Monday, October 20, 2008

Veracity of Tabari's Islamic History - 12

syed-mohsin naquvi wrote:


Thank you.


Syed-Mohsin Naquvi

Dear Syed Sahab,


Both Prophet Mohammad [PBUH] and Hazrat Ali [May Allah be pleased with him] testified to the Eemaan of Hazrat Muawiyah [May Allah be pleased with him]

قول النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم للحسن بن علي رضي الله عنهما:

ابني هذا سيد، ولعل الله أن يصلح به بين فئتين عظيمتين من المسلمين [ صحيح البخاري

Prophet Mohammad [PBUH] said about Hasan [May Allah be pleased with him]

"This son of mine is a sayyid, and soon the time will come when through him Allah will reconcile *two great masses of Muslims*." [Sahih Bukhari -Chapter Manaqib Hasan Narrated by Abu Bakrah]

Later this was proven true when Hasan [May Allah be pleased with him] gave bayah to Muawiyah Radhi Allaahu Ta'ala 'Anh

Prophet Mohammad [PBUH] said about him: "O’ Allah, make him guided, a guider, and guide people through him." [Sunan Al-Tirmidhi, Book of Virtues, Chapter of Virtues of Mu’awiyah,"]

Ali [May Allah be pleased with him] also confirmed that he and Muawiyah [May Allah be pleased with him] were on the same deen this is proven even from the Shia sources. Al-Shareef Al-Ridi narrated in Nahjul Balagha a speech delivered by Ali [May Allah be pleased with him] says:

"In the beginning of our matter, the people of Sham and us met. It is obvious that our God is one, our Prophet is one, and our call in Islam is one. We do not see ourselves more in faith in Allah or more in believing His messenger than them, nor they do. Our matter is one, except for our disagreement in Uthman’s blood, and we are innocent from his murder." [Nahjul Balagha, vol.3, p.648]

In Sunan Bayhiqi it is narrated that on the eve of the war of Jamal, Ali [May Allah be pleased with him] was asked about the opponents:

"Are they Mushrikeen?"

He replied:

"They have run from shirk and come into Islaam"

Then he was asked "Are they Munafiqeen?"

He replied "Munafiqeen are those who don't remember Allah, except a little (while the opponents do a lot of Zikr)"

Then he was asked "Then what are they?" He replied:"They are our brothers who have rebelled from us" [Sunun Bayhiqi - Dairat ul Ma'arif edition page 173 vol 8]

And on return from Siffeen Ali [May Allah be pleased with him] said

"Don't underrate the Emarah of Muawiyah either, when he will not remain you will see heads flying from the necks" [sharah Aqeedat ul Waasitiyah page 458]

And Muawiyah [May Allah be pleased with him] said:

"Ali is better and more virtuous than me and I differ from him only in the matter of qisaas of Uthmaan (Radhi Allaahu Ta'ala 'anh) and if he takes the qisaas of the blood of uthmaan I will be the first of the people of syria to make bayah to him" [al-Bidayatu wan Nihaayah page 129,259 vol 7]

The Rafizis quote these References to Malign Muawiyah [May Allah be pleased with him]

Al Tabari reported:

When Muawiyah Ibn Abi Sufyan put al-Mughairah Ibn Shubah in charge of Kufah in Jumada 41 (September 2- October 30, 661), he summoned him. After praising and glorifying God, he said:

"Now then, indeed a forbearing person has been admonished in the past... The wise might do what you want without instruction. Although I have wanted to advise you about many things, I left them alone, trusting in your discernment of what pleases me, what helps my regime and what sets my subjects [raiyyah] on the right path. I would continue to advise you about a quality of yours- do not refrain from abusing Ali and criticizing him, not from asking God's mercy upon Uthman and His forgiveness for him. Continue to shame the companions of Ali, keep at a distance, and don't listen to them. Praise the faction of Uthman, bring them near, and listen to them."

