to him, and were seeking what was beneficial and better for him, and for the Muslims in general, and Allaah and His Messenger, verily, they only command with rectitude, not with corruption. However, the opinion can sometimes be correct and can sometimes be wrong.

So it has become clear that the correct affair was what they had said, and there was not to be found in the revolt any rectification or benefit for the deen and nor for the dunyaa. Rather, those oppressive wrongdoers were able to overcome the grandson of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) until they killed him as one oppressed, a martyr. And in his revolt and his fighting (against them) was such corruption and mischief that would not have occurred had he sat and remained in his own town.

For whatever he intended of the attainment of good and repelling of evil, then nothing from it occurred. Rather, only evil increased by his revolt and his fighting, and the goodness diminished on account of that. And that was also the cause of a great deal of evil, and the killing of Husayn itself was what brought about the tribulations, just as the killing of ‘Uthmaan was from that which brought about tribulations.

And all of this is what explains that whatever the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) has commanded of patience towards the tyranny of the Rulers and abandonment of fighting against them and revolting against them, that this is of the most beneficial and rectifying of affairs, in both this life and the next, and that whoever opposes this deliberately, or due to an error, then no rectification is attained by his action, rather only corruption.

And for this reason the Prophet (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) praised al-Hasan with his saying, “Verily, this son of mine is a leader (sayyid) and Allaah will bring about reconciliation through him between two great factions from amongst the Muslims”, but he did not praise anyone on account of fighting in the time of tribulation, and nor on account of revolting against the leaders, and nor on account of withholding from obedience, or separating from the Jamaa’ah.

And the ahaadeeth of the Prophet (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) that are established in the Saheeh, all of them indicate this... and this explains that the reconciliation between the two parties was praised and was loved by Allaah and His Messenger, and that what was done by al-Hasan in bringing this about was from the greatest of his excellencies and his stations, on account of which the Prophet (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) praised him. And if fighting had been obligatory or reccommended - and the Prophet (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) never praised anyone for the abandonment of that which is obligatory or reccommended - and for this reason the Prophet (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) did not praise anyone on account of what happened of fighting on the Day of the Camel, and Siffeen, let alone what occurred in Madinah on the Day of Harrah, and whatever happened in Makkah in the besieging of Ibn az-Zubayr, and what happened in the fitnah of Ibn al-Ash'at and
Ibn al-Mihlab and other such tribulations.

Rather, it has been successively narrated (tawaatara) from him that he commanded fighting against the Khawaarij, the Renegades, those whom the Chief of the Believers fought against, Alee bin Abee Taalib (radiallaahu anhu), at Nahrawaan, after they had revolted against him at Harooraa. For the narrations (sunan) from the Prophet (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) were in abundance (i.e. spread, known) concerning the fighting against them (the Khawaarij), and when Alee (radiyallaahu anhu) fought against them, he rejoiced with fighting against them, and he also narrated the hadeeth concerning them, and the Companions also agreed upon fighting them.

And similarly the people of knowledge after them, this fighting (against the Khawaarij) was not like the fighting of the people of the Camel and Siffeen and other than them, from those matters in which no text of Ijmaa' has come, and neither any praise of the noble ones who entered into it. Rather, they were remorseful about it, and also returned (i.e. recanted) from it.

And this hadeeth (i.e. concerning al-Hasan) is from the signs of the Prophethood of our Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam), when he mentioned about al-Hasan whatever he mentioned, and praised him for what he praised him. So whatever he mentioned and whatever he praised was in agreement with the truth that actually occurred after more than 30 years... as occurs in the authentic hadiths, and also despite what has been reported about them in the hadeeth of Abu Umaamah, collected by at-Tirmidhi and others that they are “the most evil of those who are killed under the sky and how excellent is the one killed by them”. Meaning that they are more harmful to the Muslims than others, for there are none which are more harmful to the Muslims than them, neither the Jews and nor the Christians. For they strived to kill every Muslim who did not agree with their view , declaring the blood of the Muslims, their wealth, and the slaying of their children to be lawful, while making takfir of them. And they considered this to be worship, due to their ignorance and their innovation that caused to stray…”

Minhaj us-Sunnah 5/248.

