Sunday, October 19, 2008

Baluchistan, Baluch and Myth of Martial Race.

Sardar Akbar Bugti

Jinnah and Khan of Qallat


Baloch Tribesmen

Family of Khan of Qallat

Khans of Qallat

Traditional Baloch Tribesmen

Traditional Baloch Folk
Ahmed Quraishi wrote:

Where was the terrorist Akbar Bugti before 2001? He only raised his head after the Americans came to the area. 'Becareful with historical facts' is an advice better suited to you. I really don't care about history. The point here is very simple. Pakistanis, all of them, are a martial people. I personally am of Arab extraction and culture, and am very proud of the fact that Balochistan is home to some of the most respected ancient Arab tribes that settled here. Historical facts? It is a historical fact that Balochis played a great role in the Pakistan Independence movement. It is a historical fact that there has never been an independent country ruled by someone called the Khan of Kalat ever. It is also a historical fact that your Khan of Kalat, like most feudal lords in Balochistan, Sind, Punjab and Delhi [the Muslims] were British proteges. They never wanted Pakistan, despite the great yearning of all the martial races of the region fought, including our great Baloch people. It is a historical fact that the insurgency in Balochistan was a creation of the Soviet Union with help from Afghan communists and the Indians. If the cause was so real, how come we never saw it before the 1970s? How come the Soviets had to recruit some sons of feudal lords and Sardars to make this insurgency happen? It is a historical fact that like the Soviet Union, the latest occupier of Afghanistan is again creating a terrorist movement inside Balochistan to disturb Pakistan. Where was the terrorist Akbar Bugti before 2001? He only raised his head after the Americans came to the area. Remember that the Sheikh of Arabistan, or Khuzestan as the Iranians call it today, was a rich independent principality on the Gulf between Iraq and Iran at the start of the 20th century. It sat on rich oil reserves. The Brits first used it to fight the Turks and the sheikhdoms of Arabia, and also fight the Persians. Finally, the British did not hesitate for a second to sacrifice the Sheikh of Arabistan and his small city-kingdom when the British interest dictated that they let the Iranians take over the oil-rich area.

'Becareful with historical facts' is an advice better suited to you.

Ahmed Quraishi - Islamabad, Pakistan.


Dear Ahmed Quraish Sahab,

You asked where was Sardar Akbar Bugti before 2001, the answer is as under in the light of a picture.

Young Sardar [proverbial stereotyp Baluch Feudal or Sardar] 'Terrorist' Akbar Bugti receiving Mohammad Ali Jinnah and Terrorist shaking hands with Jinnah! If Bugti was a Terrorist then what this hand shake makes Jinnah?

You said in your above statement that you dont care about History then how come you know that all Baluchs are basically Arabs [you are wrong again]. Bugtis are bascially the exractions of Kurds and Brahvis are bascially from the racial stock of Dravadians who are settled there since centuries.

You are absolutely wrong above. Baluchs didn't play any such part. That Great Part for Pakistan was played by Bengalis [Foundation of Muslim League, Bengali A K Fazle Haq presented Pakistan Resolution and 62% Vote of Bengali Muslims was for Pakistan] and what we did [please dont quote the cliché "Idhar hum udhar tum]. Have you forgot the Photo of Jinnah shaking hand with the same terrorist? What happened to the G M Syed [Sindh Assembly Resolution for Pakistan]! Most of the Feudal of Sindh, Baluchistan, Frontier and Punjab were in Pakistan Muslim League.

'Becareful with historical facts' is an advice better suited to you.

Dear Ahmed Quraishi Sahab,

That is called Intellectual Dishonesty that we remember Bhutto's Military Operation against Baluchistan and forget what the Military Government did in Baluchistan and even Jinnah and Liaquat Ali Khan cannot be spared in this regard because their mistreated Khan of Qallat.