Sunni reference: History of Tabari, English version, events of year 51 AH, Execution of Hujr Ibn Adi, v18, pp 122-123

AND In Tarikh Kamil Volume 3 page 234

The Sanad of this is:

Hisham bin Muhammad - Abu Mikhnaf - Mujallid bin Said and Fudayl and Al Husayn Bin Uqbah

Regarding Abu Mikhnaf According to the scholars of Jarh wa T'adeel, he is not reliable.

Dhahabi said about him, " Abu Mikhnaf, a worthless reporter, not relied upon, Abu Hatim and others abandoned him."

Abu Hatim also said about Abu Mikhnaf, "Abdur Rahman said: 'I heared Yahya Bin Ma'in say, 'Abu Mikhnaf is not trustworthy'. Abdur Rahman also said, ' I heared my father say, "Abu Mikhnaf's narrations are abandoned" ( Kittab Al-Jarh Wa T'adeel V.7 p. 182)


Muawiyah, the son of Abu Sufyan, gave order to Sa'd, and told him: "What prevents you that you are refraining from cursing Abu Turab (nickname of Ali)?" Sa'd replied: "Don't you remember that the Prophet said three things about (the virtue of) Ali? So I will never curse Ali."

Muawiya asked, "What prevents you from cursing Abu Turab?" This is a question, so how do these people make a question = cursing?


Dhahabi on Marwan:

Both of these scholars have recorded: Marwan bin Hakam used to Curse Hadrat Ali in the Sermon (Khutba) of Jumma.


1) Tarikhul Islam, by Al-Dhahabi, vol. 2, page 288

Ibn Kathir (al-Badaya wa al-Nahaya) in his book:

"When Marwan was a governor of Muawiyyah in Madina, he used to do Curse Hadhrat Ali one each Friday from the Minbar. And Hadhrat Hassan bin Ali said to him: "Allah then cursed your father by the tongue of His messenger when you were in his "Sulub" (loin) and has said that Curse of Allah be upon Hakam and his progeny. (Albadaya wa Alnahaya, Ibn Kathir, vol. 8, page 259)

Marwan was not even a companion.

It is always better to provide the exact source. Tahdib Al Tadhib states:

البخاري والأربعة مروان بن الحكم بن أبي العاص بن أمية بن عبد شمس بن عبد مناف بن أقصى الأموي أبو عبد الملك ويقال أبو القاسم ويقال أبو الحكم أمه آمنة بنت علقمة بن صفوان الكناني وتكنى أم عثمان المدني ولد بعد الهجرة بسنتين وقيل بأربع وروي عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم ولا يصح له منه سماع وروى أيضا عن عثمان وعلي وزيد بن ثابت وأبي هريرة وبسرة بنت صفوان وعبد الرحمن بن الأسود بن عبد يغوث روى عنه ابنه عبد الملك وسهل بن سعد الساعدي وهو أكبر منه وسعيد بن المسيب وعلي بن الحسين وعروة بن الزبير وأبو بكر بن عبد الرحمن بن الحارث وعبيد الله بن عبد الله
بن عتبة ومجاهد وأبو سفيان مولى بن أبي أحمد كتب لعثمان وولي إمرة المدينة أيام معاوية وبويع له بالخلافة بعد موت معاوية بن يزيد بن معاوية بالجابية وكان الضحاك بن قيس غلب على دمشق ودعا لابن الزبير ثم دعا لنفسه فواقعه مروان بمرج راهط فقتل الضحاك وغلب مروان على دمشق ثم على مصر ومات في رمضان سنة خمس وستين وكانت ولايته تسعة أشهر قلت قال البخاري لم ير النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم وقال بن عبد البر في الاستيعاب ولد يوم الخندق وعن مالك أنه ولد يوم أحد وقد قال مروان في كلام دار بينه وبين روح بن زنباع عندما طلب الخلافة ليس بن عمر بأخير مني ولكنه أسن
مني وكانت له صحبة وعاب الإسماعيلي على البخاري تخريج حديثه وعد من موبقاته أنه رمى طلحة أحد العشرة يوم الجمل وهما جميعا مع عائشة فقتل ثم وثب على الخلافة بالسيف واعتذرت عنه في مقدمة شرح البخاري وقول عروة بن الزبير كان مروان لا يتهم في الحديث هو في رواية ذكرها البخاري في قصة نقلها عن مروان عن عثمان في فضل الزبير قلت في طبقته

Imam Bukhari said that he did not see the Prophet and this is the majority opinion. Also Tahdib al Tadhib is a book of Rijal, not only of the Sahaba, but also of the tabieen and Taba Tabieen. Now looking at Istiab by Ibn Abd Al Barr it states in Vol 7 under the name “Marwan ibn Al Hakam”:

ويقال‏:‏ ولد بالطائف فعلى قول مالك توفي رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وهو ابن ثمان سنين أو نحوها ولم يره لأنه خرج إلى الطائف طفلاً لا يعقل وذلك أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم كان قد نفى أباه الحكم إليها فلم يزل بها حتى ولي عثمان بن عفان فرده عثمان فقدم المدينة هو وولده في خلافة عثمان وتوفي أبوه فاستكتبه عثمان وكتب له فاستولى عليه إلى أن قتل عثمان ونظر إليه علي يوماً

The above states he was 8 years old but did not see the Prophet. The Definition of a Sahaba is, “one who saw the Prophet, accepted Islam and died a Muslim.”

Similary in Tabaqat ibn Sa'd, Marwan is included in Volume 5, the book regarding the TABIEEN in Medina.

As for the hadith about Marwan by Abu Hur, it is narrated in Imam Maliks Muwatta:

“By the One in whose hand is my soul, there will soon come a time upon people when the flock of sheep will be dearer to its owner than all the house of Marwan”

In Tarikh Kamil Volume 1 page 203 Chapter "Dhikr Sulh Hasan" we read that during the negotiations with Mu'awiya:

"Hasan placed a condition that Mu'awiya stop the practice of cursing 'Ali, a condition that he rejected. Hasan then asked that he refrain from cursing 'Ali in his presence. Mu'awiya agreed but did not fulfil this condition either".

Tarik Al-Wardi:

No where in the book does it say "Muawiyah went back on his Promise." More lies? If these people knew how to read Arabic they would not have fallen into this mess.

Rather the source states:

"And they made the agreement that from the baitul maal of al kufa 5,000 dirhams should be taken, and that kharaj tax should be [ the next words are not readable as it is too tiny], and that the cursing of Ali should not be tolerated by him"

Similarly in Tabari it states:

Ziyad Bin Abdullah - Awanah

"Al Hasan had already made peace with Muawiyah on the condition that he conced to him [same as Al Bidayah]"

No mention of he went back on his promise. The above is stated in Tarikh Tabari, "The Khilafat of Muawiyah" Rendering of Allegainace of al Hasan" Pg. 5.

Now this Awanah is Awana Bin Hukm Al Kalbi and about him Ibn Hajar says in his Lisan:

"He was from the Shia of Uthman and he used to forge narrations for the Banu Ummayah."

Therefore this tradition is rejected.

Tarikh Al Wardi also doesnot provide any Sanad for this narration. They have probably taken it from tabaris History.


Ziyad, the governor of muawiyah, Cursed Imam Ali

Ziyad cursing Hazrat Ali has nothing to do with Muawiyah and neither is Ziyad known as a Sahaba or even a righteous man. If you judge people according to who they appointed or who supported them then you will have to admit that Hazrat Ali supported the killing of Uthman. Here is one example:

"Umar bin Al Hamiq was one of the notables who had opposed Uthman and played a role in his killing, He fought for Ali at Siffin."

The above is taken from a footnote in Tarikh Tabari. Insha’Allah I will soon scan more. It is also cited in Akhbar by Dinawari and tabari Vol 1 #2921.


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