Ibn Hubairah concerning the hadeeth of Abu Sa’eed al-Khudree, “In this hadeeth is proof that fighting the Khawarij comes before fighting the pagans, mushrikeen. And the wisdom in that is that in fighting against them is a preservation of the capital of Islaam, whereas in fighting the people of Shirk there is the seeking of increase (in capital). So preserving the capital comes first.” Fath ul-Bari 12/301.

‘Asim bin Shumaikh said, “So I saw him – meaning Abu Sa’eed al-Khudree (who reported the hadith about the killing of the Khawarij) – after he had grown old and when his hands began to tremble, saying, ‘Fighting them – meaning the Khawarij – is greater to me than fighting an equal number of the Turks”. Ibn Abi Shaybah 15/305 and Musnad Ahmad 3/33. And fighting the Khawaarij is in all times, and it is obligatory to repel them, by way of the pen, tongue or sword as they will never cease to emerge until in the midst of the last of them appears the Dajjaal. The Messenger (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) said, “A group will appear reciting the Qur’aan, it will not pass beyond their throats, every time a group appears, it is to be cut off, until the Dajjaal appears within them”. (Reported by Ibn Maajah and it is Hasan. And see Silsilat ul-Ahaadeeth as-Saheehah of al-Albaanee, no. 2455).

And the two main features of the Khawaarij are takfir by way of major sins and adopting revolt and rebellion as a methodology of reform. And a new band of Khawaarij has emerged in contemporary times under the influence of teachings, doctrines and works of their pole and axis, Aal Qutb – who have aided in the proliferation of the aqeedah and manhaj of the Khawaarij.

And this very thing is the actual wisdom that the legislator (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) was attempting to bring about and nurture in his prohibition of revolting against the rulers, and he taught abandonment of fighting in times of fitnah - even if those who fell into this considered that their intent is to enjoin the good and forbid the evil.

And it is actually from this angle (i.e. intending the enjoining of good and forbidding of evil) that the Khawaarij made lawful the (raising of the) sword against the people of the qiblah, until they killed Alee and others from the Muslims. And similarly, those who agreed with them in revolting against the Rulers, with the sword, in general terms - such as the Mu'tazilah, the Zaydiyyah, and the Fuqahaa (Jurists), and others. Such as those who revolted alongside Muhammad bin Abdullaah bin Abdullaah bin Hasan bin Husayn, and his brother, Ibraaheem bin Abdullaah bin
Hasan bin Husayn and others.

For the people of the religion are from the likes of these (i.e. those who revolted), but they err from two angles:

The first: That what they considered to be from the deen is not actually from the deen, such as the viewpoint of the Khawaarij and other than them from the people of desires. For they believe in an opinion that is an error and an innovation, and then they fight the people over it. Rather, they declare as disbelievers those who oppose them. Hence, they become errant in their opinion and also in fighting those who opppose them, or making takfir of them and cursing them.

And this is the condition of the People of Desires in general, such as the Jahmiyyah who called the people to the rejection of the realities of the Beautiful Names of Allaah, and His Lofty Attributes. They say: Verily, He does not have speech except the speech which He created in others (besides Himself), and that He will not be seen, and other such things. And they also put the people to trial, when some of the rulers inclined towards them (i.e. towards the Jahmiyyah), and so they would punish whoever would oppose them in their opinion, either with death, or with imprisonment, or with banishment and prevention of sustenance. And the Jahmiyyah did this on more than one occasion (in history), and Allaah supports His believing Servants against them.

