Saturday, November 1, 2008

Imam Ghazali (1058-1111) - 2

New Age Islam wrote:


As studying, learning and teaching the Quran was incumbent on every Muslim, mosques were the earliest centres of formal education. Free lectures were given on the Holy Quran and Sunnah; later a Jurisprudence, Logic, Ethics, Philosophy were also included gradually. However, standard educational institutions were later set up and handsomely endowed not only providing free education but also free board and lodging. Throughout the Muslim world education was free at all levels and illiteracy was almost unknown....

أبو حامد محمد بن محمد بن محمد بن أحمد الغزالي الشافعي الطوسي

Dear Sultan Sahab,

How Scholars judge Imam Ghazali's work:

Ibn Al-Jawzi (508 AH-597 AH) in Talbis Iblis - Delusions of the Devil 2 volumes (A small part of the book has been translated and abridged into English by DS Margoliouth/Dr. Bilal Philips) :

“Know that in the book of Ihya’ there are defects that only scholars recognize. The least if which are false and fabricated Ahadeeth. He made some narrations of Sahabah as narrations by the Prophet. He (al-Ghazali) copied these Hadeeths as he read them, not that he fabricated them. It is not permissible to worship Allah based on a fabricated hadeeth.”

He also said:

“Then came abu Hamed al-Ghazali, he authored the book al-Ihyaa’ following the methodology of (Sufis). He filled it with false hadeeths without him knowing their falsehood. He spoke about Mukashafah (unveiling the unseen) and went outside the (proper) rules of fiqh. He said that the planet, the sun and the moon which Ibrahim ASWS saw were lights that prevent us from seeing Allah, not that they are the ones known to us. This is the same as the talk of the Batinis.”

Tartooshi Al Maliki said:

In his book "Ihya' Uloomuddeen" he discussed the statuses of Sufis without having enough knowledge or experience on this issue. So he fell on his head. Neither did he find his place among the scholars, nor did he settle among the ascetic. He stuffed his book with lies on the Prophet Mohammad [PBUH]. I do not know of a book on the face of Earth that contains more lies on the Prophet [PBUH].

He mixed his book with the ways of the philosophers, and the book "Rasail Ikhwan al-Safa". Those believe that prophethood is gained (through practice not just granted by Allah SWT), and that a prophet is nothing more than a righteous man with good manners." Siyar A'lamunnubalaa' 19/334.

Maziri Al Maliki said:

He (al-Ghazali) said in the first chapter that he possessed knowledge which should not be contained in a book.

This knowledge was it true or false?

If it was false, then he was correct (it should not be contained in a book).

If it was true, and definitely this was his objective, then why not contain it in a book?

Is it because of its ambiguity and preciseness.

Well, if he was able to understand it, then wouldn't others."

Siyar A'lamunnubalaa' 19/340.

Al-Qadhi ‘Iyadh said:

“Shaikh abu Hamed (al-Ghazali) had terrible news (regarding him), and was the author of horrible books. He went to extremes in Sufusm, he dedicated himself to support them (Sufis), he became a caller to (Sufism), and he authored famous books on this matter.

Some sections of these books were taken against him, and the nation assumed that which was bad in him. Allah knows best his insides.

The order of the Sultan and Fatwa of the scholars here in the west were to burn his books and to keep them away. These orders were fulfilled.”

Siyar A’lam Annubala’ 19/327.

Muhammad bin Ali Al Qurtubi said:

One of those who used to give sermons, began with following the way of Fiqh. Later he left Fiqh and followed the Ghazali sharee’ah, and the Sufi religion. (This person) wrote a book promoting radical support of the book of abu Hamed (al-Ghazali), the Imam of their Bid’ah.

Where was he from the ugliness of his lewdness, and the deviations of his fairytales?

He claimed that this was of the knowledge of behavior, which leads to the knowledge of the unseen, which leads to the secrets of Lordship, which no one could unveil and gain except he who rides the camels of his misguidances. The banners of this misguidances he raised, and the rules of which he established.”

Ayaadh Al Yasuby: ((and Sheikh Abu Hamid the one of hideous news, and horrible compilations excessed in the way of Sufism, and devoted himself to support their ideologies, and became a propagandist in that, and wrote his famous compilations about that. He's been criticized in some of it, and his mother's intentions changed about him, and Allah knows his secret, and the order of the Sultan her in Morocco was carried out and the opinion of jurists which was to burn it and stay away of it, and that was observed)) (Siyar A3laam en-Nubalaa2 19/327).

Ibn Al Jawzi said:

((Know, that in the book Al-Ihyaa Uloom ud Deen by Ghazali there are errors that only scholars can find, and the least of it is the non-authentic fabricated Hadeeths, and he only mentioned it as he collected it not that he made it up, and it's wrong to worship Allah with a fabricated Hadeeth and to be fooled with a made-up text, and how would I accept it for you to pray five times a day, and your Salaah (prayer) has nothing that the Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) said, and how would I like that you hear what he collected and recommended of the countless sayings of Sufis about “Fanaa” (vanishing) and “Baqaa” (immortality), and ordering of extreme hunger, and going out in tourism for no reason, and entering the desert with no supplies, and other things that I revealed in my book “Talbees Iblees”)) (Minhaj Al Qasedeen: 16-17).

And he also said: ((and Abu Hamid came and wrote for them – for Sufis – the book of Ihyaa on their method, and filled it up with fabricated Hadeeths and he didn't know that it's fabricated, and he talked about the science of revelations, and stepped aside of the law of Fiqh (Jurisprudence), and he got things like the sayings of Batiniyyah [A deviant Extremist Sect in Islam] )) (Talbees Iblees).

And he said: ((Subhan Allah! The One who took Aba Hamid out of the circle of Fiqh (Jurisprudence) by writing his book Al-Ihyaa, and would Allah he hadn't said such Haraam stuff in it, and the strange thing is that he tells it and likes it and calls his friends “Arbaab Awaal” (ones who have Statuses!!)))

And he also said: (( .. How pity is what Abu 7amid did by selling Fiqh for Tasawwuf (Sufism)!! ..))

Shamsuddin Az-Zahaby أبو عبد الله شمس الدين الذهبي(died 748H) said:

((About Ihyaa, it contains a lot of false Hadeeths, and it contains a lot of good if it didn't have what it has of morals, asceticism of wise men, and Sufi deviants, we ask Allah for useful knowledge, you know what is useful knowledge? It's what came in the Holy Qur'an, and was explained by the Prophet Mohammad (PBUH] by saying or doing. So, your duty – my brother – is to consider the Qur'an with care and get addicted to looking in the two authentic books of Hadeeth (Bukhari and Muslim), Sunan An-Nasaaee, Riyadh un-Nawawy and his – An-Nawawy's – Zikr and you'll succeed. And I warn you, stay away of the opinions of the philosopher worshipers, sports' people jobs, hunger of monks, and the nonsense of people of solitude, as all good is in following (Al-anifiyyah As-Samaah) , O Allah! Please help me!, O Allah! Guide us to your straight way)) (Siyar Aalaam Al Nubalaa2: 19/339-340).

He also said: ((and the man wrote in dispraise of philosophers the book of “At-Tahaafut”, and he revealed their faults, and he agreed with them in some things he thought it was correct or not against the faith, and he had no knowledge of Hadeeths and the Sunnah which rule the mind, and it he liked addicting looking in the book of “Rasa2el Ikhwan es-Safa”, and it's a chronic disease, a destroying itch, and a deadly poison, and except for that he is one of the most intelligent people, and one of the most sincere people, he would have been damaged, so watch out for these books, and run away with your religion from the suspicions of the forebears or you'll be in confusion ...)) (Siyar Aalaam Al Nubalaa: 19/328).

Qazi Abu Bakr Ibn Al Arabi {Author of Al Awasim Min Al Qawasim] [Imam Ghazali's Student]: ((our sheikh Abu Hamid: he swallowed the philosophers, and when he wanted to vomit them, he couldn't))

Ali Bin Yousuf Bin Tashfeen burnt the book of “Al-Ihyaa”, Az-Zahaby said: and he was courageous, struggler, just, religious, pious, righteous, observant of scholars, and consulting them)). (Siyar Aalaam Al Nubalaa: 20/124).

((and burnt it – the book of “Al-Ihyaa” - Ali Bin Yousuf Bin Tashfeen, and that was based on the consensus of Fuqahaa2 “jurists” who were with him)). (Al-Miyaar Al-Mureb: 12/185).

Al Mazurry (died 536H) said:
((and they like – some of Malikis –- of someone – Al-Ghazzaaly may Allah forgive him – some Fatwas (religious opinions) built on something that is false, and it contains a lot of hadeeths of the Prophet (saw) which he added the non-authentic to the authentic of it, and also not everything of what he mentioned about the Salaf (companions of the Prophet “saw” and their followers, etc ..) can be proved, and he mentioned of the drifts of Awliyaa (people who do supernatural things) what is appreciated, but he mixed the profitable with the harmful; like some general things that he mentions about some of them which can't be generalized like that for its atrocity, and if its meaning was understood as it appears: it will be like symbols for atheists to use against Islam ..).

Shamsuddin Az-Zahaby أبو عبد الله شمس الدين الذهبي(died 748H) said:

and the character of this biography – Al-Mazurry – has a compilation in answering “Al-Ihyaa”, and showing what's false in it, he was just in it, may Allah have mercy on him. (Siyar Aalaam Al Nubalaa).

Al Qurtubi said:
((some of them who preach, of those who claimed Fiqh (jurisprudence) then he disowned it for his passion for the charter of Ghazzaaly, and the Sufi sect, wrote a book containing fanaticism for the book of “Abu Hamid” the Imam of their heresy. Didn't he see the atrocity of his ugly faults, and his superstitions which are against the religion?? and he claimed that this is of “elm Al-Mukamalah” that gets you to “elm Al-Mukashafah” that reveals for them the secret of divinity that nobody can reveal except the one who .................................... )). (Siyar Aalaam Al Nubalaa: 19/332).

And also, of those who criticized Ghazzaaly, Ibn Aqeel Al Hanbali, who said some words about him that I wouldn't mention here. (Ghayat ul-Amany: 2/369).

Hafiz Ibn Kathir (died 774H) said:
((and he wrote in this period his book “Ihyaa-Uloom Al Deen” and it's a weird book that contains various types of religious information, mixed with some Sufi stuff and heart works, but it has lots of non-authentic Hadeeths, and fabricated ones, like there is in other books that are used as a proof of Halaal [Lawful] and Haraam [Unlawful], so, the book that's been put for heart works, arousal of interest, and intimidation is easier than others, and Ibn ul-Jawzy then Ibn Salaah criticized him a lot, even Al-Mazurry wanted to burn his book “Ihyaa Uloom Al Deen”, also some others of Magharibah (people of Maghrib), and they said: this is the book of Ihyaa (resurrecting) Uloom (the sciences) Deen (of his religion), about our religion: its resurrection is the Holy Qur'an and the Sunnah of the Prophet Mohammad (PBUH), like it was mentioned in his biography in “At-Tabaqaat”, Ibn Sakrah, falsified the faults in “Ihyaa Uloom Al Deen” and explained the falsehood of it in a useful book)). (Al-Bidayah Wan-Nihaayah: 12/174).

Shamsuddin Az-Zahaby أبو عبد الله شمس الدين الذهبي(died 748H) said:

((Abi Al Hassan Bin Sakrah answered Ghazzaaly in a volume and called it: “Ihyaa Mayyet el-Ihyaa Fi Radd ala Kitaab Al Ihyaa” (The resurrection of the dead) “Al-Ihyaa” in answering the book of “Al-Ihyaa2”))). (Siyar Aalaam Al Nubalaa: 19/327).

Rashid Bin Abi Rashid Al Waleedi Al-Maliki (died 675H) Narrated, in his book
“Al-Halaal wal Haraam”, that he heard Abdullaah ibn Musa Al-Fashtaly Al-Maliki saying: ((if I found the compilations of Al-Qushairy [Qasim Qusairi of Sufi Risala Al Qusairi] I would have collected it and threw it in the sea, he said: and also the books of Ghazzaaly ... he said: and I heard him saying: I ask Allah to put me at the Day of Judgment with Aby Muhammad ibn Aby Zaid – Al-Qairawaany – not with Ghazzaaly)). (Nail Al-Ibtihaaj bi-Tatreez el-Daibaaj: 117).

Abu Bakr Muhammad Bin Al Waleed Al Turtooshy (died 520H) in his message to Ibn el-Muzaffar, talking about Ghazzaaly – may Allah have mercy on him -:
(( ... then he became a Sufi, so he left sciences and its people, and entered into sciences of thought, people of hearts, and the whispers of Satan (Shaytaan), then he mixed it with opinions of philosophers and symbols of Al-7allaaj, and started criticizing jurists, and was about to get out of the religion, so when he made “Al-Ihyaa” he started talking about statuses, Sufi symbols, and he wasn't knowledgeable in that!! so he fell on his face, so he was neither among the Muslim scholars, nor the ascetic, then he filled his book up with lies on the Prophet Mohammad [PBUH] saw, that I don't know any book on earth – according to my knowledge – that has more lies on the Prophet Mohammad (PBUH), he filled it up with they opinions of philosophers, and meanings of the messages of “Ikhwan es-Safa”, and those who try to support Islam with opinions of philosophers are like one who washed water with urine, then he talks in that book like thunder, he makes one desirous until one wants more, he says: (this is of “elm el-Mukamalah”, and what's next is of “elm el-Mukashafah”, and it's forbidden to write it in books”) or he says: (this is of the secret of destiny that we were forbidden to share) and that's the doing of Al-Batiniyyah, and people of corruption, and it confuses the beliefs, and weakening of what the majority of people believe, so if this man really believes in what he wrote in his book then it's not strange to say he's Kaafir (non-muslim), and if he doesn't believe in it, then how near is saying that he's Daal (astray))) (Al-Mi3yaar ul-Mu3reb: 12/186), also look: (Tareekh ul-Islam of Az-Zahaby: 122), and (Tabaqaat ush-Shafiiyyah Al-Kubraa: 6/243). (Ar-Rasaa2el: 3/137).

Examples of the faults in the book of “Al-Ihyaa”:

Al-Ghazzaaly – may Allah have mercy on him – said: ((Abu Turaab en-Nakhshuby oneday said to one of his followers: “If you have seen Aba Yazeed” – Al-Bustaamy – he said: I'm busy with someone else, then when Abu Turaab said this phrase a lot : “If you have seen Aba Yazeed!!” the follower became angry and said: woe to you! What do I do with Aby Yazeed? I saw Allah and that sufficed me!! Abu Turab said: so I got angry and I couldn't take it, so I said: woe to you!! you take Allah for Aby Yazeed, if only you saw Aba Yazeed one time that would have been better for you than seeing Allah seventy times! He said: so that follower was shocked and he denied this saying, so he said: and how is that? He said: woe to you!! don't you see Allah at your place, so He appears to you according to your rank, and you see Aba Yazeed with Allah where He appeared to him according to his rank)) (Al-Ihyaa: 4/305).

And he – may Allah have mercy on him – said: ((Know, that singing is more exciting for passion than Qur'an for seven reasons: First reason: is that all Ayat (verses) of Qur'an don't suit the state of the listener and don't fit his understanding ..... )). (Al-Ihyaa: 2/298).

And he said – may Allah have mercy on him - : ((So, hearts, even if it burns with love for Allah, the verse – of poetry – which is unknown for it, excites it more than the recitation of Qur'an, and that's for the rhythm of poetry and the likeness between it and the human nature)). (Al-Ihyaa2: 2/301).

And he said – may Allah have mercy on him - : ((“Sahl At-Tustury” said: Allah has some servants this town, that if they curse the unjust people, there wouldn't be an unjust person on earth except that he dies in one night .. until he said: and if they asked Him – Allah – to stop the Judgment Day, He would stop it!).

And he commented on that and said: ((and all this is possible, so those who don't have these stuff, they should at least believe it's possible, for the capability is wide, and the grace is general, and the marvels of Allah and The Kingdom are a lot, and the capabilities of Allah has no end, and His Grace on His servants that He chosen has no limit!))(Al-Ihyaa: 4/305).

Ghazzaaly – may Allah forgive him – put in Al-Ihyaa, 3rd volume, the book of “Enjoining what is right, and forbidding what is wrong” : a story of exchanging messages betweenthe Calif Harun er-Rasheed, and Sufyan eth-Thawry, and what it contains of wisdom, stories and lies, and it wasn't known for him though he was near to their time, that Ath-Thawry died ten years before Harun er-Rasheed became a Calif, which shows that he's away of verification, and his accepting of anything that he hears. And he said – may Allah have mercy on him - : ((Sahl ibn Abdellaah et-Tustury said when asked about the secret of the soul? So he said: the soul is the secret of Allah, that secret never shown on any of His servants except for Fer3awn (The Pharaoh)!! so he said: I am your supreme God!)). (Al-Ihyaa: 4/61).

And he said – may Allah forgive him - : ((Al-Junaid – may Allah have mercy on him – said: I like for the beginner follower “that he doesn't make his heart busy with three things, earning his living, asking for Hadeeth (learning it), and getting married. And he said (Al-Junaid): I like for the Sufi that he doesn't read or write, as this is better for him)) (Al-Ihyaa: 2/206).

And he said – may Allah forgive him - : (( ... some of them said: the passion for “Al-khader” - peace be upon him – worried me, so I asked Allah to make me see him so that I can learn something from him that was the most important thing for me, he said: so I saw him and I said to him: Aba Al Abbaas! Teach me something, if I say it I would become hidden from the hearts of people, and so I would be worthless in their hearts, and nobody would know that I'm good or religious?, he said: say “O Allah! Put on me a thick veil, and put pavilions on me, and make me in your hidden unseen, and hide me from the hearts of your servants” he said: then he disappeared so I didn't see him, and I didn't have passion for him after that, so I kept saying these words everyday, it was told that he became worthless, everybody despised him, and used him, even non-Muslims made fun of him, and used him in roads to carry things for them for his low value in their eyes, and little boys used to play with him, so he rested and became dull because of all that.)) (Al-Ihyaa: 4/306).

And Ghazzaaly commented – may Allah forgive him – and said: ((and like that is the state of the friends of Allah (Awliyaa), so in these types – of people – you should look for them.)).

And he said – may Allah forgive him - : ((and of them, one, whom the Ka3bah comes to him, and circumambulate him while visiting him)) (Al-Ihyaa: 1/269).

And he – may Allah forgive him – said: ((Abu Yazeed and others used to say: not the scholar is the one who memorizes of a book, and when he forgets what he memorized he becomes ignorant, the scholar is the one who takes his knowledge from his God at anytime he wills, without memorizing or taking lessons!)) (Al-Ihyaa: 3/24).

And he, may Allah forgive him, said - and we ask Allah to forgive us for sharing this here, because of what it contains of accusing Allah of being unjust, Exalted is He, The Most Beautiful Names belong to Him - : ((He took the Angels as close companions without anything that makes them deserve this, and move Iblees away without any previous crime!)) (Al-Ihyaa: 4/168).


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