In 1959, after the Central government decided to do away with the Provinces of West Pakistan and enforce the One Unit regime. The opposition to this move of the Centre was strong in all the smaller provinces of Sindh, NWFP and especially Balochistan; where Nauroz Khan, chief of the Sarawan tribes took to the hills with a lot of his nephews and relatives. A few clashes took place, until Brigadier Tikka Khan (later General), who came to be known as the Butcher of Balochistan and Bengal, negotiated the return of Nauroz with the Quran as the guarantor of no ill treatment and settlement of the grievances of the Baloch. Nawab Nauroz and six of his nephews were arrested on arrival and tried in the Hyderabad Jail. Nauroz died in jail a frail old man of 90 years while his nephews were hanged. The nephews asked for the Quran to be hung around their necks during their hanging, because it was their guarantor. Thus ended the second resistance war of the Baloch.

One of the leaders was Sher Mohammed Marri who, along with Nawab Khair Baksh Marri, Sardar Attaullah Mengal, Ghaus Baksh Bizenjo, Abdul Wahid Kurd, Gul Khan Naseer. He took to the Marri hills in 1962, and remained in the mountains until 1969. The resistance was a protest against the One Unit and for the reinstatement of the provinces. During this time two major clashes between the paramilitary forces and the Marris took place. The paramilitary forces had to withdraw after suffering substantial losses and casualties. In 1969, Air Marshal Nur Khan, then Governor of West Pakistan, negotiated a peace treaty with the Baloch in which the One Unit was to be done away with and the provinces again reinstated. After the forced abdication of Ayub Khan and the announcement of general elections by General Yahya Khan, the Baloch flocked to the National Awami Party (NAP) whose manifesto and political programme was quite progressive, based on nationality rights.

During the debacle of the civil war in East Pakistan, the Baloch remained quiet, while they consolidated their party and prepared to take the reins of the provincial government. They had won a comfortable majority in the provincial assembly and had defeated many a religious Pashtun-based candidate to secure the right of forming the government in coalition with Mualana Mufti Mahmood’s JUI. In 1972, after the civil war in East Pakistan ended and Bangladesh became independent, with Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto as Pakistan’s President, the National Awami Party formed the provincial governments in both Balochistan and NWFP. This was a time of great shock and turmoil for the whole of Pakistan, especially when the majority population of a country secedes from a minority. But at the same time this debacle gave impetus to the separatist elements in NAP. Mir Ghaus Baksh Bizenjo was governor, Attaullah Mengal Chief Minister, and Nawab Khair Baksh, who was the NAP Balochistan President, represented NAP in the National Assembly.

In February 1973, Bhutto dismissed the Balochistan government on manipulated charges of mismanagement and a deteriorating law and order situation. The NWFP government resigned in protest. Bhutto, who had provincial governments both in Punjab and Sindh, moved quickly to put in place PPP governments in both provinces. At the same time he ordered paramilitary forces supported by regular Army units into Balochistan. Bhutto wished to further humiliate the army, after its humiliating defeat at the hands of the Indian Army, thereby weakening it so much that it would never dare to step into the political arena again, at the same time consolidating the PPP governments all over Pakistan. It is a well known fact that the PPP was a political party only in name and Bhutto was a civilian dictator; thus it was a consolidation of his personal power that he was striving for.

The paramilitary forces surrounded all the tribal areas where they felt resistance would be coming from: the Mengal-Bizenjo areas, Kalat and Khuzdar, and the Marri and Bugti areas. Balochistan had been for the past three years (1970-73) in the grip of a drought that had forced the population to migrate to Sindh for grazing their herds and finding employment. The population that remained in the tribal areas was totally dependent on import of food and necessities of life from close by cities like Sibi, Khuzdar, Kalat, etc. The paramilitary forces tried to stop this flow of food into the tribal areas and arrested a number of Baloch along with their camels and all the goods they were carrying. This resulted in some clashes and eventually culminated in a full-scale civil war from May 1973 to July 1977. The Army deployed nearly four divisions of troops to try and quell the resistance. The Army reportedly suffered 7,000 casualties while the Baloch suffered over 15,000 casualties, the majority being civilians or non-combatants. The guerrilla forces only suffered about 160 casualties. Bombing and slaughter of their herds systematically destroyed the livelihood of the tribals. This war forced nearly 5,000 families to take refuge in Afghanistan from 1974 to 1992.

The Shah of Iran played a very active role in this four-year civil war. The expenditure of the whole war was borne by the Iranian government. Iran also supplied helicopter gunships and transport helicopters for the military operations in Balochistan. All of the NAP leadership had been arrested in August 1973 and a tribunal was set up to try them on sedition and treason charges. This tribunal was finally disbanded in December 1977 and all the internees released by the Martial Law dictator Ziaul Haq. Many of the Baloch leaders were now of frail health and Attaullah and Khair Baksh went into self-exile to Britain and Afghanistan respectively, returning only in 1992. Some like Gul Khan Naseer, Abdul Wahid Kurd, Mir Ghaus Baksh and others have died since. The rest of the history of Balochistan is easily told. To date it has been an uneventful and comparatively quiet and peaceful history except for some infighting among the Sardars of various tribes. Since 1988, with the advent of so-called democracy in Pakistan, provincial governments have been set up composed of the Baloch themselves, some incompetent, some corrupt, and all lazy. No real development work has been undertaken or initiated. The people are further down the survival ladder but still courageously struggling for a better life. Many of the tribal areas today have only a portion of their populations, as people have migrated to Sindh, Hub, Turbat, Quetta and Punjab with hopes of finding employment and surviving. Education has
increased somewhat but is still below par; and the literacy rate has gone over 15 percent. Still there are no health care facilities available in the majority of the tribal areas and the plight of the women is pathetic. No infrastructure for communications, public health, education, potable drinking water, irrigation, forests, agriculture, industry or any other economic activity has been developed to date. Till recently there was still no coastal road, only now having been constructed for strategic military and international trade interests. The roads, highways as they are described, can be counted on the fingers of one hand.

Reference: Balochistan under One Unit – II : A sorry tale of woe and strife by Sheikh Asad Rahman.

Please spare us from this Martial Race Syndrome and Arab Race Syndrome as well.

Being Arab is not the criteria for a Martial Race? By the way Abu Jehel, Abu Leheb [Paternal Uncle of Prophet Mohammad - PBUH], and Abu Talib [Paternal Uncle of Prophet Mohammad - PBUH], Aswad Ansi [False Prophet], Museelima Kazzab [False Prophet] all were Arabs and they share ONE THING they were all Kaafirs [Infidels] and in Hell as well [Read Sahih Bukhari] . What happened to the so-called Martial Arab Race when Helegu Khan had attacked Baghdad [History by Ibn Khaldun Kamil Al Athir by Ibn-e-Athir]. Why go that far during First Gulf War this whole Kuwaiti Arab Martial Race ended up in UAE till the Americans saved the Martial Arab Race from another Rampant Arab Martial i.e. Saddam [Born Again Hero of Sunni Islamic World of 21st Century] and then the same Arab Martial Race [Iraqi Imperial Guard and Army] happily and shamelssly surrendered their weapons to the American Forces. The prince of the so-called Martial Race Mughal was saved by Marhatta Leader Madho Rao Sindiya, this Mughal Prince Throne was snatched by Rohila Pashtuns [Muslim Martial Race].

The same extraction of Martial Arab Race i.e. Pakistanis [absolutely wrong of yours] was thoroughly routed by Bengalis and Americans belong to Aryan-Caucassian Racial Stock and considered themselves Martial Race but look around they were thoroughly thrashed by Dimunitive Vietcongs [Peace Loving and Buddhist] during war in Vietnam.

Drop this criteria of Arab being Martial Race otherwise I will put your very faith in doldrum [that often happen with Pakistani Muslims] through facts.

I will quote the connivance of the Descendants of Ahul Al Bayt [i.e. Hashimite Sherif of Makkah and descendants of Prophet Mohammad - PBUH] with the Zionists and please mention where is the Tatheer of Ahl Al Bayt [Quran 33:33]

So-called Martial Arab Race and that too members of the calimants of Prophet Mohammad Household.

The Blood Line is as under showing that they were related with Ahl Al Bayt.


Natural for a Shia brother to raise objection when Jamat-e-Islami and 20th Century Abdullah Ibn Saba [a Jew who craeted of Rafizi Religion] i.e. Abul Ala Maudodi. Maudoodi's Deputy Mian Tuafil Mohammad [Former Ameer of JI and born again Rafizi Hero Mukhtar Thaqafi of Jamat-e-Islami] was the Maternal Father in Law of General Ziaul Haq [US and Jamat-e-Islami backed Military Dictator of Pakistan 1977-1988] and now read what Zia did with Muslims of Palestine in connivance with Shah Hussain of Jordan [Descendants of Ahl Al Bayt] to appease Zionists and US Government as well.

Charlie Wilson's War by George Crile during the so-called Afghan Jihad following things did happen;

He told Zia about his experience the previous year when the Israelis had shown him the vast stores of Soviet weapons they had captured from the PLO in Lebanon. The weapons were perfect for the Mujahideen, he told Zia. If Wilson could convince the CIA to buy them, would Zia have any problems passing them on to the Afghans? Zia, ever the pragmatist, smiled on the proposal, adding, Just don’t put any Stars of David on the boxes {Page 131-132}.

The most promising comparison between the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the Jewish State of Israel came from Gen. Zia ul-Haq. Lacking a political constituency, he skillfully exploited Islam to legitimize and consolidate his military dictatorship. Presenting himself as a simple, pious and devoted Muslim, he institutionalized religious radicalism in Pakistan. In so doing, he found Israel to be his strange ally.

Toward the end of 1981, he remarked: “Pakistan is like Israel, an ideological state. Take out the Judaism from Israel and it will fall like a house of cards. Take Islam out of Pakistan and make it a secular state; it would collapse. He likewise surprised many observers in March 1986, when he called on the PLO to recognize the Jewish state. As discussed elsewhere, he was actively involved both in the 1970 Black September massacre of the Palestinians in Jordan as well as in Egypts re-entry into the Islamic fold more than a decade later. From 1967 to 1970 our Commander of the Faithful Late. General Muhammad Ziaul Haq was in Jordan in Official Militray Capacity and he helped late. King Hussain of Jordan in cleansing the so-called Palestinian Insurgents, Zia and Hussain butchered many innocent Palestinians in the name of Operation against Black September {a militant organization of Palestinians} . The intensity of bloodletting by Zia ul Haq and King Hussain was such that one of the founder father of Israel Moshe Dayan said:

King Hussein (with help from Zia-ul-Haq of the Pakistani army) sent in his Bedouin army on 27 September to clear out the Palestinian bases in Jordan. A massacre of innumerable proportions ensued. Moshe Dayan noted that Hussein "killed more Palestinians in eleven days than Israel could kill in twenty years." Dayan is right in spirit, but it is hardly the case that anyone can match the Sharonism in its brutality.

Late Maj Gen AO Mitha’s posthumously published autobiography, Unlikely Beginnings. Not many, one should presume, barring some in the army who knew the general, the man who raised the Special Service Group (SSG) in the 1960s.


According to Gen Mitha, it was Gul Hasan who saved Brig Zia-ul-Haq, as he then was, from being sacked. Zia was in Jordan. The year was 1971. Gen Yahya received a signal from Maj Gen Nawazish, the head of the Pakistan military mission in Amman, asking that Zia be court-martialled for disobeying GHQ orders by commanding a Jordanian armour division against the Palestinians in which thousands were slaughtered. That ignominious event is known as Operation Black September. It was Gul Hasan who interceded for Zia and had Yahya let him off. Mitha was treated very badly. His Hilal-i-Jurat was withdrawn in February 1972, something that also appears to have been Gul Hasan’s handiwork.


T E Lawrence had sought help and helped Hashemites not Aal-e-Saud. Aal-e-Saud have many ills but T.E.Lawrence was helped by the Great Grand Father of Shah Hussain of Jordan who was then Sherif of Macca and Medina.

T. E. Lawrence was sent by the British to recruit the enlistment of the help of the Arab Muslim tribes of the western Arabian region. The British needed them to act as irregular raiders against the eastern flank of the Ottoman Turkish army, thus helping the British Army to defeat them in the greater Middle East region during WWI. The principle tribe Lawrence enlisted was known as the Hashemites, who were then the guardians of the holy Muslim sites of Mecca and Medina, until the rise of Ibn Saud.

T. E. Lawrence and his infamous treaty with the Hashemites would have been only an obscure and forgotten footnote in the British Middle East campaign of World War I if were not for the legends built up around the character, "Lawrence of Arabia."By the time the Treaty of Sevres was negotiated in 1920, the British felt compelled to keep Lawrence of Arabia's promise to the chieftains of an Arab tribe called the Hashemites.

The political structure of the Middle East today is the result of that promise. The Treaty of Sevres permitted the British to seize pieces of the Ottoman Empire, which had ruled the Middle East for centuries, but had allied themselves with the Germans in WWI. Instead of British colonies, the Ottoman territories were called League of Nations' mandates, for which the British badly needed puppet rulers.

Thus the expanded rise of the Hashemite Royal family of Arabia.

Lawrence of Arabia persuaded the British Crown to put together three provinces of the old Ottoman Empire and make one country called Iraq and give it to a Hashemite prince named Feisal. The people of these three provinces have hated each other for centuries, and that is still evidenced today as America attempts to forge a new democratic state in Iraq.

Apart from a ruthless dictator like Saddam Hussein, no one has ever been able to mesh them together. Lawrence also was able to persuade the British to betray their mandate to create a homeland for the Jews.

When the House of Saud drove the Hashemites out of Mecca and Medina, Lawrence persuaded the British to give Prince Abdullah the land mandated to the Jews known as Trans-Jordan as a consolation prize. (a betrayal of the Balfour Declaration) Today, Transjordan is today is known as the Royal Kingdom of Jordan.

After enlistment Lawrence was posted to Cairo, where he worked for British Military Intelligence. In October 1916 he was sent into the desert to report on the Arab nationalist movements.

During the war, he fought with Arab irregular troops under the command of Emir Faisal, a son of Sherif Hussein of Mecca, in extended guerrilla operations against the armed forces of the Ottoman Empire. Lawrence's major contribution to World War I was convincing Arab leaders to co-ordinate their revolt to aid British interests. He persuaded the Arabs not to drive the Ottomans out of Medina, thus forcing the Turks to tie up troops in the city garrison. The Arabs were then able to direct most of their attention to the Hejaz railway that supplied the garrison. This tied up more Ottoman troops, who were forced to protect the railway and repair the constant damage.

In 1917 Lawrence arranged a joint action with the Arab irregulars and forces under Auda Abu Tayi (until then in the employ of the Ottomans) against the strategically located port city of Aqaba. He was promoted to major in the same year. On July 6, after an overland attack, Aqaba fell to Arab forces. Some 12 months later, Lawrence was involved in the capture of Damascus in the final weeks of the war and was promoted to lieutenant colonel in 1918.

As was his habit when travelling before the war, Lawrence adopted many local customs and traditions (many photographs show him in the desert wearing white Arab garb and riding camels), and he soon became a confidant of Prince Faisal.

During the closing years of the war he sought to convince his superiors in the British government that Arab independence was in their interests, with mixed success.

In 1918 he co-operated with war correspondent Lowell Thomas for a short period. During this time Thomas and his cameraman Harry Chase shot much film and many photographs, which Thomas used in a highly lucrative film that toured the world after the war.

Lawrence was made a Companion in the Order of the Bath and awarded the Distinguished Service Order and the French Légion d'Honneur, though in October 1918 he refused to be made a Knight Commander of the British Empire.

[Ref: Seven Pillars of Wisdom by T. E . Lawrence aka Lawrence of Arabia].

Aal-e-Saud [a brief History]

In 1902 at the age of only 22, Abdul Aziz Ibn Saud re-captured Riyadh, the Al-Saud dynasty's ancestral capital, from the rival Al-Rashid family. Continuing his conquests, Abdul Aziz subdued Al-Hasa, Al-Qatif, the rest of Nejd, and Hejaz between 1913 and 1926. On 8 January 1926 Abdul Aziz bin Saud became the King of Hejaz. On 29 January 1927 he took the title King of Nejd (his previous Nejdi title was Sultan). By the Treaty of Jedda, signed on 20 May 1927, the United Kingdom recognized the independence of Abdul Aziz's realm, then known as the Kingdom of Nejd and Hejaz. In 1932, the principal regions of Al-Hasa, Qatif, Nejd and Hejaz were unified to form the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Emir Faisal's party at Versailles, during the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. Left to right: Rustum Haidar, Nuri as-Said, Prince Faisal, Captain Pisani (behind Faisal), T. E. Lawrence, Faisal's black slave (name unknown), Captain Hassan Khadri. This is from the T.E. Lawrence entry. The original uploader said that it is public domain since it was in 1919, predating 1923.

Let me 'SHATTER' one more Arab Popular Myth the Burning Boats of Tariq Bin Ziyad. There wasn't any boat burned by Tariq Bin Ziayd. That demented Poet Iqbal should have read some books before indulging in False Glorification. You can talk about Gentleman Sultan Salahuddin Ayubi [he was Saracen not ARAB] belong to a True Martial Race i.e. Kurd and Ibn Taiymiya [also a Kurd] and both of them give tough fight to Crusaders and Mongols respectively.

As per Military, State and Society in Pakistan by Hasan-Askari Rizvi, Palgrave Macmillan,


Pakistani author Hasan-Askari Rizvi notes that the limited recruitment of Bengali personnel in the Pakistan Army was because, the West Pakistanis, "could not overcome the hangover of the martial race theory".


This was to be one of the factors for the Bangladesh Liberation War, where Bengalis tharshed Pakistan Army comprising Martial Races in just a fortnight, which subsequently lead to the taking of 93000 as Prisoners of War - the largest surrender since World War II and worst insult on the face of so-called Martial Race Ummah's Pathetic History.

Defence writers in Pakistan have noted that the defeat was partially attributable to the flawed 'Martial Races Theory' which merely led to, 'wishful thinking' that it was possible to defeat the Indian Army.[39] Author Stephen P. Cohen notes that "Elevating the 'martial races' theory to the level of an absolute truth had domestic implications for Pakistani politics and contributed to the neglect of other aspects of security."[36] Since then, the 'martial race' theory has rarely, if ever, been used by Pakistan.

Arun Shourie an Indian writer, journalist and politician (former Minister of Communications and Information Technology) refers to the Sikhs as, "having retained a false pride in martial temperament and abilities". The tenth Sikh Guru Guru Gobind Singh proclaimed that one Sikh was equal to sava lakh (one hundred twenty five thousand) and a fauj-a one man army. The Sikh leader Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale was reported to have said 'One Sikh could easily reckon with thirty-five Hindus [Look what happened at Golden Temple].' V.S.Naipaul in his novel Magic Seeds describes the real example of a 'martial race', where the domicile and oppressed Tamils rise against the oppressor.

On one hand you say create more provinces to end ethnic politics whereas your own website carry a very disturbing article pointing finger at a communiy and that itself is creating Ethnic Tension:

Beware Of A Sindhi’s Revenge, Mr. Sharif By HAMZA GULZAR Tuesday, 1 April 2008.

Some harsh Historical Facts provided by Prof. Gul Agha:


And where do you get such "historical facts"? Pakistani history textbooks? Could you give us Give me names of who, where and what. Please get your facts straight. Balochistan was never a part of British India. The British acknowledged as much. Mr. Jinnah himself said Balochistan could not be part of the independence negotiations as it was sovereign state (the Khan had hired him as the attorney to represent Kalat). Please read the treaty from the UK Foreign Office treaty papers to get started. While you are at it, please find yourself a copy of the Standstill Agreement that Jinnah signed on behalf of Pakistan. Then go back to see the arrest of Baloch cabinet and the spate of executions way before the anything to do with Karzai or the Soviets. After partition and back in the 50s.

Gul Agha

Champaign, Illinois, USA

Sindhi Blog:

گل آغا
پروفيسر، يونيورسٽي اِلِينوآءِ جيِ اربانا شيمپين ۾،
اِلِينوآءِ، آميريڪا جون گڏيل رياستون


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