And the Rafidah are more evil than them, when they gain authority, for they are loyal to the Kuffaar and aid them, and they show enmity towards all those from the Muslims who do not agree with their viewpoint. Similarly, those who have something within them of innovations, either the innovation of the Hulooliyyah. .. or the innovation of the Negators (of the Attributes) or those who exaggerate in affirmation (of the Attributes), or the innovation of the Qadariyyah, or that of Irjaa', or other than that. You will find him believing in corrupt beliefs, and then declare as a disbeliever or curse whoever opposed him. And the Khawaarij Renegades are the Imaams of all of these in making takfeer of Ahl us-Sunnah wal-Jamaa'ah and in fighting them.

The second:

The one who fights based upon his belief in a viewpoint to which he calls the one who opposes the Sunnah and Jamaa'ah, such as the People of the Camel, and Siffeen, and al-Harrah, and al-Jamaajim and others. However, he thinks that the desired rectification and benefit will be attained by way of this fighting, but this fighting attains no such thing. Rather, the corruption and harm becomes greater, much more than what it was initially. And then what the legislator (i.e. the Prophet) actually indicates and direct towards (of what entails true rectitude) finally becomes clear to them at the end of the affair.

And from that which is desirable to be known is that the causes of these tribulation are actually mixed, shared. For certain states and conditions come over the hearts that prevent them from knowing the truth and desiring it, and thus they resemble the state of Jaahiliyyah. Since, in Jaahiliyyah there was no knowledge of the truth and nor the desiring of this truth. And then Islaam came with beneficial knowledge and the righteous action, which is the knowledge of the truth, and desiring it.

So it is agreed that some of the rulers commit oppression by way of monopoly, control (i.e. being authoritarian and misappropriating) , and then the souls do not show patience over his oppression. And it is not possible for them to repel his oppression except by what is even greater corruption than it (i.e. his oppression). However, for the sake of the love of a person, so that his due legal right can be given, and that oppression can be repelled from him, he does not look at (and consider) the general corruption, mischief that would arise on account of his action.

And for this reason the Prophet (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) said, “Verily, you will face hardship, so have patience until you meet me at the Hawd”, and it is likewise established in the Saheeh, that he said, “Upon a Muslim is to hear and obey, in times of difficulty and in ease, in the disliked things (to which one disapproves of) and in likeable things (to which one shows zeal), and when he preference is given (to other than him)”.

For the Prophet (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) ordered the Muslims that they should be patient when they are controlled, monopolised (in oppression), and that they should obey those who in charge of their affairs, even if they (the rulers) give preference to themselves over them (the subjects), and that they should not contend for authority. And many of those who revolted against those in authority, or the vast majority of them, then they revolted so that they may contend with them (for authority), alongside their misappropriation, monopoly, over them, so they did not show patience upon this... and the one who fights remains thinking that he is only fighting him so that there is no more fitnah and so that the deen, all of it is for Allaah, and yet the greatest of that which actually motivated him (mobilised him) was seeking his portion, either of leadership, or of wealth.

Just as Allaah, the Exalted said, “If they are given part thereof (of alms), they are pleased, but if they are not given thereof, behold! They are enraged!” (At- Tawbah 9:58) and in the Saheeh from the Prophet (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) that he said, “There are three whom Allaah will not speak to, nor look at on the Day of Judgement, and nor will he purify them, and they will have a tormenting punishment.. . and a man who gives the pledge of allegiance to a leader (imaam)

and he does not do so except for the sake of the world, if he is given from it, he is pleased, and if he is prevented from it, he is enraged...” And he ordered having patience upon their misappropriation, and prohibited fighting against them, and contending with them (for authority), alongside their oppression. Because the corruption, mischief that arises from fighting during fitnah, is greater than the corruption in the oppression of those in authority.

Thus, the lighter of two evils is not to be removed by the greater of the two. And whoever reflects upon the Qur'aan and the Sunnah that is established from Allaah's Messenger (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) and considers it will find it to be in agreement with what he finds in his own soul.”

End of Shaykh ul-Islaam’s words.


No